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CORRESPONDENCE. ....../"'..r../'\.."--",,-,,,,-,,....""''''"'


CORRESPONDENCE. .r. All letters must be written on one side of the paper, and accompanied by the name and address of the loritvr, not necessarily for publication, but as a guarantee of good faith. "You KNOW WHO."—The lines are deficient in rhyme and rhythm. Correspondents who send news in half-penny wrappers ought not to enclose private letters with their communi- cations. ABERYSTWYTH WATER.—MELINDWR SPRINGS. Si-u,-The gauging of these springs have been taken this day, and prove a yield of 508,000 gallons per 24 hours. They were guaged a week ago in the presence of the Town Surveyor, and then the yield was greater than to-day, but I account for it in this way, that the surface water came into the rivulets leading to and from the springs, but not affecting the springs. The gaugings taken now extend over a period of ten months, and the results I venture to say are highly satis- factory.—I am, &c., Jxo. E. THOMAS. Aberystwyth, August 1st, 1877. AN OLD TOY REVIVED. SIR,—There is to be seen now in some of the shop windows in Aberystwyth a very interesting and a very instructive little toy. It consists of a little hollow glass ball, capable of turning horizontally between two pivots, which are placed vertically. The ball has two arms, situated diametrically opposite to each other. The end of each arm is bent at right angles to itself, but in the direc- tion opposite to the end of the other. A little spirit lamp, when lighted and placed below the ball, about two-thirds full of water, completes the arrangement for starting. For some time the tiny globe is motionless, but presently steam is ejected from one of the arms the ball begins to move round, slowly at first, but faster and faster still as more and more steam is given off at last, whirling round and round with such velocity that the arms become in- visible, and the coloured liquid within rises, by centrifugal action, to the very top of the ball. The first feeling one experiences, on seeing the little ;-lobe whirl round with such speed, is one of pleasing astonishment, but when one is aware that this is really a model of the first steam-engine invented by man, a feeling of deep interest takes possession of one too. It was invented more than 2,000 years ago by Heron of Alexandria*, who describes it in a work on Pneumatics, written by him, entitled Spirittlia."t A careful observation soon reveals the fact that the machine turns in a direction exactly opposite to that in which the steam escapes. How is this ? Nay, why does it turn at all ? If steam were entering those arms one could readily understand it, but, on the contrary, steam is issuing from them. Sir Isaac Newton's third great law of motion tells us that action and re-action are equal and opposite. The principle of this machine is at once explained by this law. In the example before us, action signifies pressure. The pressure of the issuing steam re-acts upon the tube in an opposite direction, and with an equal force, consequently the whole machine moves in a contrary direction. If we imagine both the arms to be bent in the same direction, then, other things being equal, our little toy would be motionless, for in this case we should have a pair of equal parallel forces, acting in the same direction, at equal dis- tances from the same axis. The only practical result of this would be friction on the pivots. In the other case we clearly have a couple, or a pair of equal and opposite parallel forces the result of such an arrangement of the forces must be motion, there being an axis about which the machine can turn. Lest this explanation be not explicit enough, I will endeavour to give a simpler one. Conceive that the apertures of both arms are closed, and also that steam is being generated inside the globe. We know that a fluid presses equally, and in all directions upon a vessel contain- ing it, and that the pressure is independent of the form of that vessel. Supposingthat the area of the closed end be the same as the area of that portion of the tube opposite to it at the bend, then the steam will press equally on both those areas. Now imagine that the closed end is suddenly snapped off; the pressure at that point is relieved, steam issues violently, but the pressure opposite to the broken end remains as before. The result is, and must be, motion in a direction contrary to that in which the steam makes its exit. In the former case we had two equal forces, acting in opposite directions, in the same straight line-no motion can result from this. In the latter case we have taken away one of those forces the result is motion. This machine has been termed an eolipyle or reaction machine. The very same principle is seen in the hydraulic tourniquet or Barker's mill, exhibited in certain shop windows in London. Here a liquid takes the place of a gas. This is a machine obviously capable of doing work, and by suitable mechanical contrivances it is possible that that work could be measured to a nicety. Attempts to apply it practically have proved abortive, from its inefficiency as compared with the steam-engine of the present day. The invention of Heron, admirable as it is, sinks im- measurably below the vastly greater one of Watt. Never- theless the former is probably a pure invention, that is the work of an intellect unaided. The latter is not so, but it is a beautiful structure, reared by a gigantic intellect upon a foundation laid by others.