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SIR HENRY-IRVING.

LITEIrARY BUREAU.

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----.----BRAVO, KATHLEEN!

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THEY SANG HIlOYE, SWEET, HOME-"

- THE FARM AND GARDEN,

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THE FARM AND GARDEN, GAPES IN POULTRY. I Large numbers of young chicken are an- nually destroyed by the disease generally known as gapes. Unfortunately the symp- toms of the trouble are too well known among poultry keepers to need any descrip- tion. Gapes is caused by a small reddish coloured worm found attached to the lining of the windpipe or air passage of an affected bird. The pests subsist by sucking the blood of their host, and so set up inflammation that is frequently fatal when chicken are inclined to be weakly, as they generally are, unless allowed a very large run. As many as thirty worms have been found in a single fowl. Infection may be effected by eating earth worms infected by the pest, or by picking up gape worms coughed up by other fowls. The best preventative measures are to keep the young chickens on dry, uninfected ground, and to maintain the highest possible state of health by giving nourishing, suitable foods, and allowing plenty of freedom. Two methods of dislodging the enemy are prac- tised. The first consists in introducing a looped horse hair into the windpipe, giving it several turns there, and then slowly with- drawing it. The dislodged worms are coughed up by the fowl. The other plan is to insert a feather moistened in turpentine, which makes the worms loosen ttheir hold when they are speedily coughed or sneezed up. AN EGG PRESERVATIVE. A really reliable egg preservative that will enable the thrifty house-wife to preserve eggs in spring and summer, when low prices are the rule, for use during the winter months has long been a desideratum. The various means hitherto adopted to ensure the desirable end in view have been more or less ineffectual, but the long-sought agent has at last been discovered in the form of sodium silicate (water glass)., which is a semi- fluid syrup closely resembling thick sugar syrup in appearance. When this has been diluted with 20 parts of water the eggs are placed in it and sink to the bottom of the liquid, where they remain fresh and good, as laid, until wanted for use some eight months or so later. As a matter of fact it is quite impossible to distinguish in flavour between eggs so preserved and those just laid, and it is worthy of note that when taken out of the solution the eggs are also perfectly fresh in appearance. There is one poinb re- quiring special attention, and this is that the shells of eggs preserved in a sodium sili- cate must be punctured with a needle before boiling, as the chemical has sealed the pores of the shell, which, therefore, necessarily splits unless it is punctured. MANGEL MANURE. The magnitude of the crop depends prac- tically on the richness of the land. A heavy dressing of dung-20 to 30 cart loads per acref—,is the best mangel manure, but it should be applied before winter, because spring dressings, especially of insufficiently decomposed manure, tend to make mangels rooty, and by their late action to retard maturity and lower nutritive value by in- ducing too much young foliage growth dur- ing summer at the partial expense of the sugar and other nutrients stored in the roots. Liquid manure is specially beneficial to man- gels. When applied after sowing it must not come into contact with the foliage lest the soiled leaves scorch, and the yield be proportionately reduced. The action of nitrogen is very favourable to the mangel crop, nitrate of soda applied partlly as a top dressing giving the most marked results of any chemical fertiliser. The action of phos- phoric acid is less than on turnips, but it improves the quality of the roots by inducing earlier maturity and greater solidity, and by increasing their nutritive value. Potash fertilisers are specially necessary on light and peaty soils and uplands. Kainit which also contains some 33 per cent. of salt, the usual form of potash for roots, should be applied a considerable time before sowing, as latfe dressings of potash salts occasionally inju- riouly lessen the formation of sugar. About 3 cwt. per acre of salt is beneficial, especially on dry soils and in dry seasons, but it must not be allowed to come into contact with the seed. In our opinion the most satisfactory for- mula for artificial fertilising of mangels is- 1 to li ewts. nitrate of soda (half as top dres- sing), 1 cwt. sulphate of ammonia, 4 to 5cwts. superphosphate (or 6 cwts. basic slag for heavy land), and 2i cwts. kainit (applied some time before sowing). RADISH. A proportion of well-decayed mellow dung is essential for rapid growth and good flavour. Continue to make successional sowings until November, scattering one ounce to two square yards of ground. Cover with about; an inch of fine earth. On light soils make the sur- face firm with the back of a spade. Protect all sowings from birds. Earliness and rapid growth are of the utmost importance. Early thinning is vital, as crowded plants produce large tops instead of roots. In very hot weather