THE HOUSEHOLD. >5INGEIteT;EAD AND OTHER CAKES. (By H GWênyntn Gwynetfd."} Good gingerbread is an excellent and whole- some thing, and when made nicely at home is quite diffei-ent from the hard ginger nuts or iticliy girgerbread so often met with in nhopo. The following ilistructions for preparing and ti making it for family use and consumption will be found practicable for any household laving the necessary culinary apparatus and fair-sized and good oven, while the ingre- I dients are very simple and easily procured. The same observations apply to the making of ';uns or rock cakes for home eating, and for ;he making of snow cakes—an excellent Scotch "ecipe for a light, nutritious oake often recom- mended for, and given to, an invalid or deli- Sate person who cannot digest heavier or richer cakes. An enamelled pan or china basin should always be used in which to mix the various ingredients. Collect all these before you on the tabh before commencing, md see that the oven is in a right state. The using of treacle or golden syrup in the making of gingerbread is a matter of taste. Either answers equally well, and treacle is generally » penny a pound the cheaper. Some people do not, however, like the flavour of treacle. I prefer that of golden syrup, whilst it certainly gives the cakes a prettier colour. Hrandy Claps are easy to make and very delicious, and for them golden syrup should always be used. l'here is, however, no brandy in their com- position, as might be supposed from their same BRANDY SNAPS. A quarter of a pound of butter, meltad In a stewpan; lib. of flue 13 mr; fb. of gelden syrup ginger to taste. Stir together over the fire till it thickens; Jay it put in tableppconfals on a baking sheet, and bako » pale brown. When half-cooked, turn them round, and join together with a spoon. BATH GINGERBREAD. One and a half stones of flour, one stone of sugar three-quarters of a stone of butter Joz, "f ginger; two yolks and one white of eggs one s tablrspoonful of treacle. Let it be well beaten, relied out long, and b;ked. To MAKE GINGBBBEAD. To 21b. of flour put lib. of sugar, treacle, and butter, boillhe sugar, treacle, and butter together; add to it loz. of ginger, mace, and seme candid lemon peel when it is cold roll it out and bake it in a moderate oven. SPONGB GrsGKEBHRAD. One and a quarter pound of flour; butter 5oz., sugar 6oz,; ginger £ oz two teaspoonfuls of bak- ing powder lib. of syrup, and one gill of milk. SNOW CAX&-A SCOTCH RECIPE. One pound nrrowroot; lIb. pounded white sugar; lb. butter; the whites of six eggs; flavouring to taste with essence of atmouds, vanilln, or lemon. Beat the butter to a cream, stir in the sugar and arrowroot gradually, at the same time beating the mixture; whisk the whites of the eggs to a froth add them to the other in- gredients, nnd beat well for twenty minutes; put in nny flavouring you prefer; pour the cake into a shallow buttered mould or tic; bake in a moderate oven for about an hour. DEVILLED BISCUIT S. Take some milk biscuits soak them in clarified butter or oil; then rub them with a little curry powder, ketchup, some salt, and pepper; toast them on a gridiron over a clear fire; serve very hot. NEXT WEEK :—■ CHRISTMAS FARE.
