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ANSWERS TO COiiKESPONDENTS.

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BY HE. J. MUIR, Kargam Abbey, Q-lamotg-ansliire. ANSWERS TO COiiKESPONDENTS. Name ct Viower.—" William Samuel."—Anemone Stellata. S;-tu.V.>u.—i" X. Bj"—I will sretain your letter ),iiti utw, a on the first opportunity. Eczema in Do.— FWôie" and several readers.— rips.e tee njSBwfca in present issue, and be guided by ihom. Hen III.— B. Neale.—It evidently began with roup, but thai is now s; fa. advanced that I adv:.se you to kill the hen at c-ac-e and burv it. Lime\va.-h, dis- Infect, and clean your house and run thoroughly, and If you write and let me know if any more of them indicate suffering in the same way I will adivise you lurther. Red Oloire de Dijon Rose.—"A. J.It is quite as tardy es the old buff (Moire, and possesses all the good qualities of that well-known sort You should lJut a iaver of short manure round the sterns of your hohy hedge plants; water them well at ti e root, and damp them overhead on the evenings of brighti davs. The plants will yet do aU right. Skylark with Long Claws.—" E. H B."—The claws of all birde in cages grow long, and require cut-t. ng sometimes. If your lark io very wild catch it carefully, and with a pair of sharp scissors cut each claw through about the middle. If the first one you cut bleeds cut the other a little nearer the point, and after this you should cut them before they become too long, as they are a great impediment to the comfort of birds. Tomato Fruiu Not Forming.-B. Mortimer.—The sctl in which they are potted should be made very firm. If potted loose the flowers are never robust or fertile. If your soil is loose, ram it lirm at once. Do not water with liquids, but clean water only, tUl the crop is formed. Do not allow side growths to grow, hut restrict them to the main stems. Be particular in this. They should also have plenty of ventilation, admitted both at the top and bottom of the house, so as to cause a circulation of dry air. The Object of Earthing Up Potatoes.—"E. E."— There is no doubt it is a good and desirable practice. You can experiment for yourself. If you allow one of your rows to remain unearthed up you will iind the tubers when full grown on the surface of the eoil and exposed to the air, which makes them green in colour and bitter and bad in flavour, while those that are earthed up will be protected and of the right colour in all parts. The earthing up, too, prevents them from suffering from drought, and the operation is done by all the best potato growers. Sink Refuse, &c., for Farm Land.—"Beta."—I ran iiidge pretty well of the kind of information required from the great number of questions I receive, but I will be glad to receive practical notes from you or anyone on farming. The sticky matter taken from the sink or cesspool should be mixed with light, sandy soil w11fn it ds dry. You should alin add some soot to it, and turn it over two or three timer. before apply- ing. Road f.craping3 from roads on which limestone is used contain a great deal of lime, and is very mutable as a surface dressing for grass land, and it is also excellent to plough into soil intended for corn or rcot crops, and I advise you to secure as much as you possibly can of such materials for your land. Hanging Plant for Window.—Dock."—The "mother of thousands" does not grow very luxuriantly, and is only good where a, small plant is required. You shouid try the small-leaved golden variegated b<eysuckie, Lonicera aurea variegata. It is not often grown in pots for windows, but it is very suit- able for such a purpose, and its graceful branches will grow many feet in a season and droop down in a highly pleasing manner. The passion flower, "Constance Elliott," is another plant that should be oftener seen in a window where drooping foliage is desired, as it is very pretty, and both it and the honeysuckle are very easily grown. The passion flower has ivory white ttlowere, and they are very fragrant. Soil for Palm.—"G. J. B "—Palms require rather a Fciif srit, and the potting mixture shou'd consist of thr-ie-parts old turf, half decayed, a sprinkling of sand, and a little partially-rotted manure. Drain the pots well and put the soil very firmly round the root-. Water thoroughly after potting, but do not. saturate the roots constantly until they are in active growth. They require a great deal of water in the growing season. You should also moisten the foliage once a day. Palms are of slow growth in a window or room, and when bought in well furnished with leaves, endeavours should be made to keep th"m in health and retain these. They dislike draughts of cold air. This will always cause the foliage to become dis- coloured and wither. Weak Rhubarb, &c.—"Hopeful."