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THE HORRORS OF W A.R.

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THE RED WHITE AND BLUE IN THE THAMES. The ship-rigged boat, Red White and Blue, of 2| tons, 2 Captain Hudson, which has made such an extraordinary passage across the Atlantic from New York, and put into Margate a few days since, has arrived in the river off "'1, Greenhithe. There were only two persons in the boat, Captain Hudson, and his mate, F. E Fitch. There was also a dog on board, which, however, died shortly aster leaving Margate, on her way round to the Thames. On the J8th, in fat 31 N, long. 56 VV, about midnight, the boat struck something very solid, and glancing on the port bow, all sail set. stopped ship's headway, but found she did nollcllk. After the 15th did not see any sail Until August 5, when they spoke and went alongside the barque Princess Royal, of Yarmouth (N S), long. 21, W, 8even days from Dublin for Q'lehec. On the 6th a blind Bea came upon port quarter, which threw the ship on her beam ends; she righted in hillt-a-minnte. 8th, the boat Was again thrown on her beam end<. 14th. 27 miles N of Ushant, shipped a heavy sea, which threw the ship for the fourth time on her beam-ends, and had to bale the water Out. 14th, noon, made the Bill of Portland. 16th, blowing heavy, and got towed into Margate. There was no chronometer in the boat, and the ship was worked by dead reckoning. Captain Hudson and hiss companion were only enabled to have their provisions warm on very few occasions, owing to the sea making over them. They kept watch and watch, and when they landed at Margate they were, as may be imagined, in a somowhat dis- tressed condition. The boat is of iron, 27 feet long, and 6 feet 1 inch beam. She carried 120 gallons of water for the voyage. • •• ■ ■ ■ — ■■■ THE HORRORS OF W A.R. A mournful episode of the war comes from Prossnitz. A farmer living in a hamlet near that town had a wife and two children, and such was the woman's terror of the Prussians when she heard they were coming, that her husband, to satisfy her, placed her iti an underground cellar with their two little ones, and built up the door- way, leaving some food inside. The Prussians entered the place, and among others obliged this poor man to accompany them, with his horse and cart, for a day's journey, as they said, But the man was brought on from place to place, and at last, when be was suffered to return, and reached his own house, several days had elapsed. On the way back he began to calculate how little food had bein left with his wife and children, and, horror. stricken at the dreadful thought that their cries might not be heard, his hair is said to have turned white on his homeward journey. His fears were but too real. He tore down the masonry, searched for those so dear to him, but only found three lifeless bodies, half devoured by rats. Reason left him at the dreadful sight, and he is now in hospital, a lunatic. Another horrible story has been related by an officer high on the Austrian staff. A poor peasant couple in Austrian Poland had three sons, fine young men. One of them was taken by the conscription. As the parents were poor, the two younger brothers determined to follow the for- tunes of the eldest for awhile, and accompanied him voluntarily to the army. At the battle of Scalitz, the general commanding saw from an eminence that the brigade Scholtz was suffering dreadfully from the enemy's artillery fire, and one of the staff captains was ordered to send an orderly with instructions to the officer at the head of the brigade to retire. The trooper nearest to him was was a soldier of the Green Lancers, by name Skar- bowsky, and one of the three brothers just referred to. He was given the despatch to deliver, and rode on gallantly through the rain of bullets. But as he galloped forward, his horse made a stumble over a dead charger, and thus, bringing the man to a halt, enabled him to see a lancer lying on the ground with his leg torn off by a ball, and raising his hands to him in a supplicating manner. He alighted to give him a moment's assistance, and coming nearer, was horror-stricken to recognise Z, his brother. He searched everywhere for water, but could find none, and with a mind as agonised as was his poor brother in body, he began to think whether he should remain with him or deliver the dispatch, which he knew to be an order to the brigade to retire, and which might save hundreds of lives. He kissed his brother, and said, with tears, 'I can do nothing for you, and I am on a duty I must perform and he mounted his horse again, plunged into the terrible fire, and delivered p his letter to the brigade adjutant. When he was raturning, most strange to say, his horse again stumbled over a dead body, and this time fell, a.nd threw his rider from the saddle. The dead man was his other brother The man became reckless, rode back to the staff, who were caught up in the action themselves, and this soldier fought band to hand in the melee, as did the rest of the escort, Without himself receiving a scratch. But it was sad news be had to send home. The Emperor has been personally informed of these strange facts, and the case has deeply moved him. His Majesty has ordered the promotion of the surviving lancer, and has sent to intimate to his poor parents that he will do all in his power to alleviate their un- happy and bereaved position. 