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___MAY 29, 1878.



NOTES. BALLOTING FOR THE MILITIA.—In 1860 the military ardour was strong all over the country, and Oswestry-as you have shewn (Nov. 17,1875)-ill common with the rest of the nation, had its volunteers. In 1846, the military ardour of the nation did not jump with the humour of the Government, who talked of a ballot for the militia, so clubs were established everywhere in order to provide funds to pay for substitutes. I have before me the following record of the meetings of a club formed in Oswestry:— At a meeting held in the British School-room on Thursday evening 29tli January, 1846, resolved as follows :— We, the undersigned, agree to form ourselves into a club for the purpose of providing substitutes for any one or more of us who shall be drawn for the militia. A deposit of ten shillings to be paid down by each member at a future meeting to be called, and such further sum sub- sequently and before the ballot as shall hereafter be agreed upon. If any member shall withdraw his name all deposits made by him shall be forfeited to the club. The number of members to be limited to' 100. All sums contributed to be paid into the North and South Wales Bank in the names of such two members as shall hereafter be agreed upon. When the ballot has taken place should any sum remain un- disposed of the same shall be equally divided between the per- sons who shall then be members of the club. The club to continue in existence till dissolved by the vote of a majority of the members present at a meeting to be called for the purpose of deciding that question. That the next meeting be held on Thursday evening next, at i-past 8 o'clock, at which time the first deposit shall^be paid and officers shall be elected. Dated the 29th January, 1846. 1 Frank Roberts 7 Thos. Minshall 2 Nath. Minshall, jun. 8 Benjamin Roberts 3 David Jameson 9 Watkin Jones 4 John Jones, hatter 10 Thomas Jones 5 Evan Hughes 11 William Davies 6 E. W. Thomas 12 William Corney 13 H. W. Jones, at Mr. Watkin Jones 14 Edward Davies, Cross-street, baker 15 Robert Williams, Messrs. Williams and Lloyd 16 John Lloyd, Ditto 17 Thomas Evans, at Messrs. Thomas and^Sons 18 Thomas Gregory, Ditto 19 Charles G. Bayley, Cross 20 Samuel Evans, Shoe Warehouse 21 Evan Arthur, tlour dealer, Cross 22 Wm. Owen, watchmaker 23 Thomas Jones, Messrs. Thomas and Son 24 Richard Jones, hatter 25 Thomas H. Ellis, at Messrs. Jones and Fisher 26 William Price, jun., stationer 27 J. J. Thomas, solicitor 28 Edward Morris, mercer 29 John Hughes, at Mr. Morris's, mercer 30 Thomas Roberts, at Mf. Lacon's 31 John Whitridge Davies, draper 32 John Morris, builder 33 John Windsor, machine maker 34 Thomas Edwards, currier 35 Edward Edwards, Ditto 36 John Davies, ironmonger 37 Rd. Evans, druggist 38 Wm. Morris, builder 39 Griffith Williams, joiner, Brook-street 40 Robt. Davies, C.G. W., Calvinistic Methodist minister 41 Jas. Vaughan, builder 42 Samuel Minshall, Messrs. Minshall & Sons 43 John Owen, Maesbury Canal Company 44 David Edwards, at Mr. Morris's, draper 45 Frederick Robinson, at Messrs. Bickerton and Saunders's 46 George Warren, solicitor, Weston At a meeting held at the British School-room, Oswestry, on Thursday, February 5th, 1846. Mr. E. W. Thomas in the chair. Resolved- That in consequence of an intimation of Mr. Sydney Herbert, Secretary at War, requesting that militia clubs should for the present suspend operations, we agree to remain together as a Society, but to deposit half-a-crown each only, instead of ten shil- lings, as the first deposit and to adjourn sine die. Received four pounds and five shillings. Proposed by Mr. Thos. Minshall, and seconded by Mr. Wind- sor, that Mr. Corney be secretary. Carried unanimously. Received the further sum of one pound seven shillings and six- pence. The thirty years that have elapsed have wrought great changes. Quite half of those whose names are attached are dead, and the rest would fear no militia-drawing in the present year of grace JARCO. QUERIES. THE MERIONETHSHIRE HILLS.-Dear old Thomas Fuller, moralising, as few better knew how, on the wickedness and hollowness of the world in which he lived, thus writes: In Merionethshire in Wales there be many mountains whose hanging tops come so close together that shepherds, sitting on several mountains, may audibly discourse one with another. And yet they must go many miles before their bodies can meet together, by the reason of the vast hollow valleys which are betwixt them. Our sovereign and the members of his Parliament at London seem very near agreed in their general and public professions both are for the Protestant religion can they draw nearer? Both are for the privileges of Parliament; can they come closer? Both are for the liberty of the subject; can they meet evener? And yet, alas there is a great gulf and vast distance betwixt them which our sins have made, and God grant that our sorrow may seasonably make it up again! What mountains of Merionethshire had old Fuller in his mind when indulging in this simile ? T. HUGHES. Chester. PEZRON'S ANTIQUITIES OF NATIONS.