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----AGRICULTURAL NOTjS 1 -

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AGRICULTURAL NOTjS 1 (BY j'I LA Y DUN I ESQ.) AMERICAN COMPETITION I AND MEAT. No.n. The railway lake and canal ayatema of the U ::jtd 'States a.d Canadahs-n contributed to their cwn prcsperily, and to the bcJity and d,eap::¡:;8 wnh which thsir emrmoua aurplas snpp: .e? of feed are exported. So abandant ia her pledgee, that th& United Sta-tea now aEBnauy 6parE3 ore.third of her wheat crop, or about twenty million quartera; fnUy one.aixtn of her Indian ccTB, cr *hirty miUion quarters; 60 per cent. of her pork, and lard, making a total of about 8.;)0 muiion iba.; bat as yet onjy an infnitesimal prcportio'3 of ha- hgf and mutton. Much of thia agricultural p-cdaca, althong'h upwarda cf 1.0..0 mile" from :.he Atlantic aeaboatd, and over 3.COO milea of ocean, ia delivered to Surcpean coBaumers at very moderate prices. Thia cheap and ready delivery ia due to the railroads of the Uniiied St<t:ea. Thair eiviliaiBg and hnmaniein<f iBnaenoea aow expend over 1CO,CCO milea; 5,000 milea ofne'virca roada are ccmpated to be laid down anrmlly. One <!roat iBe girda the continent, paading 3,2)0 milea ifom the Atlantic to the Pac.co, and two other great throogh linea are in course of couatmction. 3 he New Ycrk Central, adopting the tyetem of cur great ccmpaniea, haa four parallel ",ad"ya runnirg great part of the way from New Ycrk to Bt.Ft.2o, and aSordlag separate tracka for pas¡;er ger and gûOGs. or {or faat and slow tra.S. Tte PenneyivaMa. and ita braoohea now embraoa 6.CCO milea of well. laid road, ever mach of wiich npreUltS travel aa pleasantly and rapidly aas- tht) boat Rrglieh railwaya. compe!¡icg c<-B"pa'ciea EpwccEBect New York withChi34go, wh.c;h ia SCO niles from the shcraa. j<t g'ieh capital haa helped to make .:¡,¡,d wjfk ùt-lie great artermi coEDectioBe, Elish ptcple are hercQ reapirf great banei-9 in t;he&t:er.:u other food. these facihtita fcr their p-odace, the Cueap I la:cd of remote loctliti-sa would te cf kmall aT&il either to gro,vel' or II It ia Bot !La:: V ye&ra 3nc3, from wam of trm. epcrt, b¿íun ccrn waa need for ftiel, and f*t baccn '!Vaa a cheap aLd handy meana cf rLsing atcam and patting on an extra apur:: in :Do bcaia :at pied on the Mississippi ajc.d ..lia- ecDri. Even Low, in localiliea not reached by rai.reada, plecty of wheat ia sold at '2a per ):Mi.el, aEd Iscian ccrn at 9d. In iB the Red River ccuntry, a>1d in viMnoaa parta of Dakota, I have aeen taacM bring down rain 50 and t milea to matket and rail. Bn[ ÙlZcngu the S-.ates. and even in Canada, wheTe railway enterpriae haa not been ao active, the iron road a are pnahing cat in ail directions. Uenally their conattucuon ia aided by granta from the State of each alternate aectioa of a mile eqmare for a diatance of ten milee on each aide of the promoted Une. In Minneaota, Iowa, ando:her 100ahead Statoa and territoriaa, the ateam hcrM haa been driven even in advance of coloni. action, which haa not, however, been alow to fcliow; for with dne appreciation of the advan. tagea of ready facilitiea for deporting produce the railway landa are rapidly picked np, uaually at 16a to 25a an acre. There are not, aa in thia conDtry, promoting and Parliameatary exponaea, pBMhMe of landa at hihprjcee, expenaiveawarda for dtUMgee and aeverance. Over t e level prairiea M ticng river valleya, with few cutlrg 01' embwments, with only OCCIUional CMap bridgew, often without expenae of ballaating or eBcloanre, the line ia cheaply constructed. ThouaandB of milea ont Weat are made and equipped at a coat cf .62,000 a mila. Unleaa where groaaly jobbed in conatmotion, or faith. leaely miamanaged, Bnch linea pay good dtvidenda, even at low tra6ic ehargea. The long dialanoe tatea of the United Statea are Bet ao high aa these of Pj-evioaa to tnd throcghont 1S7S, asd aD:iI MidaaaT:er hat, wheat waa cc.eyed by rail fuJy SOO mdea from Chic&go 10 New York at the MM of cental. the Bame ehargea of boxed meat cr provieione were forwarded. By ttean.