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j TO THE RATEPAYERS OF THE DISTRICT Of GOWER. ALTHOUGH the subject of the present communication is of a more general nature than that which I lately addressed to you, still, a., the matters which I have to submit arise out of the enquiry which I was induced at that tirre to pursue, and are, I think, likelv to be of interest to the public, I trust I may be excused for again trespassing on your attention. The subject on which I have to address you is that of local taxation-one which, at all times, excites a strong interest in the public mind, but which does so peculiarly at this ti.me in the southern parts of the Principality, from recent events, and from the nature of the enquiry which is now being prosecuted by the Government Commissioners. It is not my object or intention to enter on a ^enertil discussion of the subject, but to place before you certain facts, which I have at some pains extracted from one of lho>e ponderous Blue Books, which are submitted to Members of Parliament, and which frequently, with a great deal of un- interesting maiif-r, contain details that are well deserving of attention. In nn appendix to the Ninth Report of the Poor Law Commissioners, I find various tables, containing a summary of the returns for tlie iliiTerent Poor Law Unions of the kingdom. From these, several interesting facts may be gathered. The fir-r snbipcr to which mv attention has been directed, is ss to the relief afforded to the poor, and for this purpose, I have extraCÎh: i.o.t. Hie it-tunis alluded to, the number of persons who received relief in the quarter ending Lady-day, 1842, as compared with the corresponding quarter of 1841, and the expenditure in the year ending Lady-day, 1842, as compared with that in the year pteci ding. It s from the taWes that there are 581 Unions in England and Wales from which returns are collected, and on which the statements I -i ad offer nre grounded. There are a few other Unions not included, and places not united, but as the particulars of these art jjiven by estimate, I do not think it advisable to notice them. In these 581 Unions the number of persons who received relief in the Union-houses, in the quarter ending Lady-day, 1841, wis 159,828 And in the quarter ending Ladv-day, 1842 181,705 Shewing an increase of 24,877 persons, or 15.56 per cent. And of tl iose who received out-door relief, in the quarter ending Lady-day, 1841 920.946 j 1842 1.C04.527 Shewing an increase of 83,581 persons, or 9.07 percent. Taking the two together, there were relieved in the quarter ending Lady-day, 1841 1,080,774 1842 1,189,232 Shewing an increase of 108,458 persons, or 10 per cent. Extracting from these tables the returns fur the six Counties in South Wales, the following result is shewn :— In door. Out-door. Total. Ladv-day, 1841, 1,799 33,471 35,270 1842, 3,049 38,623 41,672 Increase 1,250=69.49 per cent. 5,152=15.39 per cent. 6,402=18.15 per cent. An enormous increase ofpoverly in the country at large, but particularly in South Wales, is here to be noticed. On examining I farther iito 'he details, to ascertain in what counties in Wales this increase had chiefi) arisen, the following results were obtained, An enormous increase of poverty in the country at large, but particularly in South Wales, is here to be noticed. On examining farther iito 'he details, to ascertain in what counties in Wales this increase had chieflt arisen, the following results were obtained, which appear to ir.e peculiarly deserving of attention :— County ot crecon. In-door. Out-door. Total. Quarter ending Lady-day, 1841, 255 3823 4078 1142, 495 4487 4982 Increase.. 240=94.12 per cent. 664=17.37 per cent. 904=22-17 per cent. Cardigan. 1841, 80 5984 6061 1842, 183 6228 6411 Increase.. 103=128.75 per cent. 244=4.08 per cent. 347=5-72 per cent. Carmarthen. 1841, 473 7803 8276 1842, 1156 8609 9765 Increase.. 683=144.40 per cent. 806=10.32 per cent. 1489=18 percent. Glamorgan. 1841, 498 8140 8638 1842, 664 11779 12443 Increase.. 