the beds should be lightly shaded. Water liberally. Large roots are not desir- able, small, crisp, and quickly-grown ones being alike more elegant in appearance and of more delicate flavour. The flesh only thatr is next to the rind of Spanish radishes should be used, the centre core being rejected. Long scarlet short-top, long scarlet white-tipped crimson French breakfast, and early red and white turnip and olive-shaped kinds are all suitable for exhibition. Roots should be young, firm, clean, crisp, brilliantly coloured, of uniform size, and with very small tops. Radishes mature in about five weeks. The thorough preparation of a finely-worked, rich, sandy bed is the best means of ensuring hand- some and shapely radishes. SHALLOTS. It greatly facilitates complete ripening to gently draw away the earth from the cluster as the season advances. Lift the crop in dry weather when the leaves turn yellow, about July, dry in the sun for a few days and store it in any dry and well ventilated shed or cellar, to complete the process of ripening in safety. SPINACH. Deeply worked good loams are best, but excellent crops can be secured on retentive soils and clays that have been well tilled. Moist, rich ground is essential for summer crops. The more richly manured the soil, the less likely is the crop to "bolt." Make small and frequent sowings in drills an inch deep and a foot asunder through the spring and summer, using an ounce of seed to a bed of five square yards. Thin out the plant of the spring and summer sowings early to six, and finally to 12 inches apart in the rows. Hoe lightly between the plants to keep down weeds. It may be necessary to shade summer crops from the heat of the mid-day sun. Take two or three of the largest leaves at a time from each plant, directly they are big enough for use. At the first appearance of flower stems cut the heads right off. When well- grown and cooked, spinach is one of the most wholesome and palatable of vegetables. NEW ZEALAND SPINACH. This variety is exceedingly valuable in hot summers, The seed is sown in early April under glass, or on the open border in May, the seedlings being placed out three feet apart 111 light, sunny beds. Abundant water is required. PERPETUAL SPINACH. Spinach beet (or perpetual spinach) is sown during March, April, July, and August in ^ra 0t .aPart in very rich roil, and the s alings thinned out or transplanted early to allow plenty of room. Treat liberally, and Bother fohe leaves as they become large enough for use. 8 TOMATO. Any gritty, turfy or fibrous loam will do admirably,, but a rich, rather loose garden loam, to which a fourth or fifth of good, Well-rotted manure is added, is the best possible soil. Leaf-mounld and thoroughly decayed manure are beneficial if used in strict moderation. In the case of pot-plants, it is well to place a thin layer immediately over the crocks in the bottom of each pot, but otherwise no fertiliser should be applied until the fruit is well set, and beginning to swell, when occasional doses of weak liquid- manure will materially assist in the produc- J tion of large tomatoes. For house, culture --v maintain a temperature of 60 to 65 degrees at night and 75 degrees by day, and prick out the seedlings singly intio small pots directly they have made two leaves. Keep the young plants short and stout by placing them on shelves near the glass, and move them to larger pots as required. Fruit the plants in eight or ten inch pots, which are specially well drained, or in beds 18 inches wide and six or seven deep. Place the plants from 18 inches to two feet apart, and train the main stem of each up to a stake or wire a foot from the glass. Systematically pinch out all side shoots, and it occasionally be well to remove part of a very large leaf to admit more light to ripening fruit. Though the roots must on no account} be allowed to want for water,, the atmosphere should ai- ways be kept dry, as much air being admitted night and day as may be consistent with safety, and especial care must be taken not to water too freely, especially on dull days. In damp weather fire heat will be necessary, even in summer. Tomato flowers must always be hand pollinated or fertilised, as the fruit seems to be increased in size by a liberal application ot pollen. The best plan is to collect the po!len in a spoon or ladle at mid- day, when the sun is bright and the house dry, and to touch the end of the stigma with the dust. Sturdy plants are also hardened off, and planted out into deeply worked soil during May. With the exception that arti- ficial fertilization is not needful, out-door treatment differs in no material respect from house-culture. Pinch out the top of the main stem when it is as high as the stake. Perfec- tion and chemin rouge are splendid kinds for exhibition. Fruits should be smooth, bril- liantly coloured, and of good uniform size. Varieties mature in about 22 weeks. If very large tomatoes be required, the clusters must be thinned out to the first two or three fruits that set. TOOGOOD AND SONS. Southampton.

FOREST LABOUR IN WEST WALES.

----A BORDER OF BLUE FLOWERS.

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WHO KILLED CONNIEJ BURT?

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