BUSINESS ADDRESSES. 1, QUANTITY r- 0 1w Ipswich may be described as the birthplace of Chemical Manures JOSEPH FISON & Co., IPSWICH, MANUFACTURERS OF SULPHURIC ACID AND CHEMICAL MANURES. (One of the Oldest Firms in the Trade.) TY IPSWICH, BRAMFORD, PLYMOUTH, POOLE, BIDEFORD, SWANSEA, AND HULL. A Pamphlet withrfull particulars of these celebrated Manures may be obtained of any of the Agents of the Firm, or (post free) from the Head Offices. Messrs. JOSEPH FISON & Co., having established & Depot at Swansea, are now prepaied to deliver their Manures, carriage paid, at any Railway Station in South Wales and the neighbouring counties. The Corn Manures are designed especially for thejproduction of fine quality combined with a large yield, in which respect they excel other well known fertilisers, and samples of corn grown with these manures have fetched the highest market prices in past, seasons. The Root Manures are designed, not only to give the young plants a good start, but to support them through every stage of their growth. Attention is particularly drawn to these points as some manures are only partial in their action, and, though forcing at first, fail to bring the crops to perfection. Purchasers are requested to give their orders to the nearest Agent, er, if there be no Agent in the neighbourhood, they can be supplied direct from the Firm at list prices. Messrs. Joseph Fison & Co. are prepared to appoint direct Agents at places in which they are not at present represented, and gentlemen of position and responsibility, who may be disposed to undertake such agencies, are requested to apply by letter to the Head Offices. A few districts only now remain unoccupied, and early application for agencies in such districts is particularly requested. Reference to a Bank or a Wholesale Firm of good standing is expected before opening an account. HEAD OFFICES: EASTERN UNION MILLS, IPSWICH. "pm THE ABERYSTWYTH BURIAL BOARD. STATEMENT of ACCOUNT, showing the RECEIPTS and DISBURSEMENTS ef the Burial Board for ks the Town and Liberties of Aberystwyth, from the 1st September, 1877, to the 31st August, 1878, both inclusive. RECEIPTS. DR. 2 s. d. 1877-September 1st. To Balance in the Treasurer's hands 92 15 0 1878—August 31st. Graves Amount received from purchasers of grave spaces in Classes 1 and 2. 117 0 0 Ditto for burials in Class 3 812 6 Sexton's fees for digging graves in Classes 1, 2, and 3 34 15 0 Pansh of Aberystwyth towards repayment of loans and interest 226 7 1 Amount received for hay and grass grown in the Cemetery, and for trees sold 15 10 0 £ 494 19 7 LIABILITIES. M The Public Works Loan Commissioners balance unpaid of the 21,800 loan 180 0 0 Ditto of the JE600 loan 520 0 0 „ Mr. John Evans, balance unpaid of his loan 900 0 0 Mr. Evan James, Cemetery keeper, two weeks' wages 2 0 0 £1,602 0 0 Liabilities on the 31st August, 1877 .1,826 0 0 1878-August 31st. Decrease as compared with liabilities on the 31st August, 1877 224 0 0 DISBURSEMENTS. CR. 1878-August 31st. £ s. d. £ s. d. By salaries: the Clerk, three half year's salary, due 25th August, 1878 30 0 0 Evan James, Cemetery keeper, 57 weeks' wages 57 0 0 87 0 0 „ Advertising, printing, and stationery 7 16 10 Repayment of loans :— „ The Public Works Loan Com- missioners, 18th annual instal- ment of the £1,800 loan 90 0 0 Ditto one year's interest thereon 10 16 0 Ditto, second annual instalment of the 2600loan 20 0 0 Ditto, one year's interest thereon 27 0 0 Mr. John Evans, on account of his loan 100 0 0 Ditto, one year's interest thereon 48 6 1 —————— 296 2 1 Labourers, for assisting Ceme- tery keeper in digging graves 7 9-3 Miscellaneous Edward Thomas, smith 0 17 3 The Overseers of Issayndre—rates on Cemetery 5 17 2 Mr. F. R. Roberts, for tithes 214 0 Mr. John Ellis, ironmonger 0 11 9 Mr. Thomas Hugh Jones, painter 711 0 Mr. M. H. Davis, ironmonger. 1 12 2 The Collectors of income tax 0 15 0 Mr. David Howell, draper 0 2 9 Mr. Edward Edwards, carrier 0 16 3 Mr. A. J. Hughes, clerk, for postages, receipts, &c. 0 10 0 21 7 4 Balance of petty cash in hand 2 3 3 1877-August 31st. Balance due to petty cash in last account 1 6 5 j3423 5 2 1878-August 31st. „ Balance in Treasurer's hands 71 14 5 £494 19 7 1879-February 1st.