166=33.33 per cent. 3639=44.70 3805=44.05 per cent. Pembroke. 1841, 4 Lt3 5523 5826 1842, 416 6181 5597 Increase.. 13=3.22 per ct. Decrease, 342=6.60 per ct.. Decrease, 329=5.88 per cent. Radnor. 1841, 90 2198 2288 1842, 135 2339 2474 Increase.. 45=50 per oent. 141=6.41 per cent. 186=8.13 per cent. Extracted from the printed quarterly returns:— Swansea Union. 1841, 190 1495 1885 1842, 197 1770 1967 Increase.. 7=3.68 per cent. 275=18.32 per cent. 282=16.74 per cent. Gower District. 1841, 14 271 285 1842, 11 247 258 Decrease.. 3 Decrease.. 24 Decrease.. 27=10.50 per cent. The following is extracted from "A retnrn of the namber of adplt able-bodied paupers, including vagrants, relieved daring tbe qaartef cnd?d Lad»-daj >841 and 1842 respectively" :— England and Wales, in 581 Unions. In-door. Ont-door. Total. 1841, 54,600 233,732 288.832 1842, 69,625 269,446 339.071 15,025 = 27.70 35,714 = 15.28 50,739 =17.60 per cent. Sooth Wales. 1841, 436 6587 7023 1842, 1085 8388 9473 649 = 148.85 1801 = 27.95 2450=^34.88 Brecon. 1841, 73 548 621 1842, 243 834 1077 170 = 232.88 286 = 62.19 456 = 73.43 Cardigan. 1841, 30 1254 1284 1842, 76 1220 1296 46 = 153.33 Decrease, 34 = 2.79 12 = .93 Carmarthen. 1841, 123 1526 1647 1842, 533 1769 2302 410 = 333 33 245 = 16.08 655 = 39.77 Glamorgan. 1841, 68 2042 2110 1842, 78 3316 3394 10 = 14.71 1274 = 62.39 1284 = 60.85 Pembroke. 1841, 111 819 930 1842, 117 783 900 6=5.41 Decrease, 36 = 4.60 Decrease, 30 = 3.33 Radnor. 1841, 31 400 431 1842, 38 466 504 7 = 22.06 66 16 50 73 = 16.94 Remarking on these statistical details, and on the great increase of poverty which they exhibit, we are led particularly to notice, that this increase is chiefly in the able-bodied in-door poor, including vagrants, and that the Principality of Wales has suffered more iirthis le.spect than the rest of the Kingdom ;—the increase in the number of the poor relieved being as 18.15 per cent. in South Wales, to 10 per cent. for England and Wales; in in-door relief, as 69.49 per cent. to 15 per cent.; and in out-door relief, as 15.39 per cent, to 9 per cent. The increase in some of the Welsh counties is indeed appalling. In Carmarthenshire, for instance, we find an increase of 683 per- sons relieved in the union-houses, or nearly in the proportion of 5 to 2 on the corresponding Quarter of 1841. In Cardiganshire, of in-door relief, the increase was as 9 to 4; whilst in Breconsbire, it Lad nearly doubled. Is it to be wondered at, under such circumstances, that a strong feeling against the New Poor-law should prevail in these counties ?-for beyond doubt many to whom the fact of an increase in the rates has alone been obvious, have attributed that increase to the new system, and not to ex- tended poverty. In Glamorganshire, the increase in the number of persons relieved in the union-house* was about one-third, and in out-door relief, nearly one-half. This greater increase of out-door over in-door relief, as compared with the other connties, is no doubt to be attributed to there being no union-bouse at Merthyr. Of the cause oftbe increase, no one, I think, can have a doubt—it must be attributed to the depressed state of the Iron Trade, and the slackness of the demand for coal in the exporting districts thus occasioning many able-bodied persons to he thrown out of employment, and compelling them to seek relief from their parishes. And it should be remembered, that a large proportion of 'he population of the iron and coal districts are chargeable on rural parishes at a distance, to which they return on being deprived of work and that many infirm and young persons, who in times of active demand for labour are supported by relatives in the receipt of wages, become, in times of depression, chargeable on the rates. It is so well known that the manufacturing districts have, to a considei able extent, employed the surplus population of agricultural counties, and it is so probable that men from distant counties would be the first to