Jmpeijiiil ftoiiliam^itt ♦ HOUSE OF LORDS. MONDAY. MISCELLANEOUS. The Royal assent was given by commission to a Dumber of bills, after a motion had been agreed to relative to the Hythe School of Musketry. THE IRISH CHURCH BILL. Earl GRANVILLE moved the third reading of the Irish Church Bill. The Earl of CLANCARTY moved that the bill be read a third time that day three months. He contended that the measure virtually destroyed the Established Church in one part <5f the empire, and their lordships Trould be justified in asking Her Majesty to refuse her Royal assent to it. Lord LURGAN supported the bill. Lord DERBY said he was opposed on principle both to disestablishment and disendowment, even with the amendments their lordships had introduced into the bill, for the Church in Ireland would be left with a miserable pittance which would be found insufficient for her high and holy purpose. If Lord Clancarty persisted in pressing his amendment, he would vote for it, although he advised his noble friend to throw the responsibility of rejecting the reasonable amend- ments their lordships had passed upon the House of Commons. He hoped their lordships would firmly resist any attempt on the part of the House of Com- mons to modify their amendments. After further discussion the Earl of Clancarty with- drew his amendment. Lord DERBY saicl he and other noble lords intended on Thursday to lay a protest against the bill. The bill was then read a third time, and on the question that it should pass, The Earl of DEVON moved to omit from clause 13 certain words inserted in committee which provided that existing prelates of the Irish Church should .have a right to sit in the House after the passing of the bill. After a discussion, the Earl of Devon's motion was carried by a majority of 26. A motion to insert a proviso in the 28th clause was carried by a majority of 7. The bill subsequently passed, Lord Redesdale .handing in a protest on behalf of the Earl of Derby. TUESDAY. BISHOPS' RESIGNATION BILL. The Archbishop of CANTERBURY moved the second reading of the Bishops' Resignation Bill, which he explained would, on the incapacity of any bishop, permit arrangements to be made for a coadjutor bishop, to be appointed with a right of succession, receiving a portion of the revenues of the.see. After some discussion, in which Earl Nelson, the Archbishop of York, the Duke of Somerset, the Earl of Carnarvon, the Earl of Powis, &c., &c., took part, the bill was read a second time. ASSESSED RATES BILL. The Earl of KIMBERLEY moved the second reading of the Assessed Rates Bill, briefly pointing out the hardships which had been occasioned by the abolition of compounding for the payment of rates by the Re- form Act, and explaining the manner in which the Bill practically would give the power of compounding by means of arrangements on certain authorised terms between the owners of houses and the local authori- ties. After some conversation, in which Earl Grey, Lord Denman, and Earl Granville took part, the bill was read a second time. ———— HOUSE OF COMMONS. MONDAY. THE TRADES UNION BILL. Mr. T. HUGHES withdrew the Trades Union Bill. The motion on going into committee of supply in- volved no points of public interest, and were quickly gone through. THE IRISH CHURCH BILL. The Irish Church Bill was brought down from the House of Lords with the usual message, hoping that the House would concur with the Lords' amendments. Mr. GLADSTONE gave notice that he should ask the House to consider the Lords' amendments on Thursday. Several bills were advanced a stage, and the House adjourned at 2.15 a.m. TUESDAY. CLEARANCES AT THE CUSTOM HOUSE. Mr. GRAVES asked if the Treasury now possessed the power to authorise the substitution of the owners or agent for the shipmaster in clearing a vessel at the Custom House, and if not, whether it would be pos- sible to obtain this session the necessary legal powers for dispensing with the attendance of the captain at the Custom House. Mr. AYRTON said the question was at present engag- ing the attention of the Chancellor of the Exchequer, and a bill would be introduced shortly which, among other things, would deal with the subject. THE RECENT SCANDAL AT ST. PANCRAS WORKHOUSE. Mr. GOSCHEN, in reply to Colonel Barttelot, stated that it was the intention of the :Poor Law Board to institute an inquiry into the death of Mary Allen, who lately died in tit. Pancras Workhouse under circum- stances which caused an inquest to be held. THE BINGLEY AND OTHER BOILER EXPLOSIONS. Mr. H. SHERIDAN asked if the Board of Trade had yet received a full account of the number of persons .killed and injured by the boiler explosion at Bingley, about two weeks ago whether it was true that twenty persons were killed, and nearly forty seriously injured, .and whether the Board could give information as to the loss of life and injury which had resulted from boiler explosions which had since occurred at Wheal Bassett, near Redruth, at Lord Durham's Sheerbone House Colliery, at Abergwawr Colliery, at Calderbank, and at Nuneaton. Mr. LEFEVRE said that neither the Board of Trade nor the Home Office had. received any information, and he was therefore unablt'vo confirm the accuracy of the statement made by the bon. member. CONTAGIOUS DISEASES (ANIMALS) BILL. The House then went^ aimmittea upon the Con- tagious Diseases (Anir "put-H.. In the 90th clause,,s t) 1- Sir E. BULLER moved the insertion of a provision enabling the balance of the fund raised by the cattle plague rate to be appropriated in compensation for cattle slaughtered by direction of an inspector between the 20th February and the 15th April, 1866. Sir C. ADDERLEY moved the substitution, for Sir E. Buller's amendment, of a clause enabling the bal- ance to be applied in compensation for cattle slaugh- tered between the passing of the Act 29th and 30th Victoria, 1866, and the appointment of inspectors under that act, by the direction of a person whom the owner of such cattle had reasonable ground to believe to be the authorised inspector for the execution of the Act. Mr. W. E. FORSTER opposed both proposals, and after a short debate. Sir E. BULLER withdrew his amendment in favour of that Sir C. Adderley, which, on a division, was -carried against the Government by 97 against 80. The bill passed through committee, as also did the Valuation of Property (Metropolis) Bill, and the sitting was suspended at seven o'clock. WEDNESDAY. STILLBORN CHILDREN. Dr. BREWER asked the Home Secretary if he bad any information on which he could rely as to the large and still increasing number of infants who were alleged to be buried as stillborn," and whether it was the intention of the Government to render re- gistration of sburial of such ohildren in all cases co m- pulsory. Mr. BRUCE said the information in the Home Office on the subject was very defective, but it formed an important part of an inquiry now taking place, which had been suggested by the Sanitary Commissioners. DISEASED FOREIGN CATTLE. Mr. GORE asked whether there was any truth in the statement that a large number of foreign cattle had been stopped as diseased animals atThameshaven and Brown's wharves during the last few days for what reason they had been stopped, and what steps had been taken with respect 'to future exportation. Mr. W. E. FORSTER stated that a large number of cattle had been stopped for foot and mouth disease, and it was the custom to detain and slaughter foreign cattle when found to be suffering from that disease. The disease was not however, of a fatal character, and home cattle when suffering from it were not in- terfered with. REAL ESTATE INTESTACY BILL. Mr. LOCKE KINO moved the second reading of the Real Estate Intestacy Bill. He stated that the present law was not uniform or just, and there was a strong and growing prejudice against the land de- scending to the heir at law. The law with regard to personal property was fair, just, and uniform; and the object of the present bill was to do away with the absurd distinction which existed with regard to land, and to have one uniform law applicable to both de- scriptions of property. The bill would not effect the great landed proprietors, but only those in the hands of the humbler classes, but if it did result in en- couraging a greater distribution of the land he thought it would do good. He enumerated many great and distinguished authorities who supported the principle of the measure. Mr. DICKESON seconded the motion. After some discussion and a division the bill was read a second time. LIBEL BILL. The Libel Bill was withdrawn; COUNTY CORONERS BILL. The House went into committee on this bill, and passed two clauses, one of them being amended so as to give the vote in the election to the electors on the parliamentary register instead of the freeholders only. IRISH CHURCH BILL. Sir J. PAKINGTON appealed to the First Lord of the Treasury to give up the morning sitting on Friday, so as to go on continuously with the Irish Church Bill amendments. Mr. GLADSTONE assented on condition that hon. members would postpone their notices on that day. The House adiourned at 5.55 p.m.
