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DUKE OF DEVONSHIRE. Resigns His Post. Another Political Bombshell. Balfour's Bitter Recriminations. Hew Cabinet: Several Surprises. It Ls officially sfated tlnt Mr. Balfour has addressed the following letter to the Duke of Devonshire Whittinghanie, Prestonkirk, X.B.. Oct. 3, 1903.-My dear Duke.—I leieived this after- noon two telegrams forwarded in quick suc- cession by my private secretary in London— the first fiom you asking how soon your re- signation might be announced, the second giving a full summary of the reasons which anoved you to resign. "1 am not sure which of these unexpected communications surprised me most—on the "whole, perhaps, the second. The first, how- ever, was sufficiently strange. "Remember the circumstances It was on Wednesday. September 16. that you informed me of your resolve to remain in the Govern- ment. This decision was preceded by much confidential coirespondeiice: much intimate ■conversation. Theie was no phase of policy which I was not prepared to discuss, which I did not, in fact, discuss with perfect frank- ness. Mtn and measures were alike surveyed from every point of view whicii had a bearing fill the present course or futme foitun-es of the party. A decision arived at after these pre- liminaries I had a right to consider final, and final I certainly considered it accordingly. I consulted you, as far as circumstances of time and place permitted, as to the best mode of tilling In the vacancies in the Government, 4:)£ which you were the most distinguished member. You weie good enough to express 1«)UW weighty judgments on the delicate mat- ters submitted to you. You even initiated proposals of your own, which 1 gladly ac- cepted. "'Our last communication on these subjects "was a letter I dictated during my journey to Sheffield on Thursday afternoon. In less than 48 hours I received in Edinihui'u,h the telegram which nrnt announced your intention to re- sign, and your desire to see the process of re- signation consummated without delay or dis- cussion. The piincipal occasion of this singular transformation was (you tell 1112) my Sheffield speech This is strange indeed. In intention, at least, there was no doctrine con- tained in that speech, which was not equally contained in my notes on insular Free Tiade, and my published letter to Chamberlain. The lirst of these documents you had 3n. your possession (befoie the gener- ality of the Cabinet) at the end of July. *llhe second you saw in manuscript before it appeared in the newspapers. With bath, therefore, you were intimately acquainted during the whole fortnight in which you lent your countenance to the Government after the recent resignations. "I must' suppose, therefore, that it is some unintentional discrqj ai.cy between the written and the spoken word that now drives you to desert the Administration you have so long <«dorned. Soc-h unintentional discrepancies -are, no doubt, hard to avoid. Not everyone— certainly not I, can always be sure of finding AOn the spur of the moment befoie an eager •audience of 5,000 people the precise phrase "Which shall so dexterously express the exact opinion of the speaker on a difficult and abstract subject as to foil the opponents who would wrest it either to the right hand or the left, but till one o'clock this afternoon I had, .1 confess, counted you. not as opponent, but ao a colleague—a colleague in spirit as well as in name. To such a one it would have seemed natural (so, at least, I should have thought) to take. in cases of apparent discre- pancy, the written rather than the spoken word as expressing the true meaning of the author, or (if this be asking too much) at least to make inquiries before arriving at a and hostile conclusion, but. after all, what and where is this discrepancy which has forced you in so unexpected a fashion to reverse a considered oolicv ? "I do not believe it exists, and if any other man in the world but youi-t if had expended so much inquisitorial subtlety in detecting imaginary heresies I should have surmised that he was more anxious to pick a quarrel than particular as to the sufficiency of its »occajsion To you, fortunately, no such sus- picion can attach; yet. am I unreasonable in thinking that your resignation gives me some occasion of complaint. and. pcihaps, some •occasion of special regiet to yourself? "Am I, for example, not right in oomiplain- ing of your procedure in reference to the >?lieffield speech? You ft r that it will aggra- vate party divisions. ]f theie is anything certain, it is that the declaration of policy then made is destined still to produce a greater harmony of opinion than has prevai'ed in the party since the fiscal question came to the front six months ago. "Had you lcsigned on the 10th. or had you tnofc resigned at all. this healing effect would have suffered no interruptii n. To resign now, and to TOsign on the spec* n. is to tak' the f-ounse most calculated to make yet harder the- liardti-.sk of the peacemaker. ''Again, do you nor f. el some special regret at having at this particular juncture to sever your connection with a Unionist administra- tion? Doubtle.