be discharged on a reduction of hands taking place, in preference to those resident in the immediate neighbour- bood of the works, that I was surprised to observe in the Tables, that in Pembrokeshire, there had actually been a decrease in the number of persons relieved in the March quarter of 1842, as compared with 1841. Probably this has arisen from some local circomstances, with which we are unacquainted. In the Gower district of the Swansea Union, there has been also a decrease. The extent tn which manufacturing districts have employed persons bevond the average increase of population, is strongly il last rated by the increase in the pcpntation of the coanty of Glamorgan, as taken at tfie last census, the popolalion in 1821 (I have not the returns for 1831 at baud to refer to), being 101,737 persons, whilst in 1841 it amounted to 171,188, making an increase in the twenty years oi 09,451 persons, or abont 70 per cent. In the ten years to 1841, the increase was greater than in any other county in the kingdom. The inert ase in the popnlation in Great Britain (England, Wales, and Scotland) in the same period of twenty years, was as 18,844,434 to 14,379,677, or 31 per cent., at which rate of increase the population of Glamorganshire, which in 1821 was 101.737, should in 1841 have been 133,275, instead of which it was 171,188. thus showing that 37,913 persons most have been drawn from other parts. In the town of Swansea the population in 1821 was 10,255, the population in 1841, at the above average rate of increase of Grea' Britain, should have been 13,434; it was 16.787, thus showing art increase of 3,353 beyond the ordinary increase of the population. In the county of Pembroke the converse is the case; the population in 1821 was 74,009, in 1841, 88,044. showing an increase of 14,035, whilst at the average rate of the kingdom, 22,942 persons should have been added lo the population whilst in Radnorshire a still more striking decrease ig shown. The increase in popnlation in 20 years, as staled in the Census of 1821 and 1841, was from 22,459 to 25,356, or 12.89 per cent. whereas, at the average increase of the kingdom, the population in 1841 abou!d have t;en 29,421, thus leaving a deficiency of 4065 persons. In our own district of Gower, the population of the seventeen rural parishes, forming the Gower district of the Union, in 1821 I win was 5372, in 1841, 6490, showing an increase of 1118 persons, or about 20 per cent., whilst at the average rate of 31 per cent. the increase should have been 1665 persons. It is, therefore, to be assumed, that a certain portion of the population of Gower found enj|>Jo> ment elsewhere, and it is easy to suppose that these inditiduals, being the first probably to be discharged from the employment they may have found in the iron and other districts, or in coasting vessels, should, doring the depression of a' itrade and manufactures, which has been so general, have found their way back to their native parishes, and be the cause of some increase in the poor-rates, And a formidable question here forces itself on our consideration, namely, how this surplus popu- ation is to be employed, and whence the supplies of food for their support are to be obtained, in the event of trade finding its way into new chinnels, of which I much fear (here is a probability, looking to the course of events, and the great attention which foreign slates have of late devoted to the encouragement of manufactures. Improvements in agriculture and the cultivation of waste lands may do something emigration may be carried to a greater extent but when we recollect that in July, 1841, there were 400 mouths to be fed, where in July, 1821, only 300 existed, all these means seem sadly insufficient to meet the increased re- quirements for food and support. The foregoing statistical facts lead me to the conclusion, that the immediate source of the late disturbances in the neighbouring agricultural counties, respecting which there has been so much