CARDIFF POLICE COURT. MONDAY. (Before the MAYOR, R. O. JONES, Esq., Alderman ALEX- ANDER, and W. D. BUSHELL, Esq.) NIGHT CHARGES.—Fourteen persons were fined each five or ten shillings for being drunk on Saturday and Sunday evenings. ASSAULTING A WIFE.—Charles Watkins, a labourer, was sentenced to one month's hard labour for a brutal assault on his wife on Saturday last. ROBBERY.—Johanna Williams, an unfortunate, was sent to prison for three months for stealing 2s. from the person of William Simmonds, a labourer, living at Can- ton, on Sunday morning. TUESDAY. (Before W. D. BUSHELL and W. ALEXANDER, Esqrs.) WATCH STEALING —Edward St. Clair was charged with stealing a silver watch, the property of John White, the keeper of a boarding-house in Nelson-street. The prosecutor stated that the prisoner did not board at his house, but came there now and then. On the 5th inst. he (prosecutor) went to his supper, and before doing so he gave his watch to his daughter, who put it away in another room. Shortly after he missed it. Inquiries were made, and Police-constable Telford found the watch in prisoner's possession on Monday. He pleaded not guilty, and was committed for trial. RCENIES.; Catherine Conner was charged with illegally pawning two dress shirts, the property of Mary Sullivan. Both lodged in the same house in Sandon- place, and during the absence of the latter on Saturday the prisoner pawned the shirts. Fined 10s. and costs, the cost of the articles 33., or 7 days.—Maria Evans was charged with stealing two blankets and several other articles, the property of Thomas White, Wood-street. The articles had not been recovered, and the prisoner was remanded until Friday. WEDNESDAY. (Before R. O. JONES and W. D. BUSHELL, Esqrs.) GARDEN ROBBERY.—TWO lads named Phillips and Price were charged with stealing a quantity of potatoes from a garden near the Great Western Railway, on Tues- day. The boys were watched by Police-sergeant Horn- blow, who succeeded in catching Phillips, the boy Price being afterwards apprehended. Phillips was sent to prison for one month Price was discharged. THURSDAY. (Before W. D. BUSHELL, Esq.) STEALING A COAT.—Robert Voss was charged with stealing a coat from No. 16, Adelaide-street, the property of Sarah Quantash. Remanded till Friday, in conse- quence of only one magistrate being present.
SDICIDE OF A FAMOUS RUSSIAN.—A letter from St. Petersburg announces that Komissarow, who in 1866 saved the life of the Emperor Alexander, by turning the arm of an assassin, has hanged himself in his hotel, at the age of 35.
CARDIFF BOARD OF GUARDIANS. The weekly meeting of this Board was held on Satur- day E. W. David, Esq., in the chair. There were also present the Rev. W. Evans o. Phillips, Esq.; Aldermen Alexander, Bird, and Pride Messrs. C. French, E.T. Wright, T. Huckwell, W. Williams. T. H. Ensor, P. Bird, L. Thomas, T. H. Stephens, E. Davies, W. Ainsley, and T. Hodge. An application was made from the cook at the Work- house for an increase of salary, and, on the motion of Mr. P. Bird, it was resolved to increase her salary from £13 to £14 a year. A gratuity of 20s. was also voted to a woman named Catherine Morgan, a pauper inmate of the Workhouse, who for some time had had charge of the infants there. The Master of the Workhouse reported that during the week 44 paupers had been admitted, and 4J dis- charged, leaving 314 in the house, being an increase of 34 on the corresponding week of last year. The Master of the Industrial School reported the number of pauper children there to be 263, an increase of 18 on the cor- responding week of last year. The Master also re- ported that Alexander Bassett, Esq., of Llandaff, had very kindly given the elder children a treat in his grounds on Wednesday. The CHAIRMAN said it was very kind of Mr. Bassett to invite them. He did so last year at the close of the hay season, and then, as now, they enjoyed themselves very much. He was unable to go, though invited, but on returning home in the evening he saw the children in the grounds. There were more than one hundred there, and with their fife and drum band they appeared to be enjoying themselves very much. A letter was read by the Clerk from the Poor Law Board, inclosing a copy of a letter sent by the Clerk of the Pembroke Union, with reference to a complaint that had been made by the guardians of the Cardiff Union, that the guardians of the Pembroke Union had improperly given a sum of money to remove a pauper from the Pembroke to the Cardiff Union. The Poor Law Board had sent a copy of a letter sent to them by a member of the Pembroke Board of Guardians, ex- plaining the circumstances. The member alleged that he was acquainted with the pauper William Watkins, and that he had frequently relieved him. His daughter. in-law applied to the Board for assistance to enable her to come to Cardiff, where her husband was at work, and take with her her father-in-law, where he would be maintained by her husband. She had 10s., but wanted 10s. more to come to Cardiff, and that sum he supplied her with alter she had made application to the guardians for assistance, and told them for what pur- pose she wanted the money. The guardian denied that he had any intention of transferring the pauper to the charge of the Cardiff Union. The statement of the woman was that, after her application to the guardians of the Pembroke Union, she was told by the relieving officer to go to a guardian who would pay her the money. The CHAIRMAN: It appears from her statement that her father-in-law was in receipt of relief then. The CLERK: That is so. Alderman BIRD I think we should request the Pembroke Union to take the pauper back, and refund us the money already spent. The CHAIRMAN: I think we should write to the Poor Law Board and state that we consider the expla- nation very unsatisfactory. The CLERK was of opinion that it was probable the Poor Law Board would carry out Mr. Bird's suggestion. The CHAIRMAN: Must we wait for the opinion of the Poor Law Board before taking any steps? The CLERK: We can proceed to prosecute the re- lieving officer. Alderman ALEXANDER Is the man chargeable 1 The CLERK He is, and he is likely to be a permanent one. The views of the guardians on the case were ordered to be sent to the Poor Law Board. ALLEGED OVERCHARGE BY A MEDICAL OFFCER. Mr. WRIGHT said he was not present when Dr. Fennell's bill for extra medical attendance was brought forward and ordered to be paid. There was, however, he had understood, a charge of .£4 for taking off two fingers of a boy, but he had been told by the boy's parents that only one finger was amputated, that Dr. Fennell called at the house of the father to amputate the second finger, but the father refused to allow it to be done. As Dr. Fennell was present perhaps he would give some explanation to the charge. He had made it his business to inquire into the case, and it was clear from the statements of the parents that only one of the fingers of the boy had been amputated. Dr. FENNELL stated in reply that he took one finger off the boy, leaving the other finger which had been injured, in the hope that he could save it. Twenty days after he found it necessary to remove a portion of the other finger. Thefre were pieces of bone hanging from the ends of the finger, and they were removed by snipping them off with a scissors. The CHAIRMAN Do we understand that the bone of the finger was cut through, so as to form what we generally understand is an amputation of the finger ? Dr. FENNELL: It was perhaps hardly what you would call an amputation, it was more a snipping away of the ends of the bone. The CLERK said the question was raised whether Dr. Fennell was entitled to both charges, as the injury to the fingers was the result of one accident. The letter of explanation from Dr. Fennell was then read. It stated that he removed one of the fingers of a boy named William John on the 18th February. Of the necessity for removing that finger there could be no doubt. The other finger was badly injured, but from very frequent attention to it he thought it was doing well. In about a fortnight the boy took the measles, and mortification came on, and he removed the other finger on the 17th