HOUSEHOLD NOTES AND REPLIES. [Conducted by Dorothy,") "DoiaoTay" will be glad to receive noi*} and queriee on all topics likely to be of interwrt to the housewife. As far as possible, wi1! personally answer correspondents'intcrro £ tories, so that there may be no unnecessary delay. All communications should o addressed "Do BOTHY," care of Editor, W Mail, Cardiff. BATTEG For puddings must be quite smooth and free from lumps. To insure this, first work all the flour. to powder whilst dry; add the milk gradually, a little at a time. If the pudding is a plain one, without currants, &c., put it through a hair sieve, this will take out all lumps effectually. For boiling, batter puddings should be tied up tightly and always be plunged into perfectly boiling water. NEW WAY TO COOK MUTTON CHOPS. Take a chop from the neck or loin of mutton, cut rather thick, trim it neatly, leaving only a little fat on it. Floor it well, and sprinkle lightly with pepper and salt; place in a stewpan with one teaspoonful of rice, and sufficient cold water to cover it. Bring it to the boil, and let it simmer very gently by the side of the fire for an hour, if Onion it liked, a few slioes may be added. I A FRENCH METHOD OF BROILING A BEBFSTBAK. "A. T." (Paris) obligingly wrifesHeat a frying-pan, bat do Dot put any fat in it. Put a one skewer through the beefsteak and turn it round slowly, like a wheel, until the edges are browned; then place the steak in the pan, moving it very gently, but constantly, with a knife or fork, and turning it occasionally, as is usually done. :When cooked put it on a hot dish, put a pat of freah butter on it, and strew over a little parsley finely chopped, If for an invalid, the butter may be omitted. This way of broiling is very convenient, as it can be done on any fire. FIVE O'CLOCK TEA SCONES. Those of my readers who try these scones will be delighted with them :—Mix one tea- spoonful of baking powder and a quarter tea- spocnful of salt into !b. of floor, rub in3oz. of butter with the finger tips; beat up an egg and add, with a quarter pint of milk mix, turn on a floured board; make into a light dough, and roll once lightly with straight woo-Jen rolling-pin to iin. thickness. Cut with a round saucer-sized cutter, and mark each twice with a knife, so that they will break into four pieces when cooked. Bake on a flavoured tin from fifteen to twenty minutes in a rather hot oven. Cut open directly, butter well, and serve piping hot. WASUING-DAY INFORMATION. Laces and muslins should not be rubbed, but squeezed with the hands in melted soap And warm water. Be careful in boiling them to tie them. up in a haudkerohief to prevent their being torn. In washing flannels the great thing is to keep them a good colour aud prevent their shrinking. Get from the grocer a quantity of soap parings, which are to be bought cheap. For a pound of soap parings put three quarts of water; boil to a jelly, and with this wash your flannels. Be Bare you have plenty of water warm, but not too hot; put in a handful of the soap jelly and mix thoroughly in the water; then take the flannels out, one at a time, shake all dust out of them first, then sluice the article up and down well; rub as little as possible, for rub- bing knots the little loops of wool together and thickens the flannel, Wring them in a inaahine, if you have one; if not, squeeze them well. Dry in the open air, if the weather permits, as quickly as possible. i In wasbin8 scarlet or blue flannel put one taliiespoonful of spirits of ammonia in the rinsing water. For other woollen arltoles. saob as chil- dren's dresses, shawls, &c., where there are green or other fancy colours, add to the soap jelly half a gill of spirits of turpentine and a tablespoonful of spirits of hartshorn; then thoroughly wash as quickly as possible, rinse in cold water with a little salt in it, and dry quickly. If this be done carefully, the colours will remain quite fresh. For prints, take care never to rub them with soap. Boil the soap as for flannel, add to water and wash as quickly as possible then in the rinsing water put a few drops of vitriol, just sufficient to make it taste a little tart. This will fasten all colours except black, but ¡ black it fades. For black prints better use silt or a little spirits of turpentine in the rinsing water.
REPLIES. GINGERETTE. (Reply to "E. L. n.") You can make your own gingerette thus:— Boil lib. of loaf sugar to a syrup in three pints of water. When cold add twopenny- worth of essence of ginger, and the same quantity of essence of cayenne, with enough tartaric acid to taste. APPLE JELLY. (Reply to DOT.") Take about two dozen apples, pare and core them, and boil in a pint and a half of water till quite tender; strain the liquor, and to every pint add lib. of fine sugar, a little cinnamon, and a few drops of lemon juice. Boil to a jelly. POLISH FOn. LINEN CUFFS, (Reply to P. T.") A good polish for linen cuffs is made as follows:-Three ounces of white wax, three drachms of spermaceti, lIb. of borax, I-!oz. of gum tragacinth. Melt together, and put a piece the size of a walnut into a quart of of starch made in the usual manner, APPLE CHEESECAKES. (Reply to II GWEN.") Peel, core, and boil six. large apples; when quite done put the pulp through a sieve to I each iIb. of apples have 4oz. of castor sugar I' and 4oz. of melted butter, four eggs, and grated rind and the juice of one lemon. Mix, I line patty-pans with good puff paste, fill with the apple cheese, and bake in a moderate oven. Swiss ROLL. (Reply to R. A. Po") Mix together a teacupful of floor, the same of castor sugar, a teaspoonful of baking- powder, and two eggs, which should not be beaten spread this mixture on a baking-tin and bake in a quick oven for seven or eight minutes; then spread it quickly with any jam you please, roll it up, dust it with sugar, and set it aside till cold. To PICKLE RED CABBAGE. (Reply to DECEMBER.) To one quart of vinegar add loz. of whole pepper, Remove the coarse leaves from some red cabbage, and wipe them very clean out them in long thin slices and put them on a large sieve, well covering them with salt. Let them drain all night. Then put them into stone jars, and pour over them some boil- ing vinegar and whole pepper. Cover them over, and get by for use. CARROT FCTDDING. (Reply to T. T.") Take -A-lb. of carrots, boiled, mashed, and sifted, one-half pint grated bread-crumbs, lIb. flour, fib. butter, flb. dried or pressed cherries, -ilb. sugar, one teaspoonful baking 2 powd-r, and one saltspoonful salt. Steam for two hours. Steam fast, having the water boil rapidly, as the result is a lighter pudding than if allowed to cook slowly, Serve with yellow sauce.