—It requires a stronger toil or more manure. When the leaves are off in winter dig the roots up. Put.1a considerable quantity of (man ire on the soil. Where they have been growing dig it deeply and well in. re-plant, and put a further layer of manure over the surface of the roots. It will be as strong all you can desire next year after it lias had a little time to grew. If you examine the cuckoo spit," you will find a small green insect emeloped in it, which injures plants, but it can be readily destroyed by squashing it between your finger and thumb. Some of the soapsuds you have been water- ing your rhubarb with, if applied to the plants on which there is greenfly, would destroy these insccts, and one wineglassful of paraffin added per gallon would eradicate the pots completely. Palm Decaying.—"E. L."—As your palm had six leaves when you bought it, has since lost two. and there are two 111 >re withering, it is evidently decaying fast, and a larger pot would not do it any good. As a rule, palms are forced into growth in very hot, close gla.is 'louses. They appear green and healthy when taken from there and offered in the market, hut the deference of a room and where they have been growing is so great that they soon begin to wither, the deficiency of heat and moisture not agree- ing with them. It is a, difficult matter, too, getting a palm into good health once it becomes sickly. I thiinc you should let it remain in the pot it is in. Stand it out in the open air for an hour in the even- ing when the weather is wa.rm. Moisten it over- head then, and try and induce it to make new growth under your conditions, when it would becotme It useful plant. Do not give it manure water until it has more foliage, at they do not require stimulants when sickly. Lilies not Flowering: Fish Dying.—W. H. South- well.-I doubt your lilies must have been weak plants when you put them in the water. and, in that case, they may not flower lor a year or two till they become strong. In plant- ing lilies in water it is a good plan to put a quantity of rich earth in o. few do hampers, with some stones at the bottom to sink them, and insert the lilies in ihe soil, and then put them in the water. If you see that your plants are not going to grow much this season, you should lift them and re-insert them in this way. Trout are not so robust fish as some kinds. Thsy will not eucieed in all waters. Your little pond being 60 much shaded is agamst them. Could you not extend it that part of it might ba exposed to the sunshine? If not, you should tn- troduce a few carp, roach, or pike. The latter is not a choice fish, but it will exist in almost any kind of pond, and you could observe its movements in the 6ame way as the trout give you pleasure at present. Planting a Vinery.—J. Whittle.—The sketch of your vinery indicates a very useful house, and you ought to grow a good quantity of grapes in it. In a length of 35ft. you nray plant ten vines. As you desire a succession of grapes, you should plant them of different sorts. some to ripen early and others late. A good selection would be three Black Ham- burgs, two Foster's Seedling (white), three Black Alicantes, one Lady Downes (blccfc), and one Golden Queen. The Hamburgs would be ripe in July, and these and the Fosters would furnish you with grapes till October, when the other kinds would he quite ripe, and would, if you desired, remain good till January or later. The best soil for vines is the surface of an old pasture field. It should be 4in. or 5in. thick, and chopped into lumps the size of your fist. To each cartload add half a bushel of ground or crushed boues, or Thomson's vine manure, and a wheelbarrow load of cow or horse manure. Mix it all well together before putting it in the border. Be sure you drain the latter well, and the border should be about 3ft. in depth. Young vines pro- pagated from eyes this spring will now be, about a yard in height,. You should buy some of these and plant them at once, or during the next fortnight, when they will make strong plants before the winter. If you cannot plant now defer it till next February or March. "Waterinc Fruit Trees. As a rule, fruit trees do not receive sufficient w ater at the roots in a dry season. Flowering plants and vegetables and many crops of little value will be frequently saturated, but apples, pears, plums, and fruit trees generally are thought to have their roots down in moist soil, or be provided with humidity in other wavs that render artificial watering un- necessary. and1 the result is that the most rubbishy crops imaginable are often watered, while the most useful fruits are left to take care of themselves. In large orchards it might rot be easy to water all the tree3 thoroughly, but in" small gradens, where the trees may not be more, than a dozen or two, or less, there is no excuse for not watering them, and I can say it would be well com- pensated for by the good health of the tree and the extra quality of the fruit. The ground is; very dry in many parts at present. A go.od deal of ram might make it appear moist and give the impression that it must be wet. as deep as the roots' penetrate, but it would take a great deal to do th; t. and before the «nd' of June all trees should be treated) as if they were exceedingly dry and watered thoroughly. If they cannot all be done on one day, do them in succession. In recom- mending them to be watered before June is over, this ought to be noticed, as when once the tree is partially starved at the root and tlie fruit checked in its development, it will