of March. He did think that he was entitled to the second fee in consideration of his long attendance to the case, and the humane object he had in view. The CLERK said when the case camo beforo the Finance Committee this item was disputed, and it was referrec>co Dr. Taylor and Dr. Paine. Alderman'UIRD And it was in consequence of this explanation that they recommended the payment of the charge. The CLERX The bill has been paid. Alderman BIRD Have you seen the boy's finger ? Mr. WpMHT I have the boy here. The boy William John was then called in, and in reply to the chairman, said he bad had two fingers of bis left hand cut off by the wheels of a chaff-cutter. They were caught in the cogs of the wheels, and the fore finger was cut off, the second finger having the bones crushed by the wheel. The doctor first cut a piece off the finger that was crushed, but he did not cut any off the finger that had been cut off by the chaff-cutter, as be only bound it up and put some plaster on it. Some time afterwards he came one Sunday with his instruments for thepurpose of cutting it off, but his father stopped him, and refused to have it done. He then put the plaster on again. The doctor came again for the same purpose, but his father prevented him again, and the doc- tor gave him some lotion to put upon it. The doctor used the scissors, but he did not take any instrument for the purpose of cutting through the bone of the finger. The end was cut off as it is now. He cut the piecea off with the scissors. Dr. FENNELL It was cutting away small pieces of bone. Alderman BIRD: Do you call that an operation ? Dr. FENNELL Yes. Alderman BIRD: Do you call it an amputation ? Dr. FENNELL: No, I never said it was an amputation. The CLERK Then if it is not an amputation you are not entitled to the fee. Dr. FENNELL I removed the bone by snipping it. Mr. ENSOR: Much the same as snipping your finger nail I suppose? ° The CLERK referred to the 17th section of the Poor Law Orders relating to" Medical Officers, showing that no amputation should be made by a medical officer except under cases of urgent necessity, without the medical officer having first consulted another medical gentleman, and obtained his opinion that such ampu- tation was necessary. The CHAIRMAN said that order was never adhered to in their union. Alderman BIRD considered that this was a much more serious matter. It was a deliberate attempt, and a successful one too, on the part of a medical officer to obtain money for that which they expected was an amputation, but which he now modified by calling it removing, and the removal appeared to be the taking away of some pieces of bone from the finger. He considered this was a very grave ques- t-ion, which ought to be investigated by a higher authority. Dr. FENNELL said in reply that he removed one finger, and he hoped to save the other, which was only crushed. Before removing this one the father objected, and he (Dr. Fennell) said it was not abso- lutely necessary, and he would wait a few days to see how the finger progressed. About twenty days after- wards he went again and saw that the finger was mortified, ,and he took away some pieces of bone and then dressed the finger. Alderman BIRD And is that what you call an am- putation ? The CHAIRMAN There does not seem to have been any saw or any instrument of that kind used. Dr. FENNELL said that such an instrument was scarcely necessary. He simply used his scissors and forceps. Alderman BIRD And do you call that an amputa- tion ? Dr. FENNELL: It may be called that. The CHAIRMAN asked if the mortIficatIon commenced at an early period after the accident ? Dr. FENNELL said he was compelled to take away the second finger in consequence of the mortification having commenced, but he was in hopes to be able to save it after the first operation. The CHAIRMAN said he could not understand what part of the finger he took away as he only used the scissors. Dr. FENNELL The part of the finger that was mortified I cut a way with the scissors. The Bov The doctor did not cut the bone. He cut the flesh and the bone that was hanging to it with the scissors. The mother of the boy also stated that the doctor ¡ cut away those portions of the flesh that were morti. fied, but she could not say whether he used the scissors or not. Alderman BIRD said the doctor admitted that he removed some portions of the flesh and the bone with the scissors, hut surely tbnt was not an amputation. The CHAIRMAN I cannot conceive it to be one. Mr. P. BIRD. as one of the members of the Finance Com- mittee, mentioned that when Dr. Ftmnell's bill came be- fore them, he was struck with the extraordinary charge of .£4 for cutting off two fingers, that he refused to pass it, and the matter was referred to Dr. Paine and Dr. Taylor, and Dr. Fennell was requested to furnish an explanation of the charge. This he did, and they ex- pressed themselves satisfied with the explanation, and the money was paid. Alderman BIRD I beg to propose that this matter be referred to the committee that will sit upon the medical question. The CHAIRMAN: I do not think that the Board can be furnished with any further information, or that they can be in a better position to judge of the facts of the case than they are at present. The CLERK thought it might be desirable to ascer- tain from a medical gentleman what he considered an amputation. The CHAIRMAN There is a medical officer present, but I do not think it is quite right to ask another medical officer such a question. If we had one of the medical guardians present it would be different. Mr. ENSOR characterised the charge of Dr. Fennell as a deliberate attempt to obtain money from the Board by false pretences. Dr. FENNELL I am very sorry to hear you say so. I never attempted anything of the kind. Alderman BIRD: Never before? Dr. FENNELL: Never, sir. Alderman BIRD What do you say with regard to the case at Pentyrch. Dr. FENNELL did not understand to what Mr. Bird referred. Alderman BIRD Don't you know the case of the girl's foot ? Dr. FENNELL said he was new to the business of a Union Medical Officer at that time. He went several times to attend upon the girl, and he considered he was entitled to the charge. With regard to the present case he had attended four times to the boy for the purpose of removing the fingers. The fingers were removed, and in that sense he considered that it was bona fide an amputation. The CHAIRMAN Then you still consider that it was an amputation ? Dr. FENNELL said he did. Mr. HODGE said there was a great discrepancy be- tween the statements of the doctor and the mother. The doctor stated that he removed the cut finger first, and did not remove the splintered one, as ho hoped to save it, till mortification set in. The boy and the mother both state that the splintered finger was re- moved first; and the one which was taken off by the machine had simply the pieces of bone hanging to the flesh removed by the scissors. Dr. FENNELL said he took a portion of the bone away. The CLERK said it had been suggested by some of the guardians that the facts of the case should be sent to the Poor Law Board, aud ask their opinion whether they consider it an amputation. Alderman BIRD: And a further question, how the doctor is to be dealt with. The CHAIRMAN said that would follow. He sug- gested referring the case to the medical guardians. Alderman BIRD said it had been already referred to them, and it was upon the faith of Dr. Fennell's ex- planation to them that the money was paid. Alderman ALEXANDER thought it was far better to remove the case entirely from the guardians by sending it to the Poor Law Board. Dr. FENNELL said Mr. Bird had referred to a case at Pentyrch, where he had made a charge for the setting of a broken leg. Alderman BIRD said they had already investigated that case and struck the charge out. Dr. FENNELL said he visited the girl several times, and as soon as he found that Mr. Evans was attend- ing her he ceased his visits, but he was perfectly unaware that Mr. Evans was attending her at the time he did. Being young in the business of a Union medical officer he did not know what charge to make, and previous to sending in his charge he consulted with one or two of his brother officers, and he was certainly not aware that he was not entitled to the charge he had made. He was very sorry to find that any allusion had been made to it, or that it had been said that he had attempted to deceive the Board. He had never attempted it. The CHAIRMAN said there was a difference of opi- nion at the time as to whether the leg had been broken. Alderman BIRD said the conclusion arrived at was that the leg was not broken, and therefore the charge was not allowed. Dr. FENNELL No it was not that; but it was held that as I did not attend the case from the beginning to the end I was not entitled to the charge. The CHAIRMAN stopped any further remarks on this matter which was not connected with the question be- fore the Board, although, he said, he felt it was right to allow Dr. Fennell to tnl'lkp, his explanation On the motion of Alderman ALEXANDER, seconded- by Alderman BIRD, the matter was then referred to the Poor Law Board. The Clerk wrote down the statements of the boy and the mother, and requested Dr. Fennell to send his explanation for transmission to the Poor Law Board. The meeting then separated.