—We certify this to be a true account. EDWARD P. WYNNE,) A EDW. HAMER, f Auditors. The Accounts of the Burial Board for the Parish of Aberystwyth will be produced at a Vestry of the inhabitants of the town and liberties of Aberystwyth, which will be held at St. Michael's Church on the 21st of February instant. February 1st. 1879. A. J. HUGHES. Clerk. BUSINESS ADDRESSES. FOR YOU TO READ! At the request of numerous customers, I have decided (along with my Ironmongery Business) to keep a TINMAN WORKING ON THE PREMISES. Having all the materials in stock, I shall be able to do all kinds of REPAIRING, such as Soldering Ash pans, Lamps, Brass and Zinc Door-steps, &c., and NEW WORK, at the most reasonable charges and on the shortest notice. DAVID ELLIS, IRONMONGER (Opposite the Police Station), ABERYSTWYTH. ELIJAH FINCH, TAILOR, No. 4, CAMBRIAN PLACE, ABERYSTWYTH. Gentlemen's own Materials made up.—Repairs, Scouring, and Cleaning done on the shortest notice. I I BUY YOUR BOOTS FROM THE MANUFACTURERS. R. & J. DICK, BEING one of the LARGEST MANUFAC .D TURERS of BOOTS & SHOES In the World, the Public may Depend, when purchasing their Goods, that they receive the BEST VALUE THEY POSSIBLY CAN HAVE FOR THEIR MONEY. All their Goods warranted, and any Boots not wearin a reasonable time will be repaired free of charge. BRANCH ESTABLISHMENTS IN ALMOST EVERY TOWN IN THE UNITED KINGDOM. nous-GLASGOW AND BIRMINGHAM. WAmmousits-LONDON AND MANCHESTER. NOTE THE ADDRESS IN THIS DISTRICT:- 16, GREAT DARKGATE-STREET, ABERYSTWYTH; MAENGWYN-STREET, MACHYNLLETH HIGH-STREET, LAMPETER; VICTORIA BUILDINGS, DOLGELLEY. CHURCH-STREET, BARMOUTH; When you ask for Reckitt's Paris Blue I See that you get it, as bad qualities are often substituted. p BUSINESS ADDRESSES. E. JONES, (Late MORRIS JONES) COACHBUILDER Moor Street, Aberystwyth. CARRIAGES OF EVERY DESCRIPTION MADE TO ORDER Repairs executed by First-class Workmen. BINDING OF ALL KINDS CHEAPLY AND EXPEDITIOUSLY EXECUTED. ORDERS RECEIVED BY J. GIBSON, 3, QUEEN'S-ROAD, ABERYSTWYTH MUSIC WAREHOUSE, TERRACE ROAD, ABERYSTWYTH. PIANOFORTES AND HARMONIUMS FOR SALE OR HIRE. W. K. WHEATLEY & SONS HAVE now on View (inspection invited) the Paris -L-L Exhibition Model American Organ, by Mason and Hamlin, 13 stops, knee swells, .Price 34 guineas. Hillier's New Model American Organ, nine stops and knee swell 28 guineas, The New Moriel Walnut and Gold Piano, seven octaves, ivory keys, truss legs, by Dodson, from Collard and Collard's 35 guineas Walnut Cottage Piano, 7 octaves, by Dodson, from Collard and Collard s 22 guineas. A Stock of Pianos by Brinsmead, Kirkman, Metzler, and other makers, procured if not in stock, at London prices; Alexandre's Harmoniums, and Wheatley and Sons' Organ Harmoniums, from 5 guineas. For Price, Excellence of Manufacture and Quality of Tone Unequalled. INSTRUMENTS MAY BE HAD ON THE HIRE AND PURCHASE SYSTEM OF MONTHLY PAYMENTS. A Large Stock of Ocarinas from Is. 9d.; Concertinas, 3s.; banjos, 5s.; violins, 4s. 6d.; cornets, 25s.; and Musical Instrument Strings and Fittings of every description. New and Popular Music frem 3d. a copy; also the popular Copyright Music. Orders for Pianoforte and Harmonium Tuning, within thirty miles of Aberystwyth, will receive the attention of W. R. WHEATLEY. Teacher and Tuner from Messrs. John Brinsmead and Sons, London. Testimonials for Tuning from Brinley Richards, Esq., and other eminent musicians. T. & W. BUBB, PAINTERS, PLUMBERS, GLAZIERS, GAS- FITTERS, HOUSE DECORATORS, PAPER HANGERS, & GENERAL HOUSE FURNISHERS, Terrace-Road, Aberystwyth, and Newtown. Agent for Broner's BURNERS, and Wright's GAS STOVES. ESTIMATES FOR WORK ON APPLICATION. Agents for Atkins & Co.'s Patent CHARCOAL BLOCK WATER FILTERS. GADD'S PATENT REVERSIBLE HANDLE PERAMBULATORS. ATHS AND PERAMBULATORS ON H IRE. DOLGELLEY. JAMES B. MEE, FISHMONGER, GAME DEAJLER, .FRUITERER, &c., &c. Bridge End House, Dolgelley. Constant Supplies of various kinds