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AGRICULTURAL NOTES. i Bow TO IMPKOVK THE BRRED OF OUR FARM HORSES- The following is an excerpt from an able article 5b the Former of this week on the breeding- of horses for farm purposes, in which the writer dis- cusses the reason why our agricultural teams are deteriorating. He says:—There is no common error more easily to be refuted than one which prevails to a large extent among a certain class of fanners on this point of not breeding from marrs which are kept constantly at work. Our forefathers, through entertaining it, were accustomed only to breed "from animals which did occasional work in the team. The old, the halt, and the blind, not sufficiently valuable for active employment, were deemed good enough to be kept as pensioners for breeding purposes. This mistaken practice is fol- lowed to some extent in certain benighted districts even now, from the great physiological law not being thoroughly understood that like produces like,°and that to breed from such stock is to re- produce debility and infirmity. Not a few will, perhaps, feel disinclined to believe in the possi- bility of exacting this double service of breeding and working from mares, however robust, and well managed. They should recollect, however, that unless very fatiguing labour is required to be done, it. is possible to keep mares on active duty up to within a day or two of their foaling, and that the animal requires to rest scarcely more than a week afterwards ere fit. for team service again. Everything depends on good management, for the success of this system, but there are plenty of experienced men who maketheirteamsexclusively to consist of mares which are expected to breed a colt each every year, and, according to their testi- mony, it appears that if the young foals are kept con fined in the stable while their dam is at work, and due precautions taken to prevent the latter liavinf access to their dams while the blood of the latter is in a state of fever heat, there are few, if any, risks. But, as a matter of course, whenever such double service is demanded, the animal should not only be young and robust, but be well fed so as to be habitually in good condition. ENSILAGE Prrs IN AMERICA. The Americans, says the Farmer, persevere in their experiments in making silos for the preserva- tion of forage, &c. A successful result has been obtained in the following instance. A silo was dug 20ft. long, 10ft. wide, and 12ft. deep. Clover, green from the swathe, was packed into this artei being run through a steam cutting box. I ne silo took the clover of 3i acres, and two days were occupied in the work of filling, trampling down, &c\ When the pit was full, planks were put, in two courses, so as to cover joints, across the silo, and this roof was heavily weighted with stones. It was then roofed and precautions taken to prevent water draining into the store. In due time the silo was opened, and the clover, in a state called ensilage, had shrunken 3ft. frcm the top, but was in perfect. condition, so that cows fed readily on it. and yielded milk free from all foreign flavour. The experiment was a success, and suggests that a new means of saving hay and clover is available for this country, in addition to the air motor used by Mr. Neilson. FRAUDULENT MANURES. The Live Stock -Journal says:—There is one more topic upon which it is high' time the agricultural press spoke out. Another long list of analyses of fraudulent manures and feeding stuffs is followed by the usual complaint that the farmers who send the sample refuse tothe names of the fraudu- lent vendors. They use the analysis to get their paltry £6 or £13 back, but resolutely refuse to assist in exposure, though it is well known that the Koyal Agricultural Society undertakes all the legal risks and consequences. It is time to say'plainly that such conduct is a disgrace to farmers as a body and we cannot avoid adding that the short- sighted stupidity it shows goes far to account for the lack of ability to cope with the circumstances of the time. We may return to this subject again more at length. Meantime, we shall OIlly say that it might be well for the council to con- sider whether the privilege of analysis ought not to be confined in some way to persons who will lovally place themselves in the council's hands, and assist them in the work they desire to do. WOOL ]1\ THE UNITED STATKS. The Farmer says :—Among the items of relative comfort1 to the British farmer /offt;red in the American report of Messrs. Read and Pell, the assurance was given that, vast as-weve the varied capacities of the great western Continent for future agricultural production, there was at least not much reason to fear a wool export from the States for some years to come. This forecast seems a. true and safe one, although the most recent. statistics certainly do not show a decline in the number of American sheep as on this side the Atlantic. The head of sheep in the United States, recorded in the successive agricultural enumera- tions, which stood in 1878 at 38,000,000, had developed by January, 1880, fully Over 6 per cent., and reached 40,700,000 head. The total wool product of the States is reckoned at from 222,000,OOOibs. to 228,000,0001bs. in the last- named year. This figure includes all the fleeces of ranche sheep, and a due allowance for pulled wool and for cases where a double yearly dip is obtained. This also, it would seem, is a higher ratio to the total stock of sheep than is assumed to obtain in this country, where rather less than 120,000,000 lbs. per annum has been taken as the total produce. One or other calculation is surely wrong, for the total sheep stock of the United Kingdom was over 32,000,000 head when the last quoted figures were put forward. Be this as it may. however, the inadequacy of the Ameri- can sheep prowers to supply their own markrt in the matter "of wool, and therefore the remoteness of any competition from the States in 1 his parti- cular, is a fact beyond dispute, when we observe that 128,000.000 lbs. of foreign wool had to be imported into the United States in the course of 1880. SHOULD SHFEP BE KEPT IN FOLDS OR SHTKDS? Would buildings for the sheep have paid their COst r In answering this question, several points "Omst be considered. Our fields