speculation, is to be found in the depressed state of the iron and ooal. trades of Glamorganshire and Monmouthshire, which has produced the dounle effect of diminished demand for agricultural produce in the manofacturing districts, and increased burthens on the agricultural counties, from the causes before alluded to. The inseparable connection and unity of interests of the agricultural and manufacturing communities is here strongly illustrated. It is mv belief, that, it the farmer bad found a ready market for his produce, as heretofore, he would have struggled on, have met his rent, paid his tithes, and his turnpikes, as of old but when, from the pressure of the times, he encountered a slackness of demand for his produce, a reduction in prices, probably far beyond what he had contemplated as possib'e when he took his farm, and when, a- we lt,,e seen from the official returns, even the able-bodied were thrown upon their parishes for relief, thus entailing on thefartner (in many cases himself but little above the class of a farm labourer), the charge of maintaining persons but it lie worse off than himself, it is not perhaps so much to be wondered at as to be lamented, that, not considering how sncb lawless proceedings must injure instead of improving his condition, an attack was commenced on that which he bad long felt to be a daily afmoyatic-,el but which had now become a grievance amounting to a serious deduction from his dailv bread-namel", the multi- plicity of toll-bars; and his first efforts having been attended with success, that, unchecked he continued his nightly attacks, and ti3at thus the excitement spread, and was maintained throughout the land. That this multiplicity of toll-bars and stop gates in some ot the neighbouring counties not only amounted to an annoyance, but were a real grievance and hardship, bearing heavily on the small farmer, it seems impossibte to donht. Many of these bars probably owe their origin to applications of the loll-renters, perhaps complied with without much consideration by the trustees at their meetings, from a ft-eting that their tenant most be supported, and evasion of the tolls prevented: and thus have these nuisance been saddled on tbe country- nuisances to the public without bringing any commensurate advantage even to the individual for whose benefit thev were permitted, for it has frequently been the case, that not one-half of the tolls levied at these bars have ever reached the pocket of the renter, and in many cases the expenses have swallowed up even a still greater proportion of the receipts. A Board of Commissioners, of known integrity and ability, has, however, been appointed to investigate this and other subjects connected with the prevailing excitement; and I look with confidence to the establishment through their means, and the returning jood sense of the country, of our local affairs on a satisfactory basis. As regards the more prominent grievance connected with the turnpike trusts of the Principality, I shall most sincerely rejoice if the investigation should lead to an alteration in the general system, in this and other parts of the kingdom. Good roads, it must be admitted by all, are of the utmost importance to the welfare of a country, and are necessary for the comfort and convenience of all who reside therein. To the farmers they are important, as facilitating their communication wilb their best markets, economizing the cost of transit, and placing wi:hin their reach, at a more moderate rale, means of efficient manuring, a point which is admitted to be of the greatest moment. I cannot but think, however, tint an arrangement is practicable, by which the necessary funds for aecoring all these advantages might be raised, without subjecting the community to the annovance of being stopped at every outlet from the main road by gates placed on purpose to catch certain districts. Besides which, as I have before remarked, the cost of collection at these toll-bars, in proportion to the valne