—I am, &c., Strata Florida. E. HALSE. He lived from B.C. 284-221. t The best edition of Heron's works is published in the Veterum Matheuiaticwum Opera. Paris, 1693. Italian and German translations of his Spiritalia have appeared, the latter in 16S8. PONTRHYDYGROES.—THE DRINK TRAFFIC. SIR,-I beg to call the attention of one or two who spoke on the above-named subject in a meeting which was held here recently, the proceedings of which were reported in the Cambrian News last week. One of the speakers said that he was a public officer himself, and living in a glass house. It would, therefore, be a dangerous thing for him so throw stones. At the same time, however, he forgot where he lived, and made many personal remarks. His first complaint was against the publicans for sup- plying drunken men with too much drink. How in the world can the publican know the exact quantity sufficient for each customer ? The consumer ought to be the best judge. The speaker also wanted TO make out that on a certain occasion a drunken man was supplied with more drink in the presence of a policeman. Now, Mr. a few instances on this point will give satisfaction to many. The speaker's second complaint was that none of the publicans of Pontrhydygroes were included in the list of those who were convicted for violating the Licence Act. It is his aim to saddle the police with neglect of duty, a charge entirely without foundation. It is a pity he is not the chief constable, and I ask him in the name of all the publicans here, to name any house or houses where any intoxicating drink has been sold during the prohibited hours or after the closing time for the last few months. If he can prove that to the satisfaction of the public, then we shall listen to him. One fact is better than many hints. Another gentleman got up, and said that he did not know what the public houses were good for. They were no good for travellers, because they had no accommoda- tion. He added that he knew certain public houses that had but one bed in them. That gentleman ought to be brought up for such a misrepresentation, if he referred to any house here. I say there is not such a house in Yspytty parish. I do not know about his own, but that is out of the question. Everyone of the public houses at Pontrhydygroes has accommodation at least for a man and a herse. An uncivilized negro could not reflect a deeper black colour on his neighbours. I consider such a spouter unworthy of credence in any public meeting.—I am, &c., YSTWYTHIAN. THE FACTORIES ACT AND DRESSMAKERS. SIR,-Perhaps you will be kind enough to allow me through your columns to call the attention of dressmakers, milliners, and others who e-nploy a number of young females as apprentices, to the following cases, the report of which appeared in the Daily Telegraph of the 23rd instant. The first runs thu« ;— ",IIarlborotigli-strec-t.-Tlie Factories Act.—Madame Marie Mercier, dressmaker, of 45, Park-street, Grosvenor- square, attended in answer to six summonses taken out against ber by Mr. James Henderson, inspector of factories, for unlawfully employing; six young workpeople after four o'clock in the afternoon on Saturday.—Mr. Henderson stated that on visiting the defendant's premises at a quarter to five on the afterrooji of July 7th, he found six or eight females at work.—The defendant said she did not know she was doing wrong.—Mr. Henderson said that could not have been the case, as she had previously been served with a printed notice as to the illegality of the proceeding.—Mr. Newton, after cautioning the.defendant, ordered her to pay 3S. and costs i4 each case. The second, of A similar character, took place at Dublin and is as follows Dublin. At the police court yester- day, two dressmakers, Mrs. Seagrave and Mrs. Conroy, were fined 30s. and' 24 respectively, for keeping girls at work after four o'clock on Saturday," These cases speak for themselves. The same law applies to Aberystwyth, I suppose, and yet, from what I have been given to understand, I think that not a few of the Aberystwyth dressmakers are liable to a similar, if not indeed to a heavier penalty, as I am told that they are open to prosecution on-other counts as well as the one referred to in the above cases. In some cases young girls from 13 to 18 and over, are kept in close, ill-ventilated rooms until 9 or even 10 o'clock at night, and that every night almost, without any thought of a holiday or half holiday throughout the week. Can nothing be done to remedy this evil practice, ruinous as it is to the health of so many young girls ? I really think that some steps ought to be taken to ensure for them the protection which the Factories Act is supposed to give. Will no one take this matter up?