PARISIAN JOTTINGS- L FROM OUR OWN CORRESPONDENT.] A wrinkle for those about to marry: In the South of France, if a large family be desired they never marry on a Friday. u Pretenders, accept this notice:—A writer describes the French Throne to be an old arm-chair and the crown a metaphor. The said crown has been compared to that worn by Jesus Christ, where each jewel is a thorn. In the eighteenth century the English made a raid on Bretagru;. The governor, the Due de Richelieu, decamped, but was taken prisoner in a corn mill. The French observed that if the duke did not cover himself with glory, he at least did with flour, if It appears that the newest enemies of the Bible are the microbes, since an Englishman, more hygienically than spiritually inclined, refuses to be sworn on the Gospels, because preceding kisses may have left some of their bucoal parasites thereon and scientists aver that the prettiest and sweetest mouths lodge more or less colonies of microbes. That eccentric would require, indeed, a "New" Testament on which to be sworn. In the French courts an oath is taken by plaoing a hand ou a Testament, or holding up the arm. 4 By degrees celebrities are disappearing. Diebler, the executioner, retires on his pension from the lat of January next. His successor will be his son-in-law, so that the office is nearly hereditary. It continued to be the monopoly of the Sanson family for two cen- turies, Diebler, since he became chief execu- tioner, has decapitated 73 persons. In several states of Germany in former days an execu- tioner was entitled to be ennobled when he had struck off a certain number of heads. In France titles are abolished, so DieMer must die a commoner. Had he lived between the thirteenth and sixteenth centuries he would have the right to the price of each wandering pig's head in the city. In addition to this capitation tax, he would receive the import on the prostitutes and the dues levied on green grocery. The executioner only became a salaried official in 1721. There is at present in the vicinity of Dijon, a farmer aged 109, who can walk his nine miles a day, and enjoy his gun and his dog. He attibntes his robust health to walk- ing exercise, regular hours, and moderate meals. He cured himself of gout and rheumatism by means of wine baths-the only form in which he indulges in that beverage. Daring the vintage he volunteers to tread the grapes in the vats along with the workmen, who during the operation are as much strangers to breeks as a Highlander. That wine immersion of his limbs is his elixir vitae, 4 The Pope's health is reported to be much improved since he has commenced to drink goat's milk, a hint for the weak as well as for the faithfal, The animal is chained on a plot of grais in the garden of the Vatican. In addition to this milk, his Holiness drinks much beef tea. This is the only beverage served to the cardinals who may be working with him, At dinner are taken two glasses °f* c*are*» ^e Produce of a little vineyard attaohed to the convent of St. Ann, in the Medoo, whose barrel of wine is annually for- warded to the Vatican. Not that the cellars of the latter are empty they are filled with presents of the choicest wines from all parts of the world; and so deeply are the hogs- j heads and bottles r-olivebbed that it would re- quire an archaeologist to discover their age,
MUCH IN LITTLE, .1 A Florida tree gives milk. 1 Gold is eighteen times more TaSuabte tlfli silver. There are nine kilted battalions in the British army. The word" and" occurs 46,277 times in the Bible. Darwin says an acre of pasture lard con- tains 2 J.000 worms. A recruiting sergeant says that few men have legs of equal length. Z, There are 134 different religious sects in the United States, Yawning is caused by a deficiency of air supply to the lungs. A complete set of British birds' eggs is worth about £ 200. A grain of strychnine will embitter 600,000 grains of water. Her Majesty's state carriage was originally built for George Ill. A ship described as Al Lloyd's means 11 the best of hulls with the best of furniture." Analysts say that butter is the most nutri- tious article of diet, closely followed by bacon. It is said that out of every hundred lives insured in England only five are women. More than four-fifths of the people in London never enter a place of worship. Twenty million acres of the land of the United States are held by Englishmen. Funerals cost on an average £10 a-piece, from 13s. for a pauper's burial to 91,000 for that of a nobleman There are 3,064 languages in the world, and its inhabitants profess more than 1,000 religions. It is calculated that about fourteen millions are annually spent on tobacco and pipes in the United Kingdom. The workable strength of all the steam engines in the world is estimated to be equal to ten millions horse-power. According