6 CHEERFULNESS VERSUS CHOLERA. Dr. Forhes Winslow writes a long letter to a contemporary, from which we make the following extract In addition to the attention now paid to the physical treatment of cholera, is it not a matter entitled to serious consideration whether we have not at command some powerful moral remedies by means of which the epidemic may be shorn of much of its virulence ? It is the duty-tbe solemn obli- Z, gation, of those capable of influencing public opinion, to devise means of allaying the cholera panic, and of diverting the public mind from the consideration of the epidemic to more pleasing- topics of contemplation. What, it may be aske(f are the best means within our reach to effect, so desirable an end? Many may be incredulous as to the possibility of creating by mental remedies a revulsion of the mind, thus destroying or render- ing inert one of the most potent predisposing causes of cholera. When Rome was threatened with an epidemic disease the public authorities marched With solemn pomp and ceremony to the temple dedicated to Febris, into which a nail was driven. This was done for the purpose of appeasing an C, angry deity. The mental effect of this, to our lrnnds, superstitious proceeding was to allay public apprehension, excite into action the tonic passion of hope, and thus, by dissipating all fear from the lnind, invigorate the physical health, increase the ^ervons energy, and so ward off the pestilential disease. May we not adopt somewhat analogous lneans in order to arrive at similar results ? L' There are other points in relation to this impor- tant matter which deserve serious consideration. It is a question whether we have not within our Power effectual means of acting upon the public jttind en masse fur the purpose of creating a new V?rtl to the current of choleraic thought and of n ^spelling unnecessary fears and morbid appre- hensions. God has so intimately associated the sPmtual with the material portion of our organi- sation that He will not consider that we are slight- rJjS His dispensations or making light of His pro- ldence, if, in obedience to His will, and in con- °rmity to recognised mental and physical laws ^fluencing the mysterious union of matter and Pirit, we adopt moral or mental means for curing r preventing disease by acting upon the physical structure through the powerful agency of mind. Such being a view of the question sanctioned alike by religion and science, it behoves us to consider whether some means might not be adopted for the purpose of abstracting the public attention from all depressing apprehensions, thus rendering the system less susceptible to the influence of those physical poisons alleged to give rise to the disease. We should make a strong effort to dismiss from the mind the contemplation of subjects calculated to awaken desponding apprehensions, to depress the emotions, exhaust the vital strength and nervous energy. Every legitimate mode of inducing cheer- fulness and serenity of mind should be as much as possible encouraged. Constant and agreeable occu- pation will do much good. Pleasurable trains of thought should be cultivated either by reading, con- versation, music, or agreeable society. The exercise of the charitable feelings, the deter- mination to keep in abeyance all corroding mental emotions, such as anger, jealousy, revenge, covetous- ness, and the effort to cultivate 'love, peace, and goodwill towards men,' will be found of positive advantage in invigorating the physique. It should be the duty of those whose special position in life does not render it necessary that they should acquaint themselves with the progress of the epidemic, or inform their minds of the various remedies suggested for its cure, to abstain carefully from perusing the accounts constantly published of the progress of the disease. The less the mind dwells upon this painful subject, the less probability will there be of the poison having any effect upon the body. This is quite compatible with the exercise of proper prudence and precaution, and a right of recognition of the inscrutable but wise decrees of Providence. o EXECUTION AT MANCHESTER. For the first time this century the inhabitants of Manchester have had the opportunity of witnessing an execution in their own town. Few things could better indicate the change which has come over the sprit of English law than a comparison of the two last executions which have occurred in Manchester. One was in 1798, when a young man named George Russell was found guilty of robbing a bleachcroft, and condemned to death. When the last morning of his life came he was led from the gaol, and dressed for the