collected, is enormous, when compared with the rate at which other taxes are received and the country is so subdivided into districts, that there can be no unity of action. In this county, on an extent of about 45 miles on the main road from Cardiff to Swansea, there are at present six trusts (which will, however, be reduced one in number when the Wychtree Trim is consolidated with the Swansea District), thus entailing on the public the charges of as many establishments, and as the financial position of these trusts vary, so small local improvements are to be observed in different districts without any combined or continuous plan of operation. In the Swansea District we have always endeavoured to render the tax as little onerous and troublesome as possible, consistently with the preservation of the funds necessaiy for tbe expences of the trust. The farmer never has been taxed for the carriage of manure, or of lime for manure; he has in no case been called on for statute labour or for repairs of bridges agricultural produce from one farm to another, or to the homestead, passes free only half toll taken on c at. and in no case, except in that of a common carrier, is a second toll demanded in one day. Agriculture is indeed in this district favoured to the fullest extent. It should be remembered, however, that there are districts which depend entirely on agricultural traffic for support; and were this principle acted on in such cases, the parishes would inevitably be called on for tbe repairs of the roads. Apologising for the digression I have been led into, and resuming the examination of the official returns, I remark with satis- faction, that the great increase in the number of the persons receiving relief does not seem to have been accompanied by a corres- ponding increase in expenditure. The statement of expenditure for the year ending March, 1842, as compared with the previous year, shows indeed an opposite result, arising either from the greatest increase having taken place in the winter or 1841-2, and not having extended throughout the year, or from the reduced cost of the supplies famished to the Union Houses ;-most probably from a combination of these caoses. In the 681 Unions in England and Wales, the increase in the amount of the expenditure for the retieforthe poor, as compared with the year ended Lady-day, 1811, was 124,9961., equal to 3.86 per cent, increase. J /rnlT .T J Expenditure for tbe In-door maintenance and Out-door relief, during the years 1 ended Lady-day, 1841 and 1842. From these data is calculated the increase per cent;— 3 1 In 581 Unions in England and Wales, the expenditure. I In 1841, for In-relief, was £ 741,191 For Out-relief £ 2,492,036 Total £ 3 233 927 1842' •• ^772,143 2,586,080 3',358',223 Increase f 30,952 = 4.18 per cent. £ 94,044 = 3.78 per cent. f 124.196 = 3.87 per cent. In the six Counties in South Wales— In-maintenance. Out-relief. Total. In 1841 £8,086 £ 105 Q3'i £113,122 1842 8,334 108,338 116^672 Increase £ 248 = 3.06 per cent. £ 3,302 = 3.14 per cent. £ 3^550 = 3.14 per cent. In Breconshire- In. Out. Total. £ 1,177 £ 12,952 £ H 129 1842 1,238 13,742 14,980 Increase £ 61 = 5.18 per cent. £ 700 = 6.10 per cent. t,,51 6.02 per cent. In Cardiganshire— In. Out. Total H4.}. £ 261 £ 17,526 £ 17.787 1842 358 17,327 17,685 Increase f97==37.16perct. Decrease, £ 259 = 1 49perct. Decrease,fl02= -58percent. In Carmarthenshire- In. Out. Total. 