THE RECENT ARREST OF MURPHY AT BIRMINGHAM —The Mayor of Birmingham and the chief police have been served with notices of action" in this matter. POACHING AFFRAY.—A conflict took place on Sunday between a number of poachers and two gamekeepers in the employ of Mr. Thomas Hague Cook, of Dewsbury. The keepers' names ar« John Nicholson, of Batley, and James Fearnley, of Soothill. 'Nicholson was to severely maltreated that Lieut.-Colonel Day, of Mirfield, was sent for, and took his depositions at. his residence, where he now lies in a very precarious position. His scalp was very much injured, and his right hand—which he appa- rently had raised to protect his head-was literally smashed to pieces. The police have succeeded in appre- hending three of the gang, whose names are Charles Anty, Frederick Senior, and Benjamin Taylor. all of whom reside at Batley Carr, near Dewsbury. LYNCH LAW AT WIMBLEDON.—There has been an instance of Lynch law at Wimbledon. A man employed in camp collected a sum of money in the name of others under false pretences. He kept the collection to himself, but his doings were discovered, and the indignant per- sons whose names he had surreptitiously used, undertook his punishment—they dropped him into a water tank used to supply a steam-engine. He was extricated more like a "drowned" rat than a man. MONDAY.—Monday is everywhere pronounced to have been the hottest day of this very changeable summer weather. EXCITING CHASE.—I my lonely toilsome way was slowly trudging, and in my heart was vainly judging il the weary miles would not prove more than I could bear when on before me I saw striding a man as if intent or hiding, he flew, it seemed, he knew not where. Inquisi. tive, I thought to approach him, my utmost efforts: would try, fearful as I reached him I should hear hin cry and sigh, but I only found him singing bless Bor wick's Baking Powder." His folly hurt my pride, but curious, I gained his side and asked from what dreat danger he was trying so to hide, but still he only criet "buy Borwick's Baking Powder." In time he plainl: told me the cause he walked so boldly was Borwick'i Baking Powder "all indigestion's cured and other aches allured by eating bread and pastry made with Borwick'i Baking Powder." I left, and soon as home I reachec, the strange man's words I preached, and then inducel my wife, after a short but friendly strife, to use nothing else than Borwick s Baking Powder. Soon the youo: ones crowed the louder, and no family e'er lookei prouder, all caused by Borwick's Baking Powder. Fer all sorts of pastry stuff, and this really is no piiff, yci cannot buy enough of Borwick's Baking Powder, t is only but to try and nothing else you'll buy but Bo- wick's Baking Powder. rS934
ON TIE WORLD OF PHYSIC AND THE WORLD. The fallowing is the late Anniversary Address of the Pesident of St. Andrew's Medical Graduates' Associaion, Dr. Benjamin H. Richardson. The Addressis replete with knowledge of the most in- teresting and valuable kind, and we commend it to the atention of our readers FELLOE GRADUATES, LADIES AND GENTLEMEN, A dctsion of the Council of the St Andrew's Medical Graduates' Association, that members should invite fiends—ladies and gentlemen—to the Annual Address has imposed on me a duty difficult as novel. Bound t' speak in the name of a number of scholars in physic, Tho are striving to hold an advanced position in their day and generation, I am excluded dealing with air one of those refined subjects in practical medical cience, which could give scope for possible display <f the learning of the profession in its own par- ticular valk, but which could not, at the same time, be made of nterest to a general assembly. I have tried to meet -he difficulty by selecting a subject that shall be comnon to all scholars and all interests I mean, the mutual relationships of the communion of physic and thecommunity at large :—" The World of Physic and the World." Did you ever, Ladies and Gentlemen, let your minds have raige so as to take in, at one grasp of view, the world o physic as an isolation from other worlds of life on tiis planet ? Have you thought of it distinc- tively, .s you have of the nations of the earth, the lan- ganges,the races ? Perchance you have not; and if you ha'e not, then may the picture be worthy your regard even though, with indifferent pencil, it is put beforeyou in bare outline. We then, who, according to our several gifts, minist:r to the physical ills of mankind, form, the world over, an effective strength of probably one mil- lion ofmen, and, excluding the significant old ones of both exes, say twenty women. In every second of the paising time a detachment of from ten to fifteen of us is ninistering to the sick. Each minute brings one of us ft least in or near the presence of death each minuti brings one of us at least in presence of the first breath of, the living temple making us the eye wit- nesses of the natural fact so immortally expressed, that inthe grand scheme of Creation, "death has no sting, the grave no victory." In the midst of these first anl last phenomena of human existence, we live, conyer,ant also at other times with endless changes of pain aid pleasure, sorrow and happiness, strength and weakmss, lying between the first and last. As ve are represented in English and Welsh life, a fair rejresentation, I think, of a general kind, there are nine ol us, on the average, equipped and ready for the service of ten thousand living people in this ten thou- sand, iour hundred and forty-four are constantly sick, of whom two hundred and twenty-two die in the year each member of the world of physic has therefore an average of forty-seven claimants for his skill constantly on hand, i.e., nearly two every hour, on the average of time, oy night and by day. Out million, as the result of this persistency and ne- cessity of action, knows little rest; and as men, like all thngs else of the earth subjected to motion, exist a longer or a shorter time according to wear and tear, so we, rf all sections of the living human world, who are abovt manual labour, and, indeed, of the community at large, up to fifty-five years of age, present the shortest of exiitences, in the forms by which, during our ephe- mera, we are known and recognised. At twenty-five years of age, we die at the rate of nearly five to four of the general community; at forty-five as two to one and four-fifths; then, indeed, those who can live throigh so much, hold good their ground, and, at fifty-five, are a shade better than the average at sixty- five, a shade worse, and after that better. Fiom the certain average destiny that is before our million, and from its close converse at all times with extremes of anxiety, it might be inferred that the life is one of gloom. It is not so. As men, in the positive face of danger, become, even against their natures, brava, by a process of reasoning peculiar to the occa- sion and extorted from them by virtue of necessity, so medical men, in the actual presence of the most serious evils, as evils are commonly