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(lh "WESTMINSTER."] LONDON, SATURDAY. Uriven tr) desperation by its domestic troubles, Lord Rosebery's Government sterns to have rushed to the conclusion that it tnay. perhaps, re-gain a part of its lost popu- lar ty by making a dead set against the Eultan of Turkey. This is, I am convinced, a profound miscalculation. However indig- nant the English people may be over the Armenian atrocities, it is not at all likely that they will let themselves be dragged into a ciusaae against the Turks to avenge the INNrOllb, of Eastern Christians. The danger is that the fanatics in the Cabinet, of whom Mr. Bryce is the chief—for in his most indiscreet speech at Aberdeea the other day lie talked the language of Mr. Malcolm iMacColl, and not of a responsible Minister— iway. in their recklessness, commit the country to a course of action from which it will bs difficult for her to retreat, and of which Russia and France will reap the advan- tage. Sir Y\ illiam Hareouit boasted before. Parliament broke up for the Whitsuntide holidays that England in her foreign policy is now actiag in concert with France and Russia. The statement was quits inaccurate, for England refused to take part in the pres- bure put upon Japan to make hei forego .some portion of t!je spoils of victory, and even such a Government as we have now in tiffice can hardly acquiesce in the impudent proposal of France and Russia to mortgage the whole Customs revenue cf China for a loan from any participation in which Eng- land will be deiiberateiy excluded. We have, however, by our maladroit policy at Con- stantinople drifted into a position which must be viewed with secret satisfaction by titatesmen at Paris and St. Petersburg, for the legitimate outcome of it would be a reversal of the policy of Pahnerston and kBeaconstield. Both these great men were es good philanthropists as Mr. Bryce and the other gentlemen who declaim about the evils of Turkish misrule but they also knew that it was their Sr.t business to maintain the national interests of England, and that, consequently, they could not allow the Turkish Empire to be broken to pieces. This is the traditional policy of England, and it is based upon the consideration that the rulers of British India cannot suffer the terri- tory from the Mediterranean to the Euphrates to pass into the hands of an unfriendly European Power. At the time of the Crimean War Lord Palmerston availed himself of the wrath of Napoleon III. against the iRussi-.ui 'Emperor, who had put a personal filiglrt upon him, to draw France into a com- bination against Russia for the defence of the integrity of Turkey. Lord Beaeonsiield, less fortunate, had to contend against Russia single-handed, and it is to his eternal honour that lie came out a victor in the strife. Now, France and Russia are, undoubtedly, acting together, and they appear to be using Eng- land as their catspaw to pull the chestnuts out of the fire for them. We hear of Eng- land taking the lead in demanding the accep tance of a scheme of administrative reforms in Armenia which, if it could be put in force, would bring to an end Turkish autho- rity in that province, and the Ministerial papers in London are full of silly vapourings about the presence of the British fleet in SBeyrout harbour, as if the use of force to omake the Sultan obey the commands of the three Powers were really contemplated. Well, the British fleet can hardly invade Armenia. Troops would be wanted for that purpose, and I suspect that there would be au amazing outburst of public indignation in this country if our Government sanctioned the employ- ment of b. Franco-Russian army to restore the independence of Armenia. Queen Victoria rules over 60 millions of Mussulmans in India, and how would they regard such interference with the rights of the Commander of the [Faithful at Constantinople? We hear a good deal said now about the Convention by which England bound herself to use her influence ■with the Sultan to promote reforms in Asia Ihut Lord Beacon-field never dreamt of using force to compel the Sultan to behave better to his Armenian subjects. The sole case in 'which provision was made by him for "Tinned intervention on the part of this country was to repel the invasion of Armenia by Russian troops. The policy of Russia never changes, and now she counts upon England as a ttocile instrument to fulfil her designs. It t<eenis to me to be the duty of the Opposi- tion, in these circumstances, to make a pro- test. against the tendency of Lord Rosebery's foreign policy. Lord Salisbury at Bradford touched on the question, but we want some much more plain speaking. Unfortunately, the Duke of Argyll, one of the leaders of the (Liberal Unionists, has publicly declared in favour of letting the fate of the East be decided by the Armenians. But it is, on this account, all the more desirable for the Con- servatives to let the country see that they have it foreign policy of their own, and there is a very strong feeling in Conserva- tive^ circles that the time has come for Mr. Pcilf.itir t.) speak out. I MACS the honour to be included yesterday aiivi'ir tli? guests invited by Sir' Thomas Sutherland. M.P., chairman, and the c.i-ec- tois oj toe P. :(nd 0. Company, to meet the fehahpda, at luncheon on board the com- pany's splendid new mail boat, the Cale- donia. A perfect summer's day and pleasant society m^ue the trip down the river from W estnun>ter Pier to the docks most jnjov- abie. and it JS needless to say that the hospi- tality extenued to us on our arrival left nothing to be ,desired. From the conversa- tions I had with the officials who have looked after )r.. Highness since he came to London I gather that the popular impression of his chaiac is incorrect. I said to one of them that th-y seemed to be killing the Shah- K:u! .ft engagements, but he replied that it was the other way about, the Prince was killing tii-). Tie takes a keen interest in all that guos fin a round him, and wants to go everywhere and see everything. But he does not un>Urst-.uid why he should be obliged to go to Birmingham to see the manufacture of big gin:«, and thinks they ought to be made in London. He is tired of State cere- inouiel, wants to see useful inventions wtiujli he can recommend for adoption in lus iiv. n country. Machinery attracts him greatly, and I don't wonder that he was impressed with the g'Vht of ih- raising and lowering of the Tower (Bridge bescu'es. Hardly anv of the Fnglish people on board had seen this operation per- formed before and they all agreed with the 11pinion expres ed recently by M. Daudet, that the Tower Bridge is the most wonderful expres- sion Loudon can provide of what modern science and energy can accomplish. The Prince (teemed to be much gratified with the warm reception given him by the Lascar crews of t'he DP. and O. steamers in dock. He is very rigid in the performance