to careful estimates three hours of hard study wear out the body more than a whole day of hard physical exertion. l One of the most singular facts about the growth of London is its regularity. It may be roughly taken that every month about a thousand houses are added to it. It is estimated that in Paris one in eighteen of the population, or 150,000, live on charity, with a tendency towards crime; in London this class is one in 30. Nerve currents in the motor nerves (that is, those nerves which convey the commands of the mind from the brain to the other parts of the body), pass at the rate of 115ft. to 130ft. per second. Every year a layer of the entire sea, 14ft. thick, is taken up into the clouds. The winds bear their burden into the land, and the water comes down in rain upon the fields, to flow back through rivers. There are probably 100,000,000 of people in Europe to-day who do not eat meat more than once a week; and the number is not in- considerable-it must be reckoned in millions -who have that privilege not oftener than once or twice a year. The importance of the brain as a working organ is shown by the amount of blood it re- ceives, which is proportionately greater than that of any other part of the body. One- fifth of the blood goes to the brain, though its average weight is only one-fourth of the weight of the body. The hourly rate of water falling over Niagara Falls is 100,000,000 tons, represent- ing 10,000,000 horse-power, and the total daily production of coal in the world would just about suffice to pump the water back again. Drunkenness is the failing of the Hercules beetle, a South American insect. It some- times attains a growth of six inches. It is said that it rasps the bark from the slender branches of the mammae tree till the juice flows. This it drinks until it drops to the ground intoxicated. I The three commonest surnames in England and Wales are Smith, Jones, and Williams. The number of persons owning each of these names are about ;— Smith 254,000 Jones 242,000 Williams 160,000 The English walnut is said to be the most profitable of all nut-bearing trees. When in full bearing they will yield about 3001b. of nuts to the tree. The nuts sell on an average at about 4d. per lb. If only 27 trees are planted on an acre the income would be about J6135 per acre, Short sight is more common in town than amongst country folks, for the simple reason that townspeople have less need for long sight; they have fewer opportunities for exercising their sight on distant objects, and their occupations do not favour its develop- ment by training or selection. The body of Christians now known as Wesleyan Methodists bad its origin in 1739 its founder was the Rev. John Wesley, who (with his brother Charles), being excluded from the pulpits of the Established Church, took to preaching in the open air. From the strict regularity of their lives they were called Methodists. For a wager of £ 20 four Welshwomen walked from the foot of Westminster Bridge to the Boot and Crown the course taken was over Deptford Bridge and back again, and the distance was covered in one hour and three- quarters. They were allowed two hours and a half, and the feat was performed in March 1761. According to a French statistician taking the mean of many lives a man of 50 years of age has slept 6,000 days, worked 6,500 days, walked 800 days, amused himself 4,000 days, was eating 1,500 days, was ill 500 days. He ate 17,0001b. of bread, 16,0001b. of meat, 4,6001b. of vegetables, eggs and fish; and drank 7,000 gallons of liquid, namely—water, tea, coffee, beer, wine, &o., altogether. A wager of a very curious nature, involv- ing a great nicety of calculation" (says a weekly paper bearing date December 4, 1790) was determined on Wednesday last. The subject was the National Debt, and the ques- tion raised was, how many tons weight of 210 Bank of England notes would be sufficient to pay this debt off? After an accurate inves- tigation, it was proved to the satisfaction of the umpire that, taking each bank-note at 13gr. (which is the average weight of a note), and the National Debt at 280 millions, it would require 21 tons 3cwt.-or six wagon- loads-of P,10 bank-notes to discharge the nation's obligations. On Friday, October 12, 1793, a grand single match at cricket took place in Lord's Ground, Marylebone. Five gentlemen of the Globe Club played against four gentlemen of tho Marylebone Club for one hundred guineas. GLODE CLUB. First Innings. Second Innings. Mr. J. Beeston, b Lord 1 b Lord 1 Mr. Ueeston, b Lord 0 b Lord 0 Mr. Hernaliavr, sen., b Lord 0 b Lord 0 Mr. Bootli, b L,,ri 0 b Lord 0 Mr. Humgh;v*» bLord 0 b Lord 0 1 1 [ MAUYLIBONE CLUB. Mr. Ray, b Bee3ton .I Mr. Sleeth, c Beeston 0 t Mr. Wall, run out 0 i Mr. Lord, c J. Beeston 2 3 During the Crimean campaign of one year and a half, 341,000 men were buried in the district of Taurida, which includes the Crimea. The Russians lost 170,000 soldiers the Eng- lish, French, and Turks, 156,000; and there were 15,000 Tartar victims. Of this total 324,800 were interred in the Crimea, including 210,000 in the neighbourhood of Sebastopol. Those killed in battle were but 30,000, and, allowing an equal number for the losses from wounds, 281,000 must have succumbed from disease. The deaths of sick persons sent away from the seat of war were about 60,000 more, which makes the number of dead from the Crimeaa campaign alone over 401,000.