—I am &c,, SYMPATHISER. LLWYNGWRIL SCHOOLS. SIR,—Lately, in a Welsh paper called Y Dywjisogaeth, I saw a long article by some one signing himself "John Jones," concerning the forthcoming School Board election in this parish iu which the writer asked some questions concerning the two schools in the village of Llwyngwril, and gave us his opinion as to the best men to be elected on the Hoard for the next three years. Now, whoever may differ trom .1.)hn Jones in the counsels he gave us, there can be little doubt as TO the pertinency of his questions, and the reasonableness of his propositions with regard to the schools. Certainly there must be something radically wrong somewhere. Something must be done for education in this parish that has not been done hitherto, if our Board is to keep pace with the voluntary system in the parish, or if our children are to be educated in a manner pro- portionate to the money expended thereon. It is very unsatisfactory to us ratepayers to think that we have to pay £100, or more, with a good house in addition, and keep a pupil teacher also, to teach a school in which only 40 children (12 of whom were infants) could be pre- sented to Her Majesty's Inspector whereas its rival, the National School, presented 2G, only five of whom were infants. And, we know that the master of the latter school receives a great deal less money for his labours than we have to pay ours, besides the house and the pupil teacher, which are no better than superfluous perquisites. If there are 90 pupils "on the books," as it was stated lately in the Cambrian JVcws, and "only 40 had made the required number of attendances," the attendance must be very bad indeed. Pray, what is become of the School Board's bye-laws which were made and ordained" on the 29th of June, 1876? It is all very well to have tea parties, and sub-examinations, conducted by friends, "to show the parents of the children attending the school what the children had learnt during the past year;" but the Board must remember that more work and less show would please the ratepayers better, and if the master wishes to show us what the children had learnt during the past year," let him give us the Government Report, which will be very much more acceptable to us than the result of any examination of his. The afore named writer, John Jones," has called upon both schools to publish their reports, which was only a. fair request on behalf of the parents of the children. It is fair to say that the ratepayers in general have no claim upon the National School; but we have a right to know the particulars concerning a school which is sup- ported by our own money, and ostensibly carried on for the education of our children; and I call upon the Board to give us the following particulars; the exact dates OIl which there was no school in the past school year; the average number of children in attendance throughout the year and in what ratio per cent. were the "passes," or the total number ofpasses," in reading, writing, and arithmetic, severally, in the different standards separately. Public bodies, using public money, should do all "above board." -I am, &c., X.Y.Z. THE ROADS IN THE TREGARON UNION. S I it,-A-ftny persons, I have no doubt, regret the very sudden death of Mr. Davies, the late road surveyor of the upper district of this union. Now I thing it would be advisable for the Highway Board to join the two districts together, as they were a few years ago. The Board has already had enough experience in keeping the roads under the superintendence of two surveyors. The expense of keeping the roads now in repair is nearly double what it was under one surveyor, and the roads are in no better condition this very day, if so good, than they were when superintended by one surveyor a few years ago. There are only 180 miles of road in the entire union, conse- quently not too much for one good man-a man that understands his duties, and knows what to give for a piece of work, and can devote the whole of his time to his work. It is my firm belief that unles.3 the Board will appoint one surveyor to superintend the two districts, the highway rates will continually increase. Indeed, I am wrong in speaking of two surveyors; there are more than two surveyors, as every labourer is his own sur- veyor-he can do as he likes, as much as he likes, come and go when he likes, and charge what he likes. Now it's time the Board should look these things in the face, or else the burden will become intolerable. TRURO.