of fresh Fish, Game, &c. according to Season. ORDERS PROMPTLY ATTENDED TO, And anything not on hand procured on the shortest notice. Ice always on hand, and supplied by the pound and Upwards. tST Note the Address Bridge End House, Dolgelley. MR. CROSSLEY, Organist of the Parish:Chtirch, Dolgelley, RECEIVES PUPILS. Organ, Pianoforte, Harmonium, Singing, and Harmony. Bank Buildings, Dolgelley. Never Use WEBSTER'S WRITING INKS AND LIQUID GUMS. "MORRISON'S" OLD MAKE. BLUE-BLACK WRITING FLUID, the best made. BLACK, RED, BLUE and other INKS. ASKEW ROBERTS, WOODALL & VENABLES, OSWESTRY, and all Respectable Stationers. I Unless you Want the Best. BUSINESS ADDRESSES, V"V"V'V'V"'V. "NATIONAL" BOOT WAREHOUSE, 29, GREAT DARKGATE-STREET, ABERYSTWYTH. STEAD & CO., THE LARGEST MANUFACTURERS OF BOOTS AND SHOES IN THE WORLD, HAVE OPENED THE PREMISES AS ABOVE WITH THE LARGEST AND BEST STOCK OF BOOTS AND SHOES I EVER SEEN IN ABERYSTWYTH STEAD & Co., THE NATIONAL BOOT WAREHOUSE, 29, GREAT DARKGATE-ST., ALL GOODS THEIR OWN MANUFACTURE. Every Pair Warranted All Leather. NO GUTTA PERCHA USED t. MAN UFACTORJES— LEI CESTER, LEEDS, NORTHAMPTON, DAVENTRY, AND OAKHAM. WHOLESALE PRICES FOR CASH ONLY. f NOTE THE ADDRESS- NATIONAL BOOT WAREHOUSE, 1 29, [GREAT DARKGATE-ST., ABERYSTWYTH s PECTACLES, SPECTACLES. C. B. RADCLIFFE, Esq.,IM.D., 25, Cavendish Square, London, Consulting Physician to the Westminster Hospital, writes :—" No Spectacles could possibly suit better than HENRY LAURANCES." EDWARD KNOCKER, Esq., J.P., Dover, late Mayor of Dover, writes:—"My sight has improved since using HENRY LAURANCE'S SPECTACLES." JOHN DEATH, Esq., J.P., Cambridge, late Mayor of Cambridge, writes :—" Mrs. Death's sight has been much strengthened by the use of HENRY LAURANCE'S SPECTACLES." T. SMITH ROWE, Esq., M.D., Margate, Senior Surgeon to the Royal Sea Bathing Infirmary, Margate, writes:—"I regret that I did not use HENRY LAU- RANCE'S SPECTACLES long since." HENRY LAURANCE'S SPECTACLES Are the CLEAREST, COOLEST, and BEST for the Sight. Thousands have been benefited by their use when all other Spectacles have failed. A list of the Testimonials can be had from the agent, from whom these Spectacles can only be obtained. All Spectacles stamped H.L. AGENT FOR ABERYSTWYTH- A. MAJOR, JEWELLER AND OPTICIAN, 38, PIER STREET. AGENT FOR MACHYNLLETH— E. REES, CHEMIST, MEDICAL HALL. LITHOFRACTEUR. THE Safest and most Powerful Explosive in use. JL Patented and Manufactured by Messrs. Krebs Bros. and Co., of London and Cologne on Rhine, who have ap- pointed Messrs. VIVIAN & CO., Of Portmadoc, Carnarvonshire, To represent them in the Principality. I LITHOFRACTEUR Will rend more rock than any other Explosive, Is equally powerful whether used in wel or dry ground, Will fill any size or shape of borehole, Has no noxious fumes, Has never caused an accident, Is stronger, safer, and healthier to use than any other Explosive. For Terms apply to VIVIAN & Co., Portmadoc, who are also prepared to supply Portable and Fixed Steam Engines for Winding, Pumning, and General Purposes Rock Drills and Com- pressors, by the best makers Haggie's Steel and Iron Wire Ropes Cast Steel Wheels; Best Drill and Jumper Steel General Mining and Quarry Plant, &c., &c. Agents for Whittle's Orion Gas Oil Lamps, equal in light to gas; no chimney, wick, or trimming. TO COAL MERCHANTS. CELEBRATED EAGLE COAL! HOT. FREE. CLEAN. DURABLE. To be had only from- J. H. NICHOLS, Sandfield House, Newton-le-Willows, LANCASHIRE. AN INDIAN CARPET FOR 10/6. I SMALLER SIZES, 8s. 9d. A LARGE STOCK OF THESE CARPETS, 6 FT. BY 3 FT., AT THE ABOVE PRICE. E. & J. JONES, UPHOLSTERERS, OSWESTRY. CRETONNES. NEW DESIGNS FOR CURTAINS AND COVERS, 6d., 7d., 8d. TO 1/. PER YARD. PATTERNS SENT ON APPLICATION TO E. & J. JONES, UPHOLSTERERS, OSWESTRY. BRUSSELS CARPETS. REDUCTION IN PRICE 2/11 TO 3/9 PER YARD. PATTERNS SENT ON APPLICATION TO E. & J. JONES, UPHOLSTERERS, OSWESTRY. EDITION, 1879. GOSSIPING GUIDE TO WALES. 