INTERESTING AND INSTRUCTIVE. — o THE WATCH AS A COMPASS. It may not be known to many that the points of the compass can be determined with the aid of an ordinary watch. It is simply necessary to bring the watch in a position so that the hour-hand is directed towards the sun. The south then lies exactly midway between whatever hour it may happen "to be and the numeral XII on the dial, Let us suppose, for instance, that it is four o'clock, and the timepiece is held in the position indicated. The direction of the numeral II will then be the exact south. If it be eight o'clock, the numeral X will indicate the exact southerly point. I How TO nEAD A BOOK. Lord Macaulay, in re-calling some in- cidents of his childhood, said:—"When a boy I began to read very earnestly, but at the foot of every page 1 read I stopped and obliged myself to give an account of what I had read on that page. At first I had to read it three or four times before I got my mind firmly fixed; but I compelled myself to comply with the plan, until now, after I have read a book through once, I can almost recite it from the beginning to the end." el To BE FAIR, FAT, AND FORTY. A distinguished pi ofessor of the College of Physicians and Surgeons gives the following as the law of perfect health, beauty, and longevity for summer:—" Eat fresh animal food three times a day and as muoh bread, crushed wheat, potatoes, rice, egge, &c,, as I possible. Between the different meals and on retiring at night drink a glass of milk, if thin, or a b\ip of beef tea or broth if you are stout. Every night and morning take a warm sponge bath in water in which about a table- spoonful of common salt in the basin has been dissolved. After the bath, and a brisk rub with a coarse towel, exercise ten minutes briskly with dnmb bSlls or in any way you enjoy, breathing deeply and freely. Sleep nine hours at night and one in the middle of the day, and wear loose clothing. A NATURAL BAROMETER. Among the many "natural barometers' which afford some rude indications of the change of weather, one of the simplest is said to be a cup of pure coffee, with the addition of a lump of sugar. The sugar must be put in without stirring, and immediately afterwards a number of bubbles, due to the air contained in the sugar, will be seen rising to the surface. If the bubbles collect in the middle of the cup the weather will be fair; if they leave the centre and adhere to the sides of the cup, forming a ring of bubbles with a clear space in the centre, the weather will be variable, while a cluster of bubbles on one side of the cup indicates rain. No explanation is given of this action, but it is said that the indications of this coffee-cup barometer (generally agree with those of a mercurial barometer placed near it. WHY GAME IS EATEN "HIGH." We are believed to be the only civilised nation who iuvariably, and from preference, eat game "bigh," and woodcock and venison in an almost putrid condition. The reason for what might otherwise be regarded as a depraved taste among English epicures is that in the la3t century the nobility and the squirearchy were often greatly puzzled to know what, to do with the game they shot. They could not eat pheasants, partridges, and hare3 every day. Had they done so, satiety, or, perpbaps, blood-poisoning, would have resulted. Even fat haunch of venison and venison pasty become cloying after a while. They might make presents to their neighbours, but their neighbours were principally noblemen and squires with ample pre- serves of their own. So the game was smuggled up to London, and swopped for fish, and the fishmongers, in the course of their business, sold it to rich merchants and professional people, with no preserves of their own. But during its sojourn in the squire's larder, its abode in the lumbering wagon which brought it to the Metropolis, and its residence in the fishmonger's cellar, the game had usually became exceedingly high" and the gourmet classes in time became as fond of high game as George 1. was of bad oysters. His Majesty could get no others in Hanover, and had to be satisfied with what be could get; and his middle-class subjects were, as re- gards game, in the same predicament, and if they wanted to eat game, had to be content with it decidedly high.