never attain the size and quality it would have done if such had not taken place, and that watering may be fully beneficial it ought to be done early in the growth of the fruit. The Avater that is often applied at the back end of the development of the fru't. under the water that is often applied at the back end of the development of the fru't. under the supposition that it will assist the fruit to "finish off to perfection," is only an idea and not a- fact in practice. Those Avho coull water their fruit trees well at present and again once or twice in July would produc-e a result that would ensure their watering their trees while in the early stages of their fruit growth ever afterwards, and all who saw them would, I feel sure, go and do likewise. Liquid manure is always acceptable to fruit trees, but clean water in abundance is a'so highiy advantageous. Tree- in light soil or growing under the protection of houses suffer most from drought, and should receive most atten- tion, but a little urop now and a little drop again is useless to them, the only and greatest- good being derived from a thorough satura- tion of the whole of the roots. Manure for Fruit Trees in Summer. Drought is most injurious to fruit trees, as it checks the foliage, fruit, and development generally. Dryness at the root is the form of drought thst is most injinious, as if they are moist there it does not prove very harmful if the top is in a hot sun or a. dry atmosphere. Want of time and water may be two reasons why fruit trees cannot be watered at the root so frequently as they require it, and a good way of assisting them to thrive in spite of long periods between waterings is to get a. quantity of half-decayed manure and spread it round the "tems and over the roots outwards from the stem for three, four, or five feet.. If this is done before they are watered. the water will take much of the property of the manure. down to the roots, and it will also prevent the moisture from evaporating quickly afterwards. The covering of manure induces roots to come to the surface, keeps them cool, and induces health in root and branch. Raspberries, currants, and all kinds of tree fruits should be surface dressed with manure, and borders in which vine roots are growing must not be omitted, as all the best grape groAvers adopt this system of assisting the roots. Vegetable Marrows. These do not grow well, or, rather, fruit well, in shady places. They Avill make any quantity of leaves there, but the fruit Howers will be scarce, and those that appear will generally decay without the fruit swelling. They re- quire plenty of air and sunshine to ensure this. As it is the hard, close grown Avood that bears the most and best fruit, the growths should never be allowed to crowd on each other, and where space will allow they may be spread out all round the root. A manure heap or any elevated place suits them, as the growths are there much exposed, -which they like. It it is not \rery often that the marrows are (ready till July or later, but the recent warm weather has been much in their favour and tiley will be ready soon. All the early fruit should be cut as soon as ready. It any are wanted for seed they may be allowed to mature in September. Give the plants abun- dance of water, but no liquid manure until they have been bearing for some time. Green Cherries Falling Off. Some of all kinds of fruit is apt to drop off while small and green, but one of the worst is the cherry. Wnen the fruit is newlv formed the branches are thicfcly covered with fruit, but some of them soon begin to turn yellow, then wither and drop off. This frequently occurs to such an extent that more than half the fruit that was formed falls off prematurely, and those that remain are not enough to be a profitable crop. This is not satisfactory, especially after such a fine promise of fruit, and more than one reader has Avritten express- ing disappointment. Trees that have formed an exceedingly heavy crop may refuse to retain them all under any condition, but all should retain sufficient to make a full crop. and one of the chief reasons they do not is owing to their being over-dry at the root. They may have been watered well when it was first noticed that the fruit were failing, but it was too late then to apply a. remedy that would be sufficient to save the crop. Weak lime-water is the best liquid with which to water cherries, as it assists the stones to 8wel1, and they seem to require more of it than other stone fruits. Syringing the trees, in the evenings, too, is a good practice, and tni? and the lime-water at the root are remedies against the fruit falling that ought to be ap- plied at once. Insects on Poultry and Cage Birds. Mr. Frank Urch, London, writes recom- mending a. free use of pyrethrum powder as an antidote for insects on fowls and Oiga birds, at this season especially, and at all times. Mr. Urch asserts that the canary bug cannot live where this powder is used. Overcrowding in the Poultry-yr,rd. "Hen wife" objects to this, and writes: — "The hatching season is now well nigS ever. I have experienced more successful years, and this is the complaint of many. I do not think