1/6 POPULAR EDITION. Six Maps. 176 pp., 1/8 by post. 2/6 HALF-CROWN EDITION, Cloth. Six Maps, Pano rama of Snowdon (3ft long, and containing 150 points seen from the summit). Routes, &c. 182 pp. 2/9 by Post. 5/- CROWN EDITION, Cloth filt, superior paper, nowdon Panorama, 12 Maps, Routes and Chap- ters on Geology and the Botany of Bar-nouth and Snowdonia. 246 pp. 5/5 by post. ADVERTISEMENTS FOR THE 1879 EDITION Are now received by the Publishers, WOODALL & VENABLES, OSWESTRY, Who Will send terms on ap- plication. Selected Notices of these and Previous Editions:- Standard.—"By far the most amusing Guide we have seen." Spectator.—" Full of interesting and intelligent gossip." Figaro. Wonderfully cheap, remarkably accurate." Public Opinion.—" Full of in- formation of a very useful kind." Fun.—" Gladsome and Gossip- ing Era.—"An invaluable Guide not only amusing, but in- structive." Notes and Queries. An in- teresting book as well as trustworthy Guide." Leisure Ilour. Chatty and amusing as well as useful." The Queen. A good idea we'l carried out." Welshman. This Prince of Guides." Manchester Courier.—" A per- vading humour and fund of anecdote. L,iverpoot Mercury -"An agree- able companion." Manchester Examiner.—" One of the most accurate and L complete text-books." Liverpool Courier. Adds pleasure to romantic spots." It supplies all things aeed- It supplies all things need- ful to a stranger." Birmingham Gazette.—"There is hardly anything an ex- cursionist would care to know that cannot be found in Mr. Askew Roberts's book." Chester Chronicle.—" As a whole it may be confidently said that the Gossiping Guide is, beyond comparison, the best tourist's handbook to Wales yet published (1877)," to Wales yet published (1877)," NOW READY. History of the Gwydir Family TT7ITH numerous valuable notes from the Brogyntyn, Vlf Wynnstay, and Peniarth MSS., added by W. W. £ • WYNKK, Esq., of Peniarth, and never before published. Printed in quarto, on thick hand-made paper, old-faced type. Illustrated with portraits of Sir John and Sir Richard Wynne, Views of Gwydir in 1684 and 1720; of Dolwyddelan Castle in 1742, and Llanrwst Bridge in 1781. A copy sent post free to any address in Great Britain or America on receipt of Twenty-one Shillings, by WOODALL and VENABLES, Publishers, Oswestry. From the Daily Nevrn, Jan. 22nd, 1879. The thanks of antiquaries and historical students are due to Mr. Askew Roberts, of Oswestry, for his handsome reprint, with many valuable additions (Oswestry: Woodall and Venables), of the old memoir of the Gwydir Family, written by Sir John Wynne in the time of James II., and first published in 1770. This narrative comprises the only knewn account of the state of society in North Wales in the fifteenth and the earlier part of the sixteenth centuries and its little incidental sketches of the wild, lawless condition of the country, and of the feuds of the different families who in certain districts were always contending for mastery, are curiously significant. The volume is accompanied by pedigrees, and by several interesting old portraits and views reproduced in facsimile. From the Chester Chronicle, Feb. 1. The enterprising proprietors of the Oswestry Advertizer have ust published, in a handsomely-bound volume, a history of the Gwydir family. The work, which bears every trace of careful compilation, is dedicated as follows:—'To the Right Hon. Clementina Elizabeth (in her own right) Baroness Willoughby de Eresby, the representative of the old Gwydir stock, and the owner of the estate, the fourteenth who has borne that ancient barony, this edition of the History of the Gwydir Family is, by permission, respectfully dedicated'' The editor—the author of the popular Gossipin? Guide to Wales,' — acknowledges with gratitude that this edition of the Gwydir history,—the fourth, the first having been published as early as 1770-owes its existence to the labours of W. W. E. Wynne, Esq., of Peniarth, who placed his copy' at the disposal of Mr. Askew Roberts, who in turn was assisted by the Rev. Canon Williams of Rhydycroesau. No library which assumes to contain a complete collection of English and Welsh biographical literature oueht to be without this valuable history of the Gwydir family." IMPORTANT TO SEED MERCHArlS ANDJ FARMERS. FOR SALE, 200 QUARTERS BLACK OATS, J' specially adapted for Seed.