of his religious duties, and I am assured that the real reason why he kept the Roy',1 and other guests at Mr. Fowler's waiting for their dinner for three-quarters of tn hour on the Queen's birthday was that, the .Lay being Friday, the Mahonxmedan Sabbath, he was engaged in prayer for a long time after tunset. Yesterday he ate some meat, which his servants had brought from Dorchester House with them, and which was cooked on board the steamer. The two Sirdars who ac. companied him are less particular, and eat "-11 of nearly all European dishes, although they refuse to drink wine. Still, I have heard it whispered that a good many cases of cham- pagne find their way to Dorchester -House, and are consumed by someboay or oilier. One of the Sirdars, who is known as the "Uncle," although he is in no way related to the Prince, is a distinguished Afghan soldier, wito fought against tne British Army in most of the battles of the last Afghan War. When lie was introduced to Sir Donald Stewart he smiled and remarked that they had met before; but, as Sir Donald said after- wards in his quiet way, as a matter of fact he did not wait for the British troops at Aluned Khevi. En revanche, if he fought at Mai- wand, lie must have seen the backs there of a good many of our soldiers. The Shahzada can only be persuaded with much diiiiculty to speak in public, and then he says few words at a. time in a low voice and these are interpreted by Colonel Talbot for the benefit of the com- pany. His appearance has improved during iiis stay in London, and he now sometimes shows signs of being plea.,ed at the attentions paid to him. He has a habit, which is occa- sionally disconcerting, of holding the hand of tiie person he is talking to while the conversa- tion is going on. Mr. H. H. Fowler, the Secretary of State, who is blossoming into the moat ardent Jingo of the day, made a capital little speech, with just the note of sentiment in it that people like after a good luncheon, declaring that we intend to hold India, "come weal, come woe." The "Daily Telegraph" has fairly started the proposed national testimonial to W. G. Grace, with 2,000 separate contributions of ciie shilling each. Everybody will wish to give something to- Bhow his admiiatioa for thvi most wonderful cricketer that has ever lived, and Dr. Grace will, no doubt, be secured in the enjoyment of a handsome independence. A man of this .stamp Qeseives well of his country, for lie has given an impulse to the most wholesome and manly game ever in- vented. How the love of sport is ingrained in the English character Now that the masses of the people get better wages and enjoy more leisure than was formerly the case they show themselves possessed of exactly the same taam on which the upper classes have always prided themselves. There is no more remarkable sight than to see some 10,000 people seated round the Oval to watch a game of cricket. With what intelligent appreciation they watch every ball that is played, maintaining for hours together a critical silence, which is only broken at intervals by a slnut of applause at some good stroke or catch. The wide diffusion of a love of all sorts "of outdoor games, coupled with the multiplication of places of innocent recreation in the neighbourhood of London, is steadily destroying the curse of drunkenness in this country; for men, as a rule, do not drink too much except when they have nothing eke to do. I went down on Bank Holiday to one of the most popular resorts on the river. At Waterloo they filled our first-class oompart- men with thirteen grown-up people, two little children, and three babies. Coming back at night we faired worse, for we could only get standing-room in a third-class compartment with sixteen people in it. Yet everybody was good-humoured, and I did not during the whole day hear any bad language or see one drunken person. When we got down to our destination in the morning the father of a pretty child we had been talking to set her on his shoulder, the mother took the baby in her arms, and they marched off gaily along the dusty road. We met them again in the even- ing, father and mother still carrying their burdens, and the whole family were cheerful and smiling No doubt, their holiday in the country had been as full of enjoyment to them as if they had had every comfort and luxury at their command that money could buy. The International Congress of 1Eners held at Pans this week luus been marked by a notable decrease of the arrogant spirit in which the congress used to deal with industrial ques- tions. The growing influence of moderation in ^uch matters was shown in the sensible re- fusal of the congress to pass a resolution in favour of restricting the output of coal. The eight hours question has been left by the con- gress in the same state as before. It is pleasant to observe that the English delegates took a fairer view than their Continental comrades of the obligations of employers, and declined to place them under an obligation to compensate workmen even for those accidents to which their own negligenoe had contributed. Of equal importance with this congress is the great gathering of Oddfel ,vs at Swan- sea, which has rejected, so emphatically Mr. Chamberlain's plan of giving State pensions to all old people. Another conference to which a good deal of interest is attached is that of representatives of co-operative socie- ties. But, while co-operation in some branches of business has been an unquestionable success, the range of trades and industries in which it can be profitably employed does not widen as time rolls on. The distribution of goods bought wholesale and sold in small quantities to a multitude of customers is a comparatively simple matter. It is quite otherwise when the principle of co-operation is applied to the business of production, in which a higher intelligence is required, greater knowledge of home and foreign markets, and trained sagacity and ingenuity in meeting and often creating the public taste. Here the superiority of indi- vidual effort makes itself felt. There are a good many spinning mills in Lancashire which ara worked in a great measure on the co-operative system. These concerns find it a most difficult matter to pay their way, and rarely make any profits, while the private millowner who is himself an expert, and who employs the best brain power he can find, can still do very well in the cotton trade. I doubt if the archbishops are wise in asking for aid from the Imperial Treasury to enable voluntary schools to compete on fair terms with board schools. Such a scheme would cost a great deal of money and could not easily be carried through Parliament. It would be a much more natural policy to support voluntary schools out of the rates. Why should not every ratepayer have the right to say to what school he wishes his share of the rates to be applied ?



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