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4FTRTI0CRLLIIITFETT& COTTAGE GAnnKxs BILL.—A writer in the Ilhrrl.: Lane Express observes—"This Cottage Gardens Bill is one of those provisions which, when a labourer is thrown out of work, prevents him from being thrown out cf hope or thrown into prison. A work- house is a prison, call it what name you may. You may get liberty, it is true, but only at the risk 0: starvation. The Cottage Gardens Bill saves the labourer from this horrible alternative; it does more. it gives him property of his own, and hence makes him conservative of the property of others; it does more, it employs those idle hours that would be spent at a fceer-shop concocting poaching, or something worse, in proyiding for a wife and family, when the demand for labour is scarce and the wages of labour small; it does more, it keeps young per- sons of both sexes at home, under the eye of then- parents, instead of forcing them into the association of those "strange bed-fellows" with whom poverty or theponr-hoase proverbially makes them acquainted. It may not be uninteresting to add a few statistics from the article in the JVew Quarterly Review, to which we have referred, on a matter which has been greatly misrepresented by the free-trade party, viz,, the alleged incapability of Great Britain to iraintain, at no very remote period, its population, at the pre- sent ratio of increase. We discover that in Flanders, which in many of its agricultural features resembles England, the population amounts to 507 the square mile, in the Pays de Vaud to 658, Holland, to 284, while England contains but 2/0. Jersey possesses but 40,000 acres of soil, with 47,540 inhabitants, and the Canton of Zurich 300,000 to 175,000 souls, 2^ acres to every individual; while Great Britain, with 77,394,433 acres, has a population of 26,000,000, or more than three acres to every soul. Mr. Alison may well exclaim, 'Humanity would have no cause to regret an increase of the numbers of the species, which should cover the plains of the world with the husbandry of Flanders, or its mountains with the peasantry of Switzerland;' thus clearly demonstrating that unless the climate and soil of England be far less favourable to agricultural pursuits than those of the above-mentioned countries, which nobody ventures to assert, we have still 'room and verge enough' to maintain our increasing population. It is now generally admitted that there are not less than five millions of acres of land uncultivated and readily cultivable in England and Wales, besides immense tracts of a similar nature in Ireland and Scotland; estimating the produce of this land at two quarters and four bushels per acre, it would give twelve mil- lions and a half of quarters of corn, but the annual average of foreign corn imported is less than three millions of quaiters; therefore it is obvious, where the soil of England cultivated as it should be, millions of human beings might yet be added to our popula- tion, aud our soil be able to support them. SWANSEA AND DULAIS VALES IRON AND COAL COMPANY.—At a time when railways are about to be established thick and threefold, the idea of creating a large and capacious set of iron works, under the con- duct of a powerful Joint Stock Company, is not bad. On the contrary, it evinces a spirit of provident enter- prise that is very commendable in point of national utility, and clear-sightedness in respect of securing profit to parties who are spirited enough to engage in it; at least we hope that the latter will derive a benefit; they deserve it, and the concern seems calculated to render it. There can lie no doubt, whatever may be the proceedings in Parliament during the next and the following sessions, that a very large supply of iron will be required, more, we imagine, than this country has ever before at any period of its history had necessity for. If, then, the supply be restricted, or confined to a few, the interests of the country and of railway proprietors stand a good chance of being severely injured by an increased price for that ma- terial being demanded. AY hen we say an increased, we mean an undue and extravagant increase of price; we all know by experience what iron masters are— that thfir conduct, when they have you in their power, is of the same character as their metal—hard, close, and unbending. Therefore, the establishment of an additional set of extensive iron-works will not only add materially to the general supply, but is calculated to check in a great measure—being conducted by a public Joint Stock Company—any unfair dealing that may be attempted. Punch," who, although a very amusing and general dealer in the ridiculous, is a very useful and acute fellow, says in a recent number, "Parliament bids you to execute your contracts in a certain short period of years, or months almost. You must have the iron in that time, and do you think the iron masters will spare you ? The intention is to establish large iron works on a district lying be- tween the Swansea and Dnlais Valleys, for which purpose the Hendreladis, Drim, and other estates have been offered to the Company. Mr. G. C. Manby reports that these estates are capable of furnishing a large supply of the mineral, which it is the object of the Company to seek, as well as to manufacture into metal. He thinks that there is sufficient mineral contained in those properties, (which, by the by, are situated in the neighbourhood of some of the most abundantly supplied and successful iron-works in the kingdom, and which contains "upwards of three square miles of minerals in a ring fence,") to supply an establishment equal to that of Sir John Guest, or Messrs. Craw.-hays, for sixty years," or capable of producing a total quantity of upwards of 5,000,000 tons of iron. He goes on to say, which we think worth quoting, that by means of the proposed works, Pig-iron may be produced on this estate, at from 42s. to 46s. per ton, according to the price of wages and the cost of delivery from Hendreladis to Swansea is less than 3s." Messrs. P. Richard, E. Thomas, and W. Brough, have also reported favourably re- specting the capacity of the undertaking. In 1825, the produce of the United Kingdom was 531,000 tons of iron; but from that period to 1840 the demand rapidly increased, and was supplied by bringing into play large mineral districts, till then unoccupied,— Scotland, North Wales, and the anthracite district of South Wales. In 1840, the make was 1,396,000 tons. The increase in the demand which led to that increase of produce was by no means equal to the one which must presently ensue; and, unfortunately, the means of increasing the supply are now, perhaps, in comparison, limited. The mineral districts of Great Britain, it is said, are almost all occupied and worked to their full extent by the present establish- ments. Mineral surveyors calculate that the Black- band iron-stone of Scotland will not continue to sup- ply the present furnaces for more than twenty-two years. In Staffordshire, we are told, the mines are becoming exhausted. A large number of the works that could otherwise extend their make, are held by lessees whose leases expire in a few years, and who, consequently, cannot afford to go to the expense of enlarging their works. These circumstances appear to us to show the utility of the above undertaking, as well as the power it possesses in itself of ample remu- neration.—Railway Journal. THE IRON TRADE.—During the last week the usual quarterly meetings of the ironraasters of the South Staf- fordshire aud Shropshire districts were held; that on Thursday, in our own Town-hall, was looked to with Unusual interest, as at the Wolverhampton meeting on Wednesday little was iluue beyond the interchann-eofordi- nary, but on this occasion, rather more cordial greetings between the members ot the trade and their customers. The question of price seemed to be rather avoided than discussed, and a pretty general impression prevailed that no open avowal of an advance beyond that of 20s. per ton which took place during the last quarter, would be made, although it was well known that private bargains, made with strong induenmpnts to the sellers, were in progress. Various conferences took place on Thursday morning, and a sort of coqueting was kept up, which made the general meeting in the Town-hall unusually late—at one o'clock there being scarcely tnore th;¡3 twenty persons present. The Shropshire masters generally expressed a wish to keep the price firm as. it wns; but in the course of the dav it became known that several of the large Staffordshire makers would not take contracts for the quarter at the then price, the advance was consequently at once agreed to,and large transactions took pl-ic;1, hut even of these few exten- ded to contracts for the quarter, hut were bargains for spe- cific quantities, either in stock or to be shortly delivered. The low state of the stocks