lay wide. The sheep-sheds' must, have occupied live or six convenient sites, where straw for litter must have been drawn to them, as well as the whole of out- great crops of roots. Their hay and corn would have been brought to the animals at comparatively little cost. But then, in spring, other work would have followed. The roots would have been removed from tho fields, and the land would have been ready for ploughing, but it would not have been manured, and we should have had to carry out the dung from the sheep-yards at a busy period of the year. Our farm was worked by less than three horses per hundred acres, but with aH this extra work four would have been required. Steam would not have helped us in our cartage; und although Mr. Smith of Woolston cultivated by steam at the lowest cost that anybody has ever ventured to put on paper, no system of steam- tillage is known by which land for barley, after roots, can be ploughed so well. and with such economy, as by tWII active horses.—Live Stock Journal. PROFITABLF RARBIT-RRFFDTNG. The writer of.tllp article on Small Thing" in the Aqricultvtal Oazettf says:—I wonder that the owners and occupiers of poor land do not go in for rabbit-breeding more thoroughly, and I doubt if they can find any more profitable stock than conies, especially if they get their name up so as to ensure 2s. 6d. a couple. Let it he remembered that I speak of high, poor land, where t here is no corn to be trodden down and devoured, and no drains to be meddled with. I fancy that the rabbits would live on much that would otherwise be wasted, and if managed as live stock instead of being treated as a nuisance, many people would tell a different tale to that which we generally hear. Isn't it a joke? —the very idea of a man going to market to buy an old buck bbit Why. we could give him a dozen for the asking, and glad to get rid of them too. you know." Ah! but we couldn't give him what he wanted. His object, was to prevent '• unproduc- tiveness pnd degeneration what he intended to do he wished to do well. Even with rabbit-breeding careful selection goes some way, and it is just the same with such a small tlung" our poultry yard. Wo trust too much to chance and luck, and then when the hand is badly played the cards are blamed. MARKET POTATOES. Political economists, says the Agricultural Gazette, are doubtless noting with satisfaction the important fact that potatoes are now cheaper and more abundant in the country than they have been for several winters, so much so, in fact, that growers grumble greatly as to prices, not so much because of foreign importations as for the reason that potatoes are so plentiful at home. That this abundance should happen after what was in many parts a somewhat disastrous eason. because of the autumn rains, is remarkable, and is chiefly due to the immense breadths of such robust kinds as the champion anù magnum bonum bping planted, and these have produced enormous and healthy crops. But there is yet another reason for this cheapness, and it Is found in the unfavourable light in which these two kinds are regarded in the nrket. it is • t,K\i ooris.equence that they so largely resist trio disease—a matter to the grower oi the firs, importance; the fact remains that, the magnums are of inferior quality, and the champions, though good cookers, are so ungainly ana deep-eyed a to bo wasteful and regarded with dislavour. Were the immense bulk of potatoes good sound Victorias, there would be no complaint as tojirice or of too great, abundance and although this latter tine kind, even at its best, does not rival either the cnampiqn or magnum bonum in the production ot crops, still the lifting, storing, and marketing oi the one is as eostlv as the other, and the profits are iat ess. It therefore becomes evident that we cannot, rest satisfied with 'the coarse market kinds now so largely grown, find raisers may find an ample field open to then! to produce such sorts whilst equal to the Victoria in quality, shall rival the champion in health and productiveness. From a cultuial point of view there is much room for improvement, because both magnums and champions are great soil exhausters; and great as are the root crops, they are by no means equal to the top growths Sorts that will produce these big crops with one- half the top growth and a month sooner are much needed. FRENCH AND ENGLISH TIT BEETS. A correspondent in the A (iricvltvrul Gazette how can English geese and turkeys be distin- guished from French in the poulterers' shops ? which are the best? Of course, we shall say our own birds are the more excellent; but they do not excel in every way, inasmuch as the foreigners are well killed, and packed mora carefully and artisti- cally than our own, and considerably better than Irish birds. French geese come over with their tail and some of their wing feathers, and thus are to be distinguished but however well they look they are very inferior on the table, owing to the difference in feeding, our stubbles and corn telling an unmistakable tale; though, as an eminent London poulterer remarked, If a dozen of these birds were put in the same man's hands to fatten, kill, and prepare for the market, it would puzzle the best judge in the world to class them aright." The turkey bought in London may come from France, Italy, or Ireland, but if so, the purchaser will have secured an extra- choice morsel, as a turkey suffers more from injudicious feeding than a goose, its skin becoming Wrinkled and hardened. To give an idea, how- ever, to the turkey lovers of what Ireland con- tributes, I may mention that. 1 have been informed bv Mr. Baily that more than 20.000 of birds were sold by one man at Christmas, and all came from Ireland. In spite of the foreigner's care in pulling and trussing, the English goose and turkey still have the best name, and this mainly through better feeding. MISCELLANEOUS. PININGS OF CHICKCNHOOD.—The latest from America, says the JJve Stock ./01/1'11((1, is that machine-hatched chickens suffer from loneliness and pine for the maternal cluck. To med, this obstacle to thrift a telephonic arrangement lias been attached to incubators, which sat istim:, as far as the cluck is concerned, the pinings of chicken- hood for mother love.



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