there will be fewer fowls in the country this season than usual, as when it was understood that the weather was against the fertility of the eggs in the forepart an extra number of eggs were introduced for hatching, and by this time poultry yards contain as many chickens as formerly, and overcrowding ia, therefore, a question thst is necessary to consider. It is an evil that oours in all sized y&.rds. In towns, where the little runs are only sufficient to accom- modate from four to half a dozen fowls, ten, twelve, or more may be found in them, while in large yards capable of containing six, eight, or ten dozen, very many more may be found. They may all receive enough of food, but the overcroAvding soils the runs, breeds Arermin, and is altogether unhealthy. The general sy,tem of feeding all the fowls together in a large run is a mistake, as this encourages their crowding together, and they should be fed in different parts at the same time. Old fowls which are now discontinuing to lay should be sold off or used in the kitchen. Young cockerels should be sold as soon as ever they are ready, or, indeed, a little before it, as a great size is not the first recom- mendation of a chicken for the table. Any deformed birds—and there are alAvays some of these where many are hatched—should be destroyed without any consideration of their being ready for the table. It is by closely observing rules of this sort that the health of foAvls mav be increased' and assured, and the whole of their qualities will be improved by it." Failure of Field Turnips. From what I hear I do not think the weather is excessively dry universally, but in (south Wales at present rain is greatly needed to facilitate growth in all crops, more especially field turnips, which have baen sown for some time, and are having a struggle for existence of such duration that many of them are perishing, and all are so much weakened that it is impossible, even with the assistance of genial weather, that they can grow into profitable crops. I believe it will end in many of them having to be sown a second time, and it will be much better to do this than have the fields liaT blank for the season. If it has to be done, there should be no hesitation about it. but immediately the soil and weather are suitable, sow again at once. It may be a. little late now to do this, but many swedish turnips are sown too early, and they cease growing in autumn at a time when later-sown ones would still he developing freely. The crop is an important one, and cannot be done without on the farm, and, although second sowing will entail extra expense for seed and labour, it should be done, if possible. Mangolds, too, are far from luxuriant, as they are suffering in the same 'way as the SAvedes, but they bear transplanting well in damp weather, and they may also be sown a second time. Eczema in Dogs. Probably, owing to the warm, dry weather, I have received so many questions as to the cause and cure of skin disease or eczema in dogs that I quote what a. well-known authority. Dr. Gordon Stables, says on the matter in the "Kennel Companion": — "Eczema," says Dr. Stables, "is a. non- contagious ailment of the skin, (itz, as a rule, to errors in the proper treutiacnt of the animal. These mistakes are of a two- fold nature, and refer to the dog's feeding and to the treatment of his skin. Dogs that are grossly fed or fed on dainties and not permitted an abundance of exercise are sub- ject to eczema. So are those kept in damp or unwholesome kennels, and never Avashed. But over-washing, especially if strongly alkaline soap is used, may so produce the disease. In eczuna the skin is red, wet, or covered with pat dies of scurf, or it may be thick or swollen in places. There is much scratching, but an absence of the very dis- agreeable smell we find in cases of mange. -Nf?w, to get rid of eczema we must renovate the health thoroughly and treat symptoms. The animal may have Avorms; these must be removed. As a rule, the purging alone will do good. If his liver be out of order and appetite bad, &c., small frequent doses of taraxacum and podoplivliin will be needed, If fever be present, the diet should be reduced, plenty of well-mashed greens given, and a. mixture of Epsom and Glauber salts, with mindererus spirit, which any chemist can oake up. In Fowler's solution of arsenic we have a capital nervine tonic which exerts a curative and health-giving action on the skin. It should be made tasteless, tell the chemist—that is. Avithout the tincture of lavender; it can thus be put into the food with- out any chance of the animals refusing it. A course of arsenical treatment would occupy about six weeks. The dose should be gradually increased, a space of three days without the medicine intervening between each fortnight. Begin with from two to six minims, according to the size of the doe, and gradually increase to six and twenty. This t" ice or thrice a day in the food. For a simple case of eczema wash gently in lukewarm water once a week, using only the mildest soap, say. Sanitas, and afterwards anoint with oxide of zinc ointment, ben- zoted.

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