-s.. there i* 1.0 imaginable occa- sion on which you could ha e left one without inflicting on it seiious ja-s. At the moment of its most buoyant prosperity your absence from its councils would have been sensibly telt., but you have. in fact. left it when. in the opinion of our opponents, its fortunes are ■at their lowe-'t and its perplexities at their greatest. It may he,. however, that you are spared this aggravation of the inevitable pain *4 separation by holding, as I hold, that our opponents aie in this mistaken. I firmly be- lieve they are. "I see no Jif5"lIlt. in satees.-fullv catrying ■»-ut the policy which for a fortnight you were •loady to accept by the ¡..<,it> of the Administra- tion, which for a fortnight you aided me to construct. On tins print 1 feci no disquiet. 1 cannot pretend to view with a ]ike equan- imity the loss of a colleague whose services to the Unionist party no < hinges and chances of political fortune can ump-t any Unionist to forget.—Youis, very sine-en ly, Arthur James Balfour." Under date. October 2nd. the Duke of Devonshire tei.deiei his leiig'nation nil the following terms :—"My Dear Balfour.—I have, since we last met. felt an increasing doubt whether 1 had been well advised in consenting to separate myself from those -of our colleagues whose resignations were tendered and accepted last month, but until •some new development- of the situatiion should Jiave taken place 1 have not thought, it neces- sary to trouble you with these doubts. The speech, however, which you delivered last Might made it necessary for nie finally and definitely to decide whether I am so far in -agreement with yourself on the question of ffie fiscal po'-icy as to make it possible for me. with satisfaction to my-eif or advantage to the community, to remain a member of your Government, I must, especially, as the re- presentative of the Government in one of the Houses of Parliament, in forming this deci- sion, have regard not only to the definite statementis of policy contained in yo>ur speech, but also to d'ii general tone and tendency. I was prepared by our discussions for your statement that you desired to obtain the •auction of the constituencies for a reversal of •'lie doctrine that taxation should never be imposed for purposes of revenue, and this is. no doubt, the principal and most definite statement in your speech. You may remember that I told vou that 1 thought that WOF ld be very difficult- to make this statcmen" the -foundation of a great announcement of policy, inasmuch as 1 was not aware of any aw or Constitutional principle "in wihi-cli th.s doc- trine was embodiied. I admit that you have succeeded in making this declaration the basis of a great political announcement, but. in h,y opMiion, that announcement has bt en ex- pended very far beyond the necessities ot the I had hoped to have townd in your sl»eech a definite statement of adherence to the principles of Free Trade as the only basis hf our fiscal and commercial system, and an dually definite repudiation of the principle Piotection du .the interest of our national lwdust«ies. but in their absence I cannot ihelp ^■'linking t-liat such declarations as those which have quoted cannot fail to have the effect ",f materially encouraging the advocates of direct, Protection in the controversy which loas been raised throughout the country, and i)f discouraging those who, like me, and I had hoped, yourself believe that our present I system of free imports, and especially of food imports, is. on the whole, tJhe most advam- tageous to the country, although we do not contend that the principles on which it rests possess any such authority or sanctity as to forbid any departure from it. I cannot ade- quately express tihe deep regret whiich I feel in separating myself from the Government, which I believe myself to be in sympathy with on all other matters of public policy, or the anxiety with wihich I anticipate the wide division which I fear must result from the unexpected scope and strength of your de- clarations of yesterday in the ranks of the Unionist party. But holdintr tihe- opinions which I have endeavoured to express, no other course is open to me. but to ask you to place my resignation in the hands of has Majesty.—I am, sincerely yours, Devonshire.

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