WHY GO TO CALIFORNIA? Sequah, recognising the fact that it is utterly impossible for the mnjority of invalids to go half across the world to take the waters at the Cali- fornian springs themselves, has succeeded in bringing the springs to the ptjoplo in a cheap and convenient form. No sufferer need go uncured, since the remedy can now be obtained everywhere. Sequab's "Prairie Flower" consists of the care- fully concentrated water from the most noted mineral springs in North America. It is combined with certain vegetablo extract?, and is an infallible cure for all kinds of rheumatism, lum- bago, and eciiitica, as well as disorders of the stomach, liver, and bowels. Nothing like it hu ever been put before the public, and the demand is unprecedented, it having rtpidly obtained a reputation which has stamped it as being quite above the ordinary category of patent medi- cines. Lc839
Madame Auaslasie lleseaux, a Frenchwoman, has died at the age, it is said, of 118 year?, near Kishenau, or Kichenev, a town of Bessarabia. The venerable dame, who had so long weathered the I world and tho climate of Russia, had been for many years superintendent of a school for the daughters of the nobility, and retired with, a pen- sion from her pist at the age of 92. She had entered the school as a teacher when it was founded during the reign of Alexander I. The Belfast News Letter's London correspondent says the heir-presumptive to an Eughsh dukedom has married a seiio-comic artist, whose name has figured prominently in the music-hall bills tor several years past. The marriage was kept secret for some litile time, but has now become known, and has caused great dissatisfaction to the noble lord's immediate relatives. COLEMAN'S LIKBIG'S EXTRACT OF MEAT AND MALT WINE.—A 2s. 9d. bottle of this celebrated wlue scift frea by parcels post for 33 stamps. Over 2.000 testimonials received.from medienl men. Coleman and Cta (LImited). old everywhere ilool
SCIENTIFIC AND INVEN- TION NOTES. WONDERFUL ELECTRICITY. Photographing on metals by electricity is announced. SPRINGS FOR OUR HEELS. The newest paient shoe has a device of springs in the heel which lessens the jar to the body. PHONOGRAPH AND TELEPHONE HAND-IN- IIAND. The phonograph has been applied to the telephone, so that any conversation coming over the wires during the day may be readily re-produced. No TROUBLE TO WALK SHORTLY. There has just been brought out a novelty which consists of applying a rubber heel to walking boots, by which means the force ex- pended in planting the foot on the ground ia utilised to assist in progression of the wearer. According to this doctor's theory, the harder a man brings his heel down upon the pave- ment the easier will he walk. ELECTRIC UAILWAYS. Mr. Edison's electric railway, which is to run 100 miles an hour as a regular pace and 200 when time is an object; which is to get one horse-power out of lib. of cheap coal, instead of, as at present, Gib, of dear fuel, is announced to be now perfected. But it is understood that his patents are by no means in the same condition of forwardness. In Great Britain, at least, they have not been taken ont, and if what we hear is correct, may not be granted, on the ground that they infringe already existing rights. ANYTHING TO SAVE TIME AND TROUBLE. A useful appliance has been constructed for use in connection with a common alarm clock. This consists in adapting a small oil stove, and fitting it with a lever arm, to which is attached an ordinary lucifer match. The clock is set to the required time, and when the alarm goes off it also releases a spring lever holding the lucifer match, igniting it, so that it lights the oil stove. Any small vessel can be heated on the top of the stove. By means of this device a person may be called at a given hour in the morning, and by the time he is dressed a cup of hot coffee will be ready for him. PHOTOGRAPHING SPEECH. Photography of speeob, or rather of the fleeting expressions and movements of the human countenance during speech, is the latest of the many triumphs of the instanta- neous process. A distinguished physiologist who explains this new development in a French monthly review, gives, by way of illustration, 24 little pictures half the size of a postage stamp, representing so many phases of movements of the lips in pronouncing words, I love you." Our contemporary, the Photographic News, is of opinion that the pictures do not convey much information without the explanatory words, but he