1841 £ 2,041 £25,594 £ 27,635 1842 2,050 20,001 28.054 Increase f9=-44 per cent. £410 = 1.60 per cent. £419 = 1.52 per cent. In Glamorganshire— In. Out. Total 1841 f2,656 £:!6.581 £ 29 237 1842 2,901 29,307 32,2G8 Increase t245 = 9.22 per cent. £ 2,786 = 10.48 per cent. £ 3,031 = 10.37 per cent. In Pembrokeshire- In. Out. Told, 1841 ft.472 £ 16,566 £ 18.038 1842 1,262 16,123 17,385 Decrease £ 210 = 16 64 per cent. £ 443 = 2.75 per cent. £ 653 = 3.76 per cent. In Radnorshire— In. Out. Total Jjj« £ 479 £ 5 817 £ 6,296 1842 525 5,775 6,300 Increase f46 = 9.60 per cent. Decrease f42 = 73 per cent. Increase £ 4 = 06 per cent. It appears from the printed Quarterly Abstracts of the Swansea Union, that there was a decrease in the amount expended in the year ended Lady-day, 1842, as compared with 1841, of 42/. for in.maintenance, equal to 4.08 per ccnr and an increase in the amount paid for out-relief of 149/ or 3.07 per cent., making an increase in the expenditure for in and out-door relief, of 107< or 1.80 per cent. The expenditure in the Gower district of the Union was nearly the same in the year 1842 as in the previous year, there having been only a trifling diminution in the amount of out-door relief. It may afford some satisfaction to the Ratepayers of South Wales to know that, notwithstanding the increased numbers admitted into the Union-houses, shown bv the Returns for the March Quarter, 1842, as compared with the corresponding Quarter of 1841, thatlhe proportion relieved in the House is infini.ctv I)elo%v that of the average of Englaml and Wales. In the 581 Unions before referred to, i, appears that the total number relieve-! «as 1,189,232, and of this number 184 705 or 15 53 per ctnt. received in-door relief. In Ihe Unions in Sooth Wales, the nnmbe, relieved was 41,672, and of these, 2.649, or 6 35 per cent only, were inmates of the Union-house; so that in the Unions in South Vales, in the aggregate, nearly 94 persons in every 100, who receive assistance, have out-door relief; whilst in England and V. ales, the proportion is only 85 in each 100. lotrii number ot T Persons relieved. In-door. In Breconshire 4 982 495 = 9.93 per cent. Cardiganshire (5>41l 183 2 g51 Cardiganshire fi,41L 183 285 Carmarthenshire 9,7(55 j l5(i n M Glamorganshire 12 443 6<>4 5 33 Pembrokeshire 5 597 4,r) 7 43 Radnorshire 2.47:1 ,5 5 In (be Swansea Union, or persons entered on the Hooks as having been relieved in the March Quarter, 1842, 197, or just 10 per cent., were relieved in the Floose. This proportion, so much beyond the aggregate of the Unions in the county, may he accounted for by the fact, that nearly halt the number is composed of children under l(i\ears of age, bein^ orphans and illegitimates, for whom there are good schools )n the House.. In the Gower District of the Union, the proportion in the House was only 11 out of 258 relieved, or 4 25 per cent.; thus makirg the number relieved out of doors to be 951 in every 100. ) Another test which is, I consider, satisfactory to South Wales, is that the proportion of the whole population receiving relief is small as compared with other parts of the kingdom. In the 581 Unions in England and Wales, the proportion appears to have been 13,233,289 population, 1,189,232 persons relieved, or 9 per cent In South Wales (taking the Lady-day Quarter of 1842), on a population of 517,097, 41,672 persons were relieved, or 8.06 per cent. r Taking the different counties in South Wales- # Population. Jtmnoerot persons relieved Breconshire. 55,399 4 982 = 8.99 per cent. Cardiganshire 75.136 6 411 8.53 Carmarthenshire 110,404 9,768 8.84 Glamorganshire 178,041 12,443 6.i;9 Pembrokeshire 78,563 5,597 7.12 RadnorauirH iti zz* « I- •• •• •• The Swansea Union contains a population of 38.049, by the Census of 1841. 12,468 being comprised in the Swansea Hundred 16,787 in Ihe town of Swansea; and 9,394 in the parish of LUnzavelach. The proportion of persons relieved in this Union was about 5 per cent. on the population, and about 4 per oent. in the Gower District being 258 on a population of 6,493 souls. t f In the Appendix to the Nintb Poor-Law Report, from which these statements are extracted, is a comparative statement of the expenditure for the relief of the poor, in the jear ending 25th March, 1842, with the year 1834, from which I have extracted the following particulars Amount expended for the relief of the poor— Increase or decrease in 1842, as «. 183 4 1842. compared with 1834. In England and Wales £ 6,317,254 £ 4,911,498 Decrease £ 1,405 756 = i2 per cent. South Wales. 