—For particulars apply "to Mr. ROBERT SHIEL, Bailiff, Hafod-y-Bryn Home Farm, Llanbedr, R.S.O., Merionethshire. REFORMED EPISCOPAL CHURCH.—An Official Statement of its principles and objects, with hints as to commencing Evangelical Church Services, may be obtained by forwarding a Penny Stamp to the Rev. R. HUNSLEY TAYLOR, 8, Berriew-street, Welshpool. i NOW READY. FREEMASONS' KALENDAR, FOR NORTH WALES AND SHROPSHIRE. PRICE, ONE SHILLING. By Post Is. Id. I PUBLISHED BY WOODALL AND VENABLES, OSWESTRY. 1- ■ ■■■ ■' ■ ———— ■■ .i ■ ■ ■ —
RELIGION IN WALES. (No. 7.) THE BEGINNINGS OF DISSENT. THE narrowness of Nonconformity in Wales has been the subject of so much speaking and writing during the past eighty or ninety years, that a firm belief in its existence has taken deep rout and grown in the minds of people who never asked themselves on what foundation the belief rests. The comparative broadness and liberality of the Church of England, again, have been frequently taken for granted in the same un- questioning spirit. Without incurring a charge a partiality, and notwithstanding the assumed narrowness of Nonconformity, it may be confidently asserted that Nonconformity embraces a wider range of views, more varied forms of worship, and greater liberty of action than are to be fouud in the Church of England. Noncon- formity may claim all that the Church can claim, and in addition, undoubtedly possesses much that the Church in its narrowness has from time to time discarded. Compared with single sects the Church may be broad, but it is difficult to ,say in what particular the Church of England is broader or more liberal than Independents or other sects. The great cause of weakness in the Church of England has been and still is want of liberty of action. The Proclamation of CHARLES the First which required the clergy to publish in their churches the lawful sports to be indulged in after evening prayers on Sundays, and on holy days was the means of driving out some of the better sort of ministers who refused to read the proclamation. Perhaps a good deal of the fierce opposition that still exists in Wales to many kinds of games may be traced to this attempt to force them upon the Church. PHILLIPS'S Wales says that the first con- gregations of Nonconformists were gathered together in Wrexham in 1635, in Llan- brynmair in 1635, and in Llanfaches in 1639. REES, in his History of Nonconformity, states that the congregation at Llanfaches in 1639 was the first in Wales. Additions were made to the number of ejected clergymen from time to time until 1662, when the Act of Uni- formity was passed. Clergymen were then driven from their benefices in every Welsh county, except Anglesey, and consequently Nonconformity was greatly strengthened, especially in the South. Persecutions and difficulties of all kinds beset earnest teachers of religion, who refused to con- form, until the Act of Toleration was passed in 1689, when the harassed Nonconformists ob- tained peace, except from the people, who only slowly learnt that persecution was illegal, and that sticks and stones were no longer allowable arguments. In 1735, about the time when WESLEY and WHITFIELD were excluded in Eng- land, ROWLANDS and others in Wales grossly scandalized the Established Church by excess of religious zeal and began to lay the foundations of Calvinistic Methodism. This revival, what- ever were its ultimate forms and consequences, originated in the Church of England, and al- though the more active workers ultimately became Dissenters, the revival worked changes within the Church, the effects of which are not exhausted to this day. In 1785 THOMAS CHARLES, finding the doors of the Church closed against him, because he persisted in teaching the ignorant within the precincts of the Church, threw in his lot with the Calvinistic Methodists in North Wales. Calvinistic Methodism is so great a result of the religious revival of 1735 that other