occasion in a clean white shirt, without vest or coat, was placed on an unsaddled horse, and con- ducted with cruel slowness through the immense multitudes that gathered in street after street. Two miles off, on Newton Heath, the gallows was erected, and the culprit had to bear all the suspense of that journey, and run the gauntlet of a succession of crowds, before the hangman's hands let loose his im- prisoned spirit. On Saturday last the culprit was again a youth, James Burrows, only 19 years old. His crime was murder. Although so young he had but a bad reputation, and he is now suspected to have been concerned in the deaths of two men before he committed the crime for which his own life was forfeited. On the 21st of May last he beat to death a labourer employed by his father, because the man refused to lend him a few shillings to spend in drink. Since his condemnation he has had the continuous attention of the prison chaplain, and of Mr Thomas Wright, known throughout the north of England as the prison philanthropist.' His behaviour in prison has been unlike what it was outside. lie has been docile, constant in his attendance upon religious offices, and professing great penitence. He com- mitted to memory hymn after hymn, and was con- stantly quoting them. On the morning of his death he signed the following confession, which he had asked the chaplain to write for him I, James Burrows, do acknowledge that I have, by I suddenly cutting off the life of John Brennan, made his wife a widow and his children fatherless. May God help them. My sin is ever before me now and, rather than linger a miserable life on earth, I would wish to cast myself on the mercy of God. I ac- knowledge the righteousness of his law, and the laws of my country. As I do not wish to make a speech on the drop, I beg, through this paper, which 1 have asked the chaplain to write out for me to sign, to warn all young people of both sexes to be obedient to their parents, not to neglect the Sabbath, the school, and the Bible, and against all profaneness and debauchery, and especially against evil company, my ruin. My last word is, may God be merciful to me a sinner, through Jesus Christ sake. Amen. (Signed) JAMES Buanows. From the condemned cell, August 25, 1866. Witness; James Gretrex, Warder. The excitement consequent upon so unprecedented a thing as a hanging was such as to make thousands of people visit the neighbourhood of the gaol on Thursday and Friday. On the former day thp authorities found the streets about the gaol so crowded by visitors that the men engaged in raising barriers, &c., could not proceed with their work. The streets were therefore closed by order, the ordinary traffic was turned into other channels, and the foot passengers, who merely wanted to stare at what was being done, were kept back by strong bodies of police. From about noon on Friday the crowds in and about New Bailey-street were very great. It was evident that most of the people came only to have a passing glimpse of so strange a thing as a gallows, and having seen that were content to go home again. There were, however, others who were, even so early, looking out for places for occupa- tion on the following morning. As morning approached the crowd increased rapidly the patter-patter of ironed clogs was cease- less on the pavement; and the whistling and yelling, mingled with the singing of vulgar songs, was such as to suggest that the crowd might be going to Knot Mill Fair instead of to see the strangling of a human being. By six o'clock on Saturday morning there must have been from twenty to thirty thousand people, and as eight o'clock approached considerable additions had been made to that number. A large proportion of these assembled were of the lowest class. Some time before the execution actually took place, the noises which had been so continuous were stopped, and all eyes directed to the scaffold, where men had been sent to make the final preparations. The chief of these was to place a screen which should hide the full length of the body from the view of the multitude. The mob greeted these workmen with a hideous yell. After spending a restless night the criminal awoke, and passed his remaining time with his religious attendants. Scarcely a tremor was noticed as Calcraft approached and pinioned him. The pro- cession from the condemned cell to the scaffold was formed—Calcraft at the right, and the chaplain at the left of Burrows. As they reached the steps of the drop the chaplain's feelings overcame him, and he had to retire. As soon as his head was visible to the crowd outside shouts of £ Hats off' and Shame were raised, and the most utter confusion prevailed. As Calcraft pulled down the white cap on the convict's face the mob started a most hideous yelling, and con- tinued it until the rope was adjusted. The drop fell, and all was over. Burrows died after a few slight convulsions. About an hour after the body was cut down and buried in the precincts of the gaol.

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