understood, become, if the term be not a paradox, implacably resigned to anxiety, and live in it apart from it, save as all men live in it whea it comes to them, or theirs, individually. This adaptation of the mind to the absolute necessity of time and circumstance is, in the case of the representa- tives of the world of physic, an inestimable blessing to all. The mind, too anxious about results, the hand, too tender for action, the voice, too hesitant to suggest or to command, is not the mind, the hand, the voice, to te in action when the issues of life, or of death, stanl in array. So our mistress Nature ordains, not by bencing of her laws to the men, but by the bending of the men to her laws, that they shall be, as they are, comnon sharers with other men in joy and in sorrow. Men, who live in the presence of more sorrow than the rest of the world, but who, by hourly converse with that sorrow, are mentally lifted from it. Men, know- ing, scientifically, how best to remove or appease sor- row, and who are ready ever to accept this task as a part of their daily duty, by virtue of an acquired natire which is in them, but not originally of them, and which, were it of them, would prohibit the exercise of tuw aut, -tirViinli tliey are made useful to the world, and to themselves as a part of the world. The million of physic, as to its origin is, and always has been, and probably always will be, form the class of mankind, middle in station. The rich and en- nobled can never be sufficiently numerous to yield the million demanded the poor can never find the means to educate the million. It is true that in this country a noble dike, the Duke of Richmond, once stood on the roll of ths Royal College of Physicians, and it is equally true tha- a carpenter, John Hunter, came from the work-benih to bring the Royal College of Surgeons into fame, and himself into unspoken, because unspeak- able, horour. But these are grand exceptions, alone even in England, elsewhere unknown. Here again Nature tends humanity to her law. It is essential that mei whose daily duties extend alike to all, to the monarcl, or president of the state, as to the lowest of the low, should be accessible to all, and by mind, by heart, ty will, the helpmates of all; and our million represents, in this sense, more distinctly than any other lving world, the common brotherhood of the world. To us, in our actual vocation, in our dealing with abstract man, blood is blood, muscle is muscle, nerve .s nerve, brain is brain, eye is eye, tooth is tooth, pain ii pain, exhaustion is exhaustion, apart from all the other considerations by which other men, or by whicl we ourselves out of our special vocation, exalt or degrade the human social life. In mo- ments of exalteds ambition we may lament our lot, but we must bow to it, as to the inevitable, and, in moments of solemn thought, we must accept it as blessed. So is it received, indeed by the world the peasant rests upon it, feeling that in the hands of the faithful healer, he is as safe as the king the proudest, the most absolute of rulers, a ruler of many rulers, trusting in it, begs his physician to treat the sharer of his crown even as he would treat the simplest of his subjects while Christendom, speaking by the mouths of its holiest of the holy, loves, as if in the most carefully chosen and expressive words, to illus- trate the character of its Divine Founder by his deeds as the Physician. From the very universality of the working life of our world of physic, its power is indefinite, better, per- haps, say indefinable. The power of the priest is not ours the power of the lawgiver is not ours; the power of the soldier is not ours we have never in our his- tory, as a class, been connected with national revolu- tions, national conquests, national crises of any kind, for good or evil. Esculapius, according to the ancient way of expressing his greatness, was received into the number of the gods, simply because he cultivated the art of physic with a little more subtlety than his fellows. And William Harvey, the nearest personal friend, as the physician, of any crowned king, left no more powerful nor any lesser work than the discovery of the circulation of the blood. And yet, negative though we appear to have been, a.nd appear to be, we have at all times, and in all coun- tries exerted a veiled influence, which, like all great natural forces, has been the more potent for that it has not been ostentatiously exposed to public view. When (I great catastrophes of disease have shaken the hearts of men, the world of physic has ever been at hand, a firm and reliable power, keen to investigate, bold to inter- vene, and, by natural contempt of danger, qualified to sustain hope and prevent the pain of despair. In our daily routine it n a part of our accepted duty to up- raise the downcast; while we hold up to the world, by the constant strain of our efforts and ambition to im- prove our science, in all its parts, the indisputable proof that we are prepared, to any extent, to lessen the necessity which calls us into action, and brings into our hands the labour on which we depend for our daily bread. Thus, the world of physic is in many ways a present power a power silent but sure; a passive power, inoffensive yet propulsive acting solely by its units, yet strong because its units, a million times multiplied, have a common intention and will. To this direct power of the world of physic, past and present, a power honestly claimed by every honest member of that world, may be added certain indirect influences which have not been without their value. Medicine has, at all times, produced men who have cultivated pure physical science with an energy and perseverance shown by no other special class of man- kind. Our Kepler laid the first steps in the study of vision, and with these the first steps in optics as a part of physical science. Our Mahow first suggested the compound character of the air, and the existence in it of a something that sustained the combustion of flame, and the combustion of the living body. Our Boer- haave excited a taste for chemistry and gave a character to that science, which since his day have never de- clined. Our Black determined the product of burning carbon, and showed that product as exhaled from the ordinary furnacr and the living lamp. Our Hunter re- modelled'the study of natural history, and laid the foundation of that study of the history of nature, past and present, to which Cuvier, who in exile practised surgery, devoted his best life, and which the still living master, Owen, also of the same profession, has so splendidly advanced. Our Hartley expounded the fact of the communication of motion in vibrations, from the outer universe into the mutual body. Our Locke made logic a true science, and gave meaning to the study of the human understanding itself. Our Erasmus Darwin wrote the earliest accurate readings of the living relationships between plants and animals, and bequeathed the study which his great descendant and namesake, who still is with DS, has so marvel- lously elaborated. Our Linnaeus and De Candolle vie with each other as founders of that philosophical study and classification of plants, which the distinguished Hooker, with a zeal worthy of his masters, in this day maintains. Our Metcalfe, with labour of learning not often seen, was amongst the first who introduced the theory of the unity of force and nature. Our Haller conferred precision and breadth of expression on the literature of science; and our Goldsmith introduced into works of fiction a purity, beauty, and chasteness which, before his time, was unknown. Our Mungo Parke was the traveller who made the first decided progress in discovering the interior of Africa and the sources of the Nile and our noble Livingstone, whom we hope soon to see amongst us again, has completed what his less fortunate brother, even at the sacrifice of his life, left unachieved. In naming these simple matters of history, shall I say too much if I claim, that in the advance of the physical sciences, the world of physic has taken and sustained, a pre-eminence which those who have made pure physic their sole study, have not surpassed. If