150.325 139,434.. Decrease 10,891 7.24 Brecon. 18,974 16.6¡j8. 2286 12 Cardigan 18,6i5.. 18.412. 213 1 Carmarthen 33 755 00 33.856.0 Increase 101 Glamorgan 40,306 37,008 Decrease 3,298 8 Pembroke 25,593 23,404 „ 2 189 9 Radnor. 13.072 10.066 3,006 23 Amoont expended in law charges, during the years ending 25th March, 1834, and 1842:- 1834. 1842. Decrease. In England and Wales £ 258,004 £ 68,051 £ 190,553 = 74 per cent. South Wales 7,134 i 548 5 58Q 7g 30 Brecon 737.. 145.. 592 80 Cardigan 688 M9.. 339 49 Carmarthen 1,850 301 1,549 84 Glamorgan 1,939.. 431.. 1,508 78 Pembroke 1,444 189 1.255 87 Radnor. 476.. 133 343 72 Expended for purposes other than the relief of the poor, during the years ending 25th March 1835 and 1842. 1835. 1842. Decrease. In England and Wale* £ 778,959 £ 318,092 £ 460,867 = 59 per cent. South Wales 13,286 5,194 7,372 55 56 Brecon 1,639 823 816 50 Cardigan 1,90s 791 1H4 58 Carmarthen 2,594 1.405 JJ89 46 Glamorgan 4.228 1,872 2,356 56 Pembroke. 2.327 871 1,456 63 Radnor 593 152 441 74 Total expenditure for the relirf of the poor, law charges, and other purpose« (exclusive of coanty rates, payments uuder the registration, parochial assessment, vaccination, and census acts), during the years ending 25th March,1834 and 1842. Decrease in 1842, 1834. 1842. as compared with I 1834. In England and Wales „ £ 7,354,817 f 5,297,641 f 2,057,176 = 28 per cent. South Wales 170,745 146.896 23,849 13.97 Brecon 21.350 17,656 3 694 17 Cardigan 21.218 19,552 1*666 8 Carmarthen 38,199 35,562 2637 7 Glamorgan 46,473 39,311 7J62 15 Pembroke 29,364 24,164 4.900 17 Radnor 00 14,141 10,351 3790 27 Rates of expenditure to the population for the relief of the poor only Popnlation. Expenditure Rale p„„„t.«;„- Expenditure Rate Decrease 1831. for relief of per Pi^?{ for relief of per »n the rate poor only. Head. poor only. Head. per Head. In England and Wales £ 7,036,969 = io 2 15,911,725 £ 4,911,498 = 6 2 4 0 South Wales 445,971 156,219 7 0 515,067 139.434 5 5 1 7 Brecon 19,732 8 3 53,295 16,688 6 3 2 0 Cardigan 19,157 5 11 68,380 18 412 5 0 6 South Wales 445,971 156.219 7 0 515,067 139.434 5 5 1 7 Brecon 41,763 19,732 8 3 53,295 16,688 6 3 2 0 Cardigan 64,180 19,157 5 11 68,380 18 412 5 5 06 Carmarthen {"740 35,283 7 106,482 33,856 6 4 0 8 Glamorgan 42,9<)3 6 9 173,402 37.008 4 3 2 6 Pembroke 81,425 25,089 6 2 88,262 23,404 5 4 0 10 Radnor i4,65l 14,055 11 5 25.186 10 066 8 0 35 Radnor 24,651 14,055 11 5 25.186 10 066 8 0 35 If would seem from these comparative statements that there has been a considerable reduction in expenditure since 1834, when the old poor-law was in operation and it is also worthv of remark, that the decrease does not appear to have been so great in South Wales as in the other districts of the kingdom, which, as Ihe expenditure in South Wales is within Ihe average, proves, I consider, that mismanagement and mal-appropriation cannot have prevailed in those disiricts to the extent whicb it undoubtedly did in many of the English counties. The dati I have here laid before you, and the Parliamentary documents I have referred to, afford matter from which various other conclusions may be drawn I do not, however, propose to pursue the subject further in the present communication. The inferences which luese daii have chiefly impressed on my mind, and to which I would particularly request vour consi- deration, are— J 1st. That ihe increase in the poor-rates may be attributed to other causes than the New Poor-law. 2dly. That South Wales has been particularly affected by these causes, owing lo so large a pioportion of its population being dependant for employment and support, and of its agricultural produce for consumption and sale, upon Ibe prosperity of its manufacturing districts, from which I draw a third inference, namely— That the interests of Agriculture and Commerce are identified, and that the one cannot prosper whilst the other is depressed. I remain, your obedient Servant, Singleton, NOT. 13, 1843. J. H. VIVIAN.




--.---High Water in Swansea…