results of considerable importance are apt to be overlooked. The fresh energy infused into Nonconformist Churches already existing in South Wales, and the gradual removal of the more glaring evils from the Established Church, wore effects which tended in no small degree to elevate and purify the religious life of the people. Tne rigidity and narrrowness of the Church of England have been disastrous in the past, and still tend to drive from her fold those who would gladly make her more the Church of the people than she now is. There ought to have been room in the Established Church for a WHITFIELD, a WESLEY, a ROWLANDS, and a CHARLES, just as there ought to be room now for the exercise of exceptional zeal, activity, and power. When men desire to devote themselves to a life of religious effort, or are anxious to assist in the work of spreading religious knowledge, it is not, unfortunately, to the Church they look, but to Nonconformists. The Church of England has yet much to do in providing outlets for her own e^iritual energy, ond in ordering her rubrics so that zealous members can find congenial spheres of work within her own pale. Still more will have to be done before Nonconformists can be won back to the Church their forefathers left so sorrowfully and reluctantly. The two thousand clergymen ejected in 1662 would gladly have been saved from Non- conformity if by any means they could have been so saved without the sacrifice of conscience. The Wesleyans contended for years that they had never left the Church, and their contention was so far allowed that even yet rumours are- occasionally heard that they are about to return to the Church of England. Welsh Wesleyans have been censured by speakers and writers for the apathy and backwardness they have manifested when called upon to co-operate with other Nonconformists in their efforts to secure those rights which the Legislature has from time to time granted them." This re- luctance to do or say anything that could be con- strued into opposition against t Ie Church ought never to have been treated as an offence, seeing that it arose from a deeply-rooted notion that they were still members of the Establishment aad would one day be again recognized. The probability that the Wesleyans will be re- admitted to the Church grows less every year, whilst the bond between them and other sections of Nonconformists becomes closer and stronger. The eager desire among the clergymen who first established Calvinistic Methodism to be con- sidered faithful members of the Church of Eng- land is strongly imprinted on all that was done from 1735 until the final separation in 1811, and is not less clearly proved by all that was left un- done. A name was not taken, chapels were not called chapels, and only few ministers were ap- pointed. When at last it was decided t) abandon the hope of being recognized by the Church, and a separate ministry was ordained to take charge of the rapidly multiplying con- gregations, six of the twelve clergymen who had hitherto been connected with the offshoot, returned to the Establishment. The final separation was forced on by the newly-gathered congregations who had previously taken little interest in religion, and were not as a rule deeply attached to any particular system. The Clergy.nen of the Church of England, some of whom held livings, and some of whom had been deprived of their benefices, saw the repeated out- breaks of religious life in Wales. When alive to the sacred nature of their calling they strove with all their might to prevent divisions, but were powerless. They had to contend
*Rees's" History of Nonconformity in Wales." I
