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HISTORY OF GLAMORGANSHIRE. Religious Persecutions and Martyrdoms. Augustine's Massacre of Preachers. Below is given the tenth chapter of ^ae history of Glamorganshire, written by the late liev. Ezekiel Thomas, Swansea, in Welsh, and translated by the Rev. D. Evans, Bridgend :Eurgnin. daughter of King Car- adoc. established a Christian college called after her name, in the town of Llaatwit Major; and another bearing the same name in Worcester, on the banks of the Severn. Formerly it was a large town, and its college illustrious, its structure as regards founda- tions, form and size of rooms evidencing an immense building. And when excavations of th.' known and hidden foundations are carried out. a great deal more of the history of Chris- tianity in the county and in the isle will be re- veal eel. It is probable that a Christian Col- lege existed here before the year 80. And surely the Roman persecutions told upon the Christians of Llantwit Major and Glamorgan, such as that of Xero in 64, Domitian in 95, Trojan in 107. Adrian in 118, Severus in 202. Maximinus in 235. Diocletian in 284, and I Maximian Hercules (who died in 312), and who. when he came to Britain, destroyed its places of worship, burnt the scriptures, slew tho preachers, Albi.n (in 286) and Aaron (in 306). llle Heathemsh Saxons, trom on- wards. devastated several places of worship m Llantwit Major and the vicinity thereof. The Christians, therefore, in order to secure imunity from disturbance, removed the col- leges from Caerleon, Llandaff, and Llantwit Major about the ver 577, to St. David, and appointed Dewi Dyfry as principal. It was in that time that the episcopacies of Llandaff and St. David were founde'd. The massacre of the ministers of religion in the neighbour- hood of Worcester, actuated by Augustine. but carried into effect by the Saxon sword, was the probable reason for the removal re- ferred to. The site of this martyrdom is wrongly placed by historians at Bangor, Is- coed. Flintshire. Dr. Hammond, upon this question, gives the account of what passed between Augustine and the Abbot of Bangor. Augustine demanded allegiance to the Bishop of Rome. but the Abbot answered that the British Church was governed by tHe Arch- bishop of Caerleon upon Usk, and was not subject to the Pope. Augustine met the British bishops in Worcestershire, where a council sat under what is still termed "Augus- tine's Oak." He commanded the Britons to observe Easter and Baptism acording to the rites and ceremonies of the Church of Rome, but he was not successful. Then he chal- lenged them to perform miracles; and through prayer a blind man received his sight. Not- withstanding this, the seven British Bishops were unmoved. They adhered to tneir an- cient rites. It was arranged that they should meet again, when the seven bishops wr-ni be present, viz., the Bishops of rierefora, Llandaff, Bangor, St. Asaph, Worcester, Pt ternensis. Morganensis, and the Abbot Ba.ngor. It should be remembered that Ban gor was then a common name of all Christian colleges. Upon going to the adjourned coun- cil. these ministers were advised by a. pious old man to accept the doctrine of Augustine if they found him humble; but to refuse it if he was proud. Upon asking their mentor how they were to decide the matter, he added, "If lie rises when you enter, it will show his humility. But if he remains seated, he 's proud." When they arrived at the meeting place, Augustine sat proudly in his chair ai>J showed them no signs of respect. They ui once determined to refuse his doctrine. Aug- ustine pressed them (1) to observe the Easter Festival at the same time as the Roman Church; (2) practice the same rites at bap- tism (3) preach the Gospel to ille Saxons. On their refusal, Augustine threatened re- venge. As a result, Ethelbert, tIn f". nig of ;orthumbl'ia, and ,t large a.rmy of so d=HS, came to Caerleon. and put to death 9. 000 pre-a chers. This took place in 603. 'en years or so before the death of Augustine .though I^mi-ib writers have laboured to show that bis death took place before the massacre. As a quence of this slaughter .three Welsii Princas joined their armies together and attacked lLe persecutors, slaying 10,000 of them, i-zit a word of explanation is desirable on the tin d point of divergence from Augustine, "Why did the ancient Britons refuse to preach to the English V" At first the Welsh preached the Gospel to the English, as well as to the Irish. French, and German races, but they found a reason for ceasing to do so. Moffat found that one of his hearers in Africa, whilst the missionary was addressing a meet ing, t< ik nxlvantage of his absence to rob 1, -1 liou. e. The Welsh experiences of the Saxons v ere similar. Owing to depredations of mis k;w3. the Welsh, out of sheer self-defence, vruhcid their ministrations. But though the Uni- versity was removed to St. David's it wii, still troubled by the Papacy, which secretly instigated the Saxons. Danes, and all of barbarians to effect its purposes This subtle form of persecution continued from the beginning of the ninth century to the end of the 11th. viz., to the time of its subjugation t othe Pope. Bishop Burgess put tile num- ber of persecutions in that period -it ten- Welsh bishops occupied the see of St. Da- vi-I until 1095. when the Normans, prompted by the Pope, placed Wilfrid in the Epi^copacj-. The bishop before that time, was elected by neither Pope nor King, nor by any order or 1 chapter, but by the general body of brethren Previous to 982, the Bishops of Llandaff were ordained by the Bishops of St. David. (To be continued.)


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