we turn from physical to social science, we find again, in the world of physic the same pervading in- fluence. The teaching of the deaf and dumb and blind to hold converse with their more fortunate fellows has been the work of our zealous progressionists. The foundation of sanitary science was laid by Southwood Smith and his army of medical followers at home and abroad. From the galled limbs of the insane the iron fetters were boldly and for ever struck off by one of our brethren, who this day is even here amongst us, Gardiner Hill; while by the labours, profound as beau- tiful, of Conolly, the humane management of the insane was not onlyT consolidated, but the whole subject was reduced to an order, simplicity, and advancement, which contemporary narrative could not possibly reveal in all its meaning, plenitude, and beneficence. Connected with this same subject, the world of physic, in silent measure, is increasingly labouring to discover the intricate relationship of crime and disease, the end of which work must be to demonstrate to the legislator, that the absolute theory of punishment, as the one and universal remedy for crime, is equivalent to crime itself in folly and in evil and that the major part of the miserables who occupy the felon's dock or cell, are specimens of mentally deformed humanity, to save whom, or the similar of them, from disfiguring another age, we must go back to the principles of their growth, training, development, and cast improvement there. Lastly, in its estimates of life—of life as a something that may be calculated upon, even in the money market, insured upon, realized, as of so much gross earthly value, changing in value according to habit, condition, descent, labour—of the comparative life values of pro- fessions and trades, of sexes, counties, nations—our medical world has produced learning which has no rival. One man of the medical world, who to-day also honours us with his presence, has in this direction in- vented a science, the ultimate value of which cannot be foreseen, it is so wonderful. You have anticipated me when I name Dr. William Farr. The learning of the world of physic, its own learning, is, at first sight, singularly irregular and diverse. In this advanced Europe, in America, and in the other civilised nations, the physician is, one might think, another order of mortal, when compared with his brother of the far east, untutored and rudely skilled. In this civilised land, see the learned professional what aid he calls He enters the chemical laboratory, and brings forth potent agents with which he moves the living or- ganism almost as he wills now he puts it into dead slumber and perfect rest; anon, he increases its muscu- lar action till the will is subservient to the stronger power. He subjects it to air of extreme heat, and he freezes parts of it until the structure is like stone. If he lists, he puts his ear to the body and hears its mechanical throbbings and breathings, and reduces what he hears to such perfect rule that he can calculate on changes of structure and function, as distinctly as if he could see the hidden workings. If he lists, he takes up his reflecting glass, peers straight into the eye and other parts of the organism, and observes the changes of structure and function with exactitude. If he lists, he takes out his delicate thermometer, and measuring the animal force, determines, with refined nicety, the balance of overaction or inaction. If he lists, he counts the pulsation of the body with a stop watch, or weighs the pulse, I may say, with his sphyg- mographic scale, and makes it write for him its own history, black upon white, or white upon black. He takes out of the body a speck of its blood or other structure, and, with delicate lens, reads off the history of great physical changes going on in the whole or part of the body, and it may be, forecasts results, with true discernment. In short, he gathers such absolute infor- mation respecting the body and its conditions, that if he were master to rule, as he is to observe, its pheno- mena, he were master of all that man could achieve in physic, and would be now that perfect animal engineer he one day must become. In uncivilised, or partly civilised, Thibet, see, on the other hand, the so-styled learned physician, and the aids he calls. In the month of September, when the day breaks over his magnificeut mountains, watch this man leaving his Lamasery to collect his remedies. A leathern bag and a teakettle carryall his wants. Armed with pointed iron-capped staff and hook, like a David of our own old time, he marches forth with his train ot pupils, and roaming the mountain, picks out of the laboratory of Nature .his medicinal stores, from branch, from shrub, from root. With the declining sun he returns, laden with his spoils, next day culls them, dries them in the air, packs them, labels them, stores them in some safe garner of the quiet Lamasery, and, in his honest soul, believes that the wealth of the whole medical world is in his safe keeping. Called to the couch of the sick or the dying, he is content to hear of pain, to read off signs of oppression, and, striking his fingers across the pulse of each wrist, as a musician doth the strings of his instrument, he is satisfied. The phenomena he sees are with him easily understood they are the assaults of a demon which must be ex- pelled. So many diseases, so many demons, and, let it not be doubted, so many remedies. From the won- derful pouch by the side of that physician come forth those dried-plants he gathered on the mountain side, and down the throat of the afflicted certain of them go in nauseous powder. Or, should the remedy not be in the pouch, oh I wonderful Lama physician, with more than homoeopathic skill, he writes the name of the remedy on a scrap of paper, moistens the paper with his lips, rolls it into a pill. and administers it to the faithful, who, straightway swallowing, with the ear- nest belief that the name is as good as the thing, when it comes through proper hands, believes and lives, or believes and dies, as the case may be. But before the last event shall happen, be the patient rich enough to bear the operation, our good Lama has one or two other resources at hand, belong- ing to the imaginative, which resources are bold, and in proportion as they are bold, effective. By that most convenient of theories, that every disease is a demon within the man, the good Lama has a hold to which we civilized have no claim. Between the actual existence of a thing, and firm faith in the existence, whether it be or not, the gulf is narrow in all minds, absent in most; and so the Tartar patient is, to his physician, as good as a man who should have veritably of veritably a demon within him. Well, I put to you here, to all, what would you wish for most if you be- lieved as firmly that you had a demon in your tooth, making it ache, as that you had a tooth to be made to ache ? I suspect you would like to have that demon cleared out. Further, if you were a Lama physician, and knew the quality of the demon, and his best mode of exit, you would, I think, attempt to remove him. Our Lama sympathises. He says to his patient, I can get rid of this demon by certain magical prayers, but you, being a wealthy man, are afflicted with a. very proud demon, in fact, quite a swell demon, and he will not go away unless you find him a thorough good horse to carry him off." And so the horse is brought out, properly accoutred, the prayers are recited, and then the demon, getting inside the horse, and the physician outside, they go away together, and unless the demon leaves the horse, or the physician, disposes of both, demon and physician remain as intimate as is proper so long as the horse lives. Where the demon goes afterwards I cannot say, I suppose to his native place. In our world of physic, the Lama and the civilized physician are at the antipodes of science, for which reason I have put them in contrast, leaving you to fill up the intervening castes if you like the labour.* See, in relation to this description of the Lama Phy- sician, the fascinating book, Travels in Tartary, Thibet, and China," by M. Hue. (To be continued.)