is looking forward to improvements. Mean- while, he regards these little pictures as "pointing to many strange possibilities." AN OIL-BURNING LOCOMOTIVE. One of these days (says Pearson's Weekly) we may, perhaps, see ail our great lines of railway run by means of electricity, and, perhaps, aiso, by that time scientists may have golved the problem of how to render our Metropolis smokeless and free from those pungent fogs that render winter in London unbearalx* to those used to the purer atmos- phere of the country. In the meantime, every projeov that tends to do away with the free use of cc -%Is for running engines, and, consequently, to decrease the general volume of smoke that daily clouds the atmos- phere, is viewed with appreciation and particularly so when practical experiments prove the value of the inven- tion. The man who succeeds in running an engine, either stationary or locomotive, with- out clouds of smoke being produced during the process of firing-up," is a benefactor to the public, and worthy of grateful recogni- tion. Such a man is Mr. James Holden, the loco- motive superintendent of the Great Eastern Kail way, a line which has, by the enterprise of its managers, raised itself during the last few years to the very front position for speed and punctuality of its service. Mr. Holden was of opinion that liquid fuel could be used with advantage on locomotives, and, accord- I ingly, he set his brains to work, with the result that he invented a simple apparatus for burning a mixture of coal-tar and petrolentit. or petroleum refuse, which was capable of being fixed to any ordinary coal-burning engine, without any alterations to the fire-box beyond the boring of a couple of holes in the casing of ttte fire-box for the purpose of introducing the two small tubes conveying the oil into the furnace. Surrounding the orifices of the tubes are perforated rings for the introduction of a jet of steam and air, which thus breaks up the jet of oil and forces it into the furnace in the shape of spray; this is easily ignited from the small fire which is first lighted in the fire-bcx, and which afterwards needs no attention further than the occasional feeding of a shovelful or two of coal refuse and clay-to keep a solid body for the oil- fuel to spray upon, and to keep up a small head of steam during the time the engine is idle, such as dinner time, or the intervals of shunt- ing. The advantages are obvious, for in the engines where Mr. Holden's apparatus is fixed, steam can be generated at the rate o £ 101b. pressure every two minutes, a con- siderable saving of time as against the use of coal, while there is no smoke created. The drivers, too, express great admiration of tho plan, as by its use they can start on a long journey, and simply sit and watch their steam- gauges, instead of having (as is the usual custom) to be looking after the firing of the engine all the time. A correspondent who visited the Great Eastern Railway Works at Stratford found a number of engines of various sorts fitted with the oil-fuel apparatus, and in every case it appeared to act very successfully. It has been in use for some time on several of the express trains to and from the Eastern counties, and a trip on a light engine demonstrated practi- cally that here was one of the most practical inventions yet brought before the publio foe reduoing labour and avoiding the dense clouds of smoke so much objected to by residents near railway lines. One of the great points of ther invention is that, if either coal or oil fails, the engine cau immediately be run upon whichever is left, without any trouble and Mr. Holden claims that very soon he will be able to do without carrying coal at all on the tender. A new locomotive, the Pesrolea," now stands in the sheds at Stratford, with a specially constructed tender for carrying the tank of liquid fuel, and it is expected that the most satisfactory results will follow its trial. The Great Eastern Railway have for some time been running an express train to and from Ipswich drawn by an engine burning oil fuel, with great succeas and that they ara satisfied with their experiment, is shown by the increasing number of engines to which the apparatus has been affixed.
CADBURY'S COCOA has, in a remarkable degrefl those uatural elements of sustenance which give the system endurance and hardihood, building up muscles and bodily vigour, with a steady action that render u moat acceptable and reliable beverage."— Health. £ c5