with a political system that did not provide for unusual manifestations of religious life, and one that could not readily adapt itself to the changing conditions and requirements of the times, tven when it was admitted that the conditions and requirements called for change. The Chu ch lost its opportunity, and Dissent grew apace. The important part the Church of England has played in the evangelization of Wales is not al- ways admitted. That there werj great evils in the Church, and that drunken clergymen was one of those evils, is true, but there were also from time to time good men who kept alive the spirit of religion even when the night was darkest. The system was almost as bad as bad could be, but at intervals during the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries, men with the love of God in their heart, arose and did all that men could do to teach their countrymen the way to higher life. The corruption of the Church has been dwelt upon by many writers, and that cor- ruption was great, but nevertheless it is true that the light of religion never died utterly away, al- though it guttered very low in the socket. From 1660 to 1785 it cannot be said that Non- conformity was a vigorous growth in Wales. The evidence tends to show that, notwithstanding occasional recruits from the Church of England, progress was not rapid up to the year 1745. In different parts of South Wales there were con- gregations of Independents, Baptists, and Quakers struggling against great and numerous difficulties, not always successfully. For many years before the religious revival in 1735 these congregations languished, partly because of the poverty of the peopla, and partly because there were no means of keeping up the supply of ministers. Before the year 1735 the history of religion in Wales is the history of a degraded Established Church lying in a state of apathy, but still at times giving signs of hopeful life and of indi- viduals who were either driven from her com- munion or who left it to fight single-handed against ignorance, irreligion, and vice. The difficulties to be overcome were not difficulties that arose out of the greater depravity of the people compared with the English, so much as from the neglected state of the country, the scattered population, the absence of roads, the scarcity of literature in the Welsh language, and perhaps more than all, from the tendency of the best educated Welshmen to find preferment in England. How the progress of Wales has been hindered by the most cultivated and gifted of her sons settling in England and elsewhere is scarcely ever recognized as it deserves to be. This is a drawback that exists at the present time. Wales, even yet, has little to offer the scholar, the man of genius, and the enterprizing business man, to entice them to make the Principality their home. A hundred and fifty years ago there was much less to offer. It is remarkable how little is said about the Church of Rome in Wales from the time of the Reformation down to the present day. The Roman Catholic system appears to have been completely removed before the year 1600, if not long before, but traces of the old religion are yet to be found in the traditions, superstitions, and folklore of the country. Many centuries ago the Principality was a Catholic stronghold, but long before the Reformation Wales must have been greatly neglected, or there would have been more said about the errors of Rome," by the early Fathers of Nonconformity.
THE ASSISTANT OVERSEER. • There perhaps never was anything, howeve rotten, inefficient, and expensive for which some- thing favourable could not be said. Even the Assistant Overseer who, on Monday last, was virtually voted out of existence in the Aberystwyth Union, found seven guardians to vote in his favour. His willingness to call again" was pathetically pleaded on his behalf, and his readi- ness to take instalments" was urged in his favour but still in spite of these two powerful claims upon the favourable consideration of the public a period was put to his tenure of office, and in a short time he will cease to be. He will be missed greatly at the different petty sessions, where he has long been known, partly for his fugitive manner, which seems to become more marked as he gets cider, and is hunted more and more close y by ever augmenting arrears; and partly by his mysterious flexible books—the tattered Nemesis of his life which he feels with horror may any moment be his ruin. By the skin of his teeth, and through his victim, the overseer, he is saved vicariously. He has fre- quently heard the dire tones of suppressed vengeance in the husky voice of the mulcted over- seer and trembled, but time after time he escapes. His visage shows the wear and tear of always having a deficiency to make up, but he cannot mend his ways, and has, therefore, to bear as best he can the ravages of a mind ill at ease. Hejis the repository of secret ways which are upheld because of their "justice," and kept secret be- cause of their illegality. It is through him that the guardian is paid for attending the Board he it is that manipulates the assessments; and to him is due the credit of establishing a method of keeping accounts that after the most searching investigation have to be takea as correct" on his unsupported testimony. He discovered how to live and grow rich on a salary of about £8 or £10 a year, and the only thing that can be said against him is that he always keeps this precious secret to himself. Although he will soon be superseded in the Aberystwyth Union by col- lectors, it is consoling to know that the Tregaron Board stood by this ancient public servant so loyally that a proposal to get rid of him was with- drawn on Tuesday. The defenders of the Tre* garon assistant overseer pointed the finger of scorn at the Aberystwyth collector, and asked sarcastically in what way he was more desirable than the assistant overseer. If anything could possibly condemn the assistant overseer more completely than he is condemned already, it is the eloquent fact that the Aberystwyth guardians, in spite of their experience, consider their col- lector more satisfactory than assistant over- seers. What can be stronger than this ? Tregaron, it is true, has halted on the path of reform. The desire to effect a considerable saving was not even strong enough to overcome the al- most universal dread of change. Mr. R. J. DAVIES who brought the subject forward thought it ad- visable to beat a retreat, but he will doubtless come forward again, and ultimately the assistant overseer in that union will be abolished to every- body's advantage. If the Lampeter Board happens to enter into judgment with him he will have short shrift, and would do well to hold him- self in readiness for contingencies. At AJber- aeron, too, under the new and improved system he would stand a poor chance of a long day but still there is no immediate danger that he will be utterly lost sight of. He has sorely tried the patience of the Dolgelley Board, but it is only fair to suppose that in a union where the out-door pauper is so highly respected the assistant over- seer is in no great or immediate danger. Pwllheli will of course cling to him for a long time, just as it has clung to its one policeman, its cobbles, its mud, and its stinking harbour, but he is far from safe in a town that is sufficiently advanced to be in possession ot a fire engine and also to have an excellent supply of pure water. About the time when the assistant overseer is abolished at Pwllheli the CHAIRMAN of the Machynlleth Board will make a speech in his defence, and will convince the Guardians that he is the most en- lightened official in the country and the last man that can be safely done without. When he has been abolished everywhere else Machyn- lleth by making known his virtues will justify his retention, and so the assistant overseer will probably be preserved from utter extinction during the life of the present generation of ratepayers. Ultimately he must go because he is dear and in- efficient, but he "will call again" many a time over before he calls the last time,and he will "take many an instalment before the sum total is finally reached. One thing is satisfactory. Aberyst- wyth still takes the lead in poor law adminis- tration, and every advance in the path of reform makes the next step more easy to take.
DO WNIE'S 'BEQUEST. WHETHER at the first meeting of the Visiting Committee the VICAR of Aberystwyth objected, refused, or only delayed to put a resolution, is of far less importance than the fact that he did not