IRISH NONCONFORMISTS. After more than a century's separation the Wesleyan and Primitive Methodist bodies in Ireland are likely again to become one. THE GAME SEASON. The weather having been un- favourable during the hatching season, it is feared that there will be a scarcity of partridges and pheasants in Norfolk. The damp and cold of June caused many nests to be completely spoiled. THOUSANDS OF PRESENTS TO SUIT EVERY PURPOSE, TASTE, AND POCKET, AT PARKINS AND GOTTO'S.— Portrait Albums, despatch boxes, writing cases, dressing- cases, travelling bags, envelope-cases, blotting books, ink stands, desks, stationery cabinets, book slides, work boxes, tea caddies, hand bags, reticules, card cases, purses, scent bottles, cigar cases, card baskets, pocket-books, electro-gilt and elegantly mounted goods ornamental articles for mantle-shelf, drawing and library tables. Bibles, prayer-books, and church services in every type. Small articles carefully selected and sent post-paid upon pre-payment. Parkins, and Gotto, 24, 25, 27 and 28, Oxford-street, London. CROQUET 15s., 18s.. 21s., 30s., 40S, and 60s. the set, with Book of Rules. A first-rate full sized set for 30s. The Club boxwood set (the best that can be made), 60s. All Croquet sent carriage paid to any Railway Station in England on prepayment to Parkins and Gotto, 24, and 25, Oxford-street, London, W.—(A choice of 700 sets.) HALSE ON MEDICAL GALVANISM.—Paralysis, rheu- matism, loss of muscular power, debility, sleep- lessness, indigestion, asthma, sciatica, nervousness, &c., &c. See Mr. Halse's pamphlet on Galvanism for the particulars of the most extraordmary cures by means of "Halse's Galvanic Apparatus," after all medi- cines and other galvanic machines had been tried in vain. It also contains Mr. Habe's Letters on Medical Galvanism, 52 pages. Send two stamps to "Mr. W. H. Raise, Warwick Lodge, 40, Addison-road, Kensington, London," for it. [3278
Caijicticr). ♦ THE POET LAUREATE.—Mr. Tennyson i3 at present staying in Paris negotiating with M. Dore for the fur- ther illustration of his works. LADIES AND EARLY CLOSING.—Two thousand fire hundred ladies have pledged themselves not to shop after two o'clock on Saturdays. THE ANTIDOTE. The country around Pumpki* Creek, Georgia, is very sickly, and there is such. notorious prevalence of chills and fever in the district that it is the invariable custom to pass round quinine pills with the dessert. A guest who should refuse to partake would be regarded as having committed an un- pardonable breach of etiquette. A QUACK'S DESSERTS.—A quack practitioner of the worst kind, named Fowkes, of Coventry, has been sentenced to ten years' penal servitude by Mr. Justice Brett, at the Warwick assize. YOUTHFUL INTELLIGENCE.—-M. Legouve, of the French Institute, who, after writing the Moral His- tory of Women," has taken to the discussion of Fathers" and "Children," makes himself responsi- ble for this story of the alarming intelligence of a little girl. He assures us that, when he once threatened the little damsel that '"if she didn't behave properly he would tell everybody he knew," the child responded: "Well that don't trouble me." "And pray why not?" he asked. "Because, replied the precocious little philosopher, there are a great many more people that you don't know, and they will never know anything about it." Were such wisdom common among grown persons we should soon be attending the funeral of Mrs. Grundy BEER.—The quantity of beer annually produced in Europe is estimated 1,000,000,000 gallons. AN EPITAPH.—"How I do pity young people who have to go through the world," says the tombstone of a queer old lady down East. A SPINSTER'S CANDOUR.—A blushing damsel of forty- summers says: "There is no difficulty in getting en- gaged the trouble is in keeping so." SERJEANT-AT-ARMS TO THE QUEEN.—The post of Serjeant-at-Arms to Her Majesty has become vacant by the death of Mr. E. K. S. Macleod. A GIRL FARMER.—Anna Smith, a girl of nineteen years old, of Mills county, Iowa, is working a farm of one hundred acres, on her own account. A MISSIONARY'S POVERTY.—A home missionary was asked the cause of his poverty. "Principally," said he, with a twinkle of the eye, because I have preached so much without notes." A BANKRUPT JOCKEY.—James Grimshaw, a well- known jockey, who was formerly in the service of the Marquis of Hastings, has received his order of discharge in the Bankruptcy Court. CONTAGIOUS DISEASES.—We hear that the Select Committee on Contagious Diseases have recommended an extension of the Act to other garrisons in addition to those in which it is now in operation.— Army and Navy Gazette. SCANDAL IN HIGH LIFE.—The latest high-life scan- dal relates to the wife of "a certain duke whose name has been much before the public of late in connection with some unfortunate circumstances." The last and worst misfortune which has befallen the duke is alleged to be the elopement of his duchess with a well- known singer. DEATH OF GEORGE HODSON.—A good delineator of Irish parts has passed away in the person of Mr. C eorge Hodson. He was the son of the late Mr. G. A. Hod- son, the musical composer. His mother was a niece to Mrs. Siddons, and well known in Bath in their relation- ship with the Siddons and Kemble families. Mr. George Hodson was born in Dublin in 1822. FROM NEW YORK IN A YACHT.—The American yacht Dauntless, Vice Commodore James G. Bennett, jun., arrived at Queenstown on Sunday, at 2.30 p.m. making the run from New York to Queenstown in twelve days, 17 hours, 6 minutes, and 12 sec., and beat- ing the time of the Henrietta in her famous ocean race with the Fleetwing and Vesta. The Dauntless ex- perienced heavy weather throughout the entire voyage. DEATH OF DR. YEARSLEY.—The death is announced of Dr. James Yearsley, of Sa vile-row, London, a. gentle- man who has practised in the metropolis for many years with great success. From an early period of his medical career he directed his studies to diseases of the ear, and became one of the most skillful aurists in England. He has written several useful works, theo- retical and practical, on his favourite branch of medical science. Dr. Yearsley was sixty-four years of age. • THE NAILERS' STRIKE IN WORCESTERSHIRE.