-tugged bargee, through lake and canal, via tc New York, the ra.tea were hule over f.ce h&l* '.hose by raiiway. Thia water tranait, tx:en<hi.g cctuyovembcr, aa in other t:&r*a c! Aire'-ea, pruvea a formidable eompatitor The cost of euch water transit teàilj di:n:Liahed iMt 8ixten ve.tje :c :Íle ex:eD:oi 30 percent. Coper worHmg e'eam tu<ra, improved doofn, q Ilic& &Bdnn!cadingby elevatore durin the ye&ra, however, been adoptdd, atd thf redaQed hene have not similar adoption of raiiw&yM 3' alao able to ,,¡we il.. tbeir "atiff,. (,'ct-an M:ea dnring aeverai yaara umills." an'nmn beea equaUy :V Ycrk :o briish porta a barrel of njac wt)igrlli for an ava- raRe o: 3f, aBd, per sailin veafel, fcr h J, Wh<&t in tags ma as low aa 8c per cemai :he average h:tle exceed la. i'rom pDilacel.hia wceal haa (/e<n carried to l'rd Kii.gdcm poriB aa ;cw a- 5.! a qtarter. trcm Kontrcal a quarter -i-3;}lbs.) sf gr.tin w.*f k"arded fAot cla to .)g. Prsviaionaffom moat of !be At}.n;c tcrta were landed in Great Britain t.t :)Ub to <lll! ppr '.on whilat oil cake are quotad mhe ml.éer<ote ngarocf 2!)a to Baef, by ettamer, haa aver&geG a tierce, ba: leea M paid by a:hD g veee<tl9. d:,l'o\;gh ratea to Europe from poi,ta remote 'rcm ti:e seaboard are proportionally lower. ticm MiDneapclia, 1,2<J milea weat of the Atlantic, a barrel of nonr it conveyed to LiverpocI, CardiS, or Glaagow for 7,<. Frcm St. Loni<), by ditect water rcni?, Bcor hae been forwarded at 5a per ba:rel. The :cst of tracBit of horees. ca'itle, and eheep fcr long distancea ie proportiottatalY low. From Cheynne, weat of Neoraaka, between the forka of the Plate River, amidat the great oat--Ie ranchee of the eaatern alopea of the Rocky Mo .n- taina. three-year-old buns arw conveyed by '.he IJBion Paci&c Railway, via Council Blllff, to Chicago, a journey of l.COO milea, for 2Sa. FOal Eiamark, en the Northern Pacing the nae m Montana cattle are cairied, via St. &()0 milea to Chicago for 13. F-om Chic (O to New York the railway chargea are IJa. The ocean freighta from New Yjrk to Liverpool, Ca-rdiif, ScnthamptoB, or Glasgow vary from 508 to <X)a; whilat from 30a to 25a ia expended fjr feedmg and attendance dnricg the voyage. Th ae are certainly very moderate ratea fjr toe prompt, ai.d oenaLy very a&fe, conveyance of dead aad etock. OwiTtg to ucprcved trade in mUl parta of the Btatea.aBd the demand for the imme<ltate trat.a- miuioll of all aorta of goode. the low ratee wht;h obta;Eed Dp to September laat have been ad vanseJ, 1L acme instancea to the exteat o: -2J and 30 per c<Lt. But even at thia enhanced fiUN grata baccn, azd other proviaiona are forwarded from Chio tt the rate of a halfpenny per H). Wheat can atill be delivered from St. Paul or Kaoaaa City to Liverpool at 15a per quarter fot rail and cceam carriage. Oae halfpenny per Ib. paya the ct&rgea on beef and matton tiaaghtered in New York, preserved cool in the ice chambera on the voyage, and delivered in Locdon or Liverpool. For leaa than pec Ib. live cattle can be transported over 1800 milea cf nulroad and 3,000 ot ocean and landed at Liverpool, Southampton, Cardift, or Glasgow. In ccDiiDnafon of thia enbject I ahaD next weet eodetvoM farther to demonatrate that Bother railway chargee aor ocean freighta are likely to be m*teii&Uy or permanently wahanced, and that the American competition ia bread- ttTiffa aad meat will probably continue aa keen .ver.

TBE BLOCK IN THE AlERICAN…

AGRICULTURAL PROSPECTS.

ITEE RECTOR OF MERTHYR ON…

THE FORTHCOMING SOUTH WALES…

GALLANTRY AT SEA.

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OFR LONDON LETTER,1

MYFYR MORGANWG, D.e.L.

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