— The first English edition of this work, translated by D. Jones, was printed in London in 1706. In it is contained The Epistle Dedicatory to the Right Honourable Charles, Lord Halifax, Auditor of the Receipt of iier Majesty's Exchequer," which is emitted in the revised edition of 1809. In his dedication the translator, address- ing his Lordship, states,—"Your Memory will be revered by Posterity, as long as the courage of England shall bear the Impress of the late King of glorious memory, and whilst there are any remains of the public records, for the preservation and methodizing of which, nothing hath so much contributed as your Lordship's zeal and frequent inspection, whatever the rage and malice of a few turbu- lent, ungrateful and disaffected spirits may suggest to the contrary." The second edition in which the translation is much improved was printed in 1809 for M. Jones, with this addition prefixed to the title. The Rise and Fall of States and Empires." A sketch of the life of the author, not in the first edition, is added in the place of the Epistle Dedicatory. On a fly-leaf of my copy of the first edition is written a note of which the following is a transcript,—"A curious work of great value to the an- tiquary, particularly so in Celtic researches. Some of the author's remarks, nevertheless, on the different nations descended from Noah's sons must be taken with much reservation. Jacob Bryant refuted his opinion that the Western World derived its [illegible] from the Saccae and Scythians beyond Media and Mount Imaus in the upper regions of Asia, and not from Babylonia and Egypt. V. New System of Mythology, Vol. 3, 1776 (Payne)." In connection with this investigation the following points suggest themselves for inquiry: was D. Jones, the original translator, connected with the public record office; and was he an ancestor of M. Jones for whom the second edition was printed; or otherwise, were they in any way related ? The bibliographies which I have con- sulted are silent in respect to any information on these inquiries. LLALLAWG. REPLIES. AT A WELSH FUNERAL (May I, 1878).-Some years ago my mother happened to be in St. Tudno's churchyard one day during a funeral, and observed one of the funeral party putting a thick layer of green rushes and ferns over the coffin. Upon enquiry she was told by a bystander that it was to prevent the stones in the soil from breaking the coffin-lid as the grave was filled up. Know- ing your thirst for information of all kinds, she has been urging me to pass on this trifling little piece. M.F. Wolverhampton. THE CONFESSIONAL IN CHURCHES (May 8, 1878).-There were no confessional-boxes until a late date. I have never seen an example in England. One which is so called in a church in Wiltshire, I found to be simply a reading pew made up of old materials in the 17th century. There were two kinds of confession, one solemn which was made on Ash-Wednesday outside the Lent veil which was hung outside the chancel screen; the other, private, or daily, when confession was made to the parish priest; both were made in an open place, visibly, but of course not audibly. I have given the rules, law, and facts in my Sacred Archaeology, and notes to my edition of the Canons of 1603. There is sometimes a chair in the south transept of parish churches, near a window, which is supposed to have been used for the purpose of private confession. The Canon Law expressly forbids in England confession in secret, dark, or hidden places [Lyndw. lib. v., tit. 16, p. 331.] and a constitution of the Primate extended to all parts of his province, including Wales. [Ib. tit. 5, p. 297.] At Lenham there is a single armed-chair in the chancel with a lower seat on the western side. The shriving pew is mentioned in 1515 at St. Margaret's Pattens, in London. At Warwick there is a confessional with a lattice on the south side of the chair. At Shalford and Aylestone there are foliated openings in the rood screen which is other- wise plain. The usual place was a seat on the north east side of the chancel. A cell-like chamber at Hoar Abbey, Cashel, and a wall recess at Galway and Aghaboe are said to have been confessionals. On the continent Urban IV., 1263, ordered locutoria ad confessiones to be made of strong ironwork. Erasmus mentions lattices (laminae foraminosae) for the purpose. Bertram in 1781, ordered the Spanish confessionals to be placed in sight of the people. In Italy and the south of France in the 16th century, and in Nor- mandy in the following century boxes were introduced. There is a confessional of white matble in the Church of the Knights of S. John at Florenoe. MACKENZIE E. C. WALCOTT.