—The strike on the part of this class of workers continues. The bulk of those employed in the Old-hill district are now out, as well as those in the Bromsgrove district. In all, there are now about 5,000 out. The men in the Halesowen district have not yet joined more than partially in the strike, though they are as much dis- satisfied with their wages as are their fellow-workers in the Bromsgrove district. THE IRISH MILITIA.—New regulations affecting the Irish militia have been promulgated by order of the Lords Justices from Dublin Castle. The Government have determined on raising the pay of regimental officers during training to the same rates as those of officers of corresponding ranks in the line. A daily personal allowance of 4s. is to be given to all officers towards messing. Officers in public quarters may draw half their usual rates of lodging money towards the pro- visions of such furniture as may be necessary in ad- dition to that supplied from public store. Among various other points, it is conceded that officers re- tiring from the service after fifteen years' service, of which ten have been in the militia, may retain their rank and wear the uniform of the regiment to which they belonged. The object of these concessions is to reduce as far as possible the number of vacancies in the subaltern ranks of the regimental officers. THE THREE LITTLE BUGS.—Three little bugs in a basket, and hardly room for two. And one was yel- low, and one was black, and one like me or you. The space was small, ifo doubt, for all—but what should three bugs do ? Three little bugs in a basket, and hardly crumbs for two and all were selfish in their hearts, the same as I or you. So the strong ones said, We will eat the bread, and that is what we will do." Three little bugs in a basket, and the beds but two would hold so they all three fell to guarding the white, the black, and the gold, and two of the bugs got under the rugs, and one was out in the cold So he that was left in the basket, without a crumb to chew, or a thread to wrap himself withal, when the wind across him blew, pulled one of the rugs from off the bugs, and so the quarrel grew And so there were none in the basket, ah, pity 'tis, true but he that was frozen and starved at last, a strength from his weakness drew, and pulled the rugs from off both of the bugs, and killed and ate them, too. Now when bugs live in a basket, though more than it can hold, it seems to me they had better agree, the white, the black, and the gold—and share what comes of beds and crumbs, and leave no bug in the cold. LONG HAIR AND SHORT.—Our primitive ancestors, the Britons, and like them the Gauls, allowed their hair to grow undisturbed. It often reached below the waist, and men like Caractacus must have looked curiosities. Conquered by the Romans, the Gauls and Britons were ignominiously clipped. In his enumera- tion of the Gallic tribes led into captivity by Caesar, Lucian speaks of the Liguses "now shorn but erewhile possessed of an abundant flow of hair." Those of the Gauls who obtained their liberation hastened to let their hair grow again in order the more to mark the importance they attached to flowing locks they took to shaving their slaves. It is thus that Ausonius speaks of four young boys and four young girls, all shorn, as being a customary present to a rich Gaul on his wed- ding-day. At the beginning of the fifth century Pharamond established his kingdom in the province which thenceforth took the name of France. The Gauls were reduced to a state of bondage, and the conquerers laid ruthless scissors upon their victims' polls. From this time it became a generally under- stood thing all over Europe that long hair was the exclusive appanage of the great and noble. Not only serfs, but free peasants and burgesses, were forbidden to go about otherwise than cropped. The glebe slaves on a nobleman's estates were even (during the fifth, sixth, and seventh centuries) shorn altogether and it is from this custom that the practice of saluting by taking off the hat arose. The act of uncovering the head amounted to saying See, sir I am your servant; I have no hair." THE BRISTOL POLICE FORCE.—The total strength of the Bristol police force is 303, which are thus divided— Central division 1 superintendent, 2 inspectors, 14 sergeants, and 84 men Clifton division 1 inspector, 10 sergeants, and 77 men St. Philip's 1 inspector, 7 sergeants, and 46 men Bedminster 1 inspector, 7 sergeants, and 52 men. Of the total 303, 213 are married men, 9 are widowers, and 81 are single. The single ones lodge at the station-houses, for which ac- commodation they pay Is. per week. The average number of dismissals during the year is 14, and the resignations 16. The average number of men who have been in the force over 20 years is 39 between 10 and 20 years, 80 between 5 and 10 years, 72 and under 5 years, 112. Men on first joining the force are paid 16s. a week for the first month, and after that 18s. until they have been in it for two years over two years' service is remunerated at the rate of 21s. a week. The men are found their coats, trousers, hats, &c., and are allowed 6d. a week for boots. Four sergeants doing duty alternately as inspectors, and called reserve sergeants, receive 30s. a week four patrol sergeants, who are on duty from 9 p.m. till 6 a.m., receive 26s. a week four sergeants acting as Mayor's officers re- ceive 26s., and 26 section sergeants get 25s. a week. The inspectors are paid 45s. a week. After a man has served over 20 years, and is over 60 years of age, he is entitled to a superannuation allowance of two-thirds his full pay if he has served over 15 years and is under 60 years of age to half pay. There are at pre- sent one inspector, 6 sergeants, and 6 constables on the list. The superannuation fund, which is made up of weekly contributions by the men, the sale of old clothing, gratuities to the force, See., amounts to over £ 13,000, the yearly income from all sources being about £ 1,600. The amounts paid out do not at present ex- ceed £350 a year. The ordinary constables are on day and night duty alternately for a month. The night duty extends from 9 p.m., till 6 a.m. the day duty is broken up—one batch being on from 6 a.m. till 9 a.m., and again from 2 p.m. till a quarter to 6 p.m. and the other batch from 9 a.m. till 2 p.m., and from a quarter to 6 p.m. till 9 p.m. The plain-clothes men, telegraph clerks, and others on special duty, sometimes have their hours varied.