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Notes by "Pendragon."





ctfRliENT AGRICV LTUIIATI TOPICS. ["Br ASHICOLA." OF TICK "FISLB. We have arrived at the period of the year tvhen the pt-imest outcomes of grazing meet the public eyo at the fat cattle shows. These itaveacertain value in showing to what an extent well-bred animals wj11 load themselves with flesh and fat compared to what ordinary candidates for the shambles carry. Nevertheless, the fact cannot be gainsaid that it very serious evil underlies the enfcouragehient given to over-ripening by Smitlifield Club, Bingiey-hall, &nd other Christmas fat cattle shows. The handsome prizes given at these exhibitions afford sufficient inducements for very prime animals, when already sufficiently fattened, to be kept on year after year for show purposes, and very frequently a great deal of waste reosul8. The animals get overloaded with fat which is not wholesome eating, and which, in general,finds its way tothechandlei'sshop,and there is consequently serious Waste in two ways. All the food the animals have consumed during their last year of fattening is found practically to have been converted to very ill account, and a large propor- tion of the meat itself, when utilised, is- found to be unfit for the human stomach, however enticing it may be to some palates. This is an old evil which has frequently been denounced, but it still exists, and the Christmas fat show syaterh tends to perpetuate it. I do not desire to be mistaken, and, therefore, will freely admit that much has been done to abate the evil. Only last year the Smitlifield Club passod a resolution that no animal should take prises more than two years in succession at its shows. Previously it Was a common occurrence for steers to carry off leading premiums three years in succession. But there are a great many who think that every aninlal which has been grazed so as to be able to take a prize at a fat stock show is very unlikely to get better for human food afterwards, even although his age may ba under two years. So fat as the utilitarian argu- ment is concerned, this can scarcely be contra- dieted; but, on the other hand, it must certainly be admitted that a fully-ripened, fat ox is a crea- ture of beauty, and that #h3 value of pure blood can scarcely be displayed in a better way than by these practical exemplifications of how very thick they will lay on flesh and fat when allowed to do 80 to the utmost extent. Perhaps an illustration may be of value in elucidation of this point. Mr. Hugh Gorringe won first prite last year at Isling- ton in tho young Shorthorn steer class with an animal quite fat enough for human consumption, but still not thoroughly ripe for show purposes. Mr. R. Wortley saw this, and purchased the steer to undergo another year's feeding, and it has come out great as one of the cracks or leading show beasts this season. Now, inasmuch as the beast is some 6cwt. heavier than last year, there is great utility in some respects, if not in others, served by this prolonged grazing. Some other prize animals which were fed on from last year's shows do not come out so well. For in- stance, tho champion ox at Norwich was much better in quality, although not quite so weighty, as when it was exhibited last year AT the Smitlifield Club Show. The novel feature About to be introduced from America by the Smithfteld Club, of offering prizes for dressed carcases, will ba sure to illustrate far better than anything else possibly could do the folly of laying on tallow on the frames of beasts already sufficiently fattened. At least, this ha9 been the result in the United States, where news- paper writers havo taken up the early maturity question and argued in its favour much more warmly than they did beforo prizes for dressed carcases wore given at Chicago. A young steer at from 16 to 24 months old may be brought to dovalop quite as much fat in conjunction with lean as is good for the human stomach, or even grateful to tha palate. I mean, of course, when the animal has been kept fast thriving from birth, banking its baby flesh at compound interest, and forced still more rapidly onwards at each fresh IItep..As only pure-blood animals will do this, or, at least, those having a considerable proportion of pure blood, the cattle classes under two years of age at fat stock shows actually afford better advertise- ments of the utility or pedigree than the older ones, although the argument is so much used that we cannot abolish the latter because, in their per- fectly ripened and grand developments, they are a standing memento, or, rather, a practical exempli ligation, of having the right sort of material for grazing purposes. There is a strange anomaly just now in ordinary grazing which is partly connected with the above subject, inasmuch as it shows the paramount im- portance of adopting the early maturity system in ordinary farming no less than in preparing animals for fat cattle shows. Young store beasts are cheaper than they have been for years, and msy be bought so low that the prices cannot possibly pay their breeders. Yet there is a general com- plaint among graziers that at the present rates of beef and mutton in the wholesale market their business of meat-making is unremunerative. What is the practical conclusion to be formed here? Evidently the prices of store stock must drop lower stiil or the wholesale rates of meat must advance, to give the bulk of grazing farmers the profits they desire, and everyone studying the subject must admit that neither the one thing nor the other is likely to occur. In the first place, if young store Cattie fall any lower in value, breeding will be abandoned by a great many who now pursue it, and this, by shorten- ing tho supply, would tend to enchance the prices of those on offer. Already the Agricultural Returns show that this has taken place to some extent, the numbers of cattle under two years old being less at the last census than they were the year pre- viously. On the other hand, the immense ship- loads of cattle from Canada and of frozen mutton from the Antipodes show an indication to depre- ciate the mest market more and more. The lesson to be learnt from the above is that the British grazier's occupation is irretrievably gone unless he can be brought to adopt the early matu- rity system in its entirety, and to do that he must breed his uwn stock, unless he can form an agree- ment with the dairy farmer to rear calves for him until they are tit to wean. At all events, young stock fattened from birth, whotlier calves, lambs, or pigs, and sold just at the right .ages when they pay best for feeding, can stilt be made to give satisfactory returns even at present prices, while the older system of one man rearing a young 1 animal in very lean condition and another to subsequently buy the lean frame and clothe it with fat has utterly broken down. I have now to announce something which ought to be of great interest to all dairy farmers who make butter. As is tolerably well known, the Continental makers have the chief advantage over home producers in being able to send here an article better adapted to the palate; and it has often been said that the only way to compete with the best French and Scandinavian butters is to manufacture from sweet cream. When the cream separators were introduced it was supposed that this would be made easy. Only large farmers have hitherto, however, been able to afford to uee them, because they have required steam power in thf: working. The improvements recently made in the Laval separator will entirely obviate this evil. In the first place, for large dairies the full-sized I Laval, which has been sold for jE35, will now sepa- rate 90 gallons per hour, and has been fitted with a turbine underneath calculated to actuate the machine by merely having steam forced in. This can bo generated by one of Hindley's steam boilers. costing £28. The addition of the turbine to the separator costs £10, so that the whole, boilor in- cluded, would cost £73, The hand Laval cream separators are, however, what, in my opinion, will produce a revolution in butter-making, as the smaller one, occupying no more room than a Churn, will separate 23 gallons per hour, and costs only J619, and there is A larger one, calculated to separate 35 gallons per hour. costing £2,)'; Both turn remarkably easy, which I can vouch for, having tried them myself. I should say a strong lad or a woman would actuate one of t hem without the slightest distress. By turning tho main wheel 40 revolutions per minute the in termediate gearing gets up tht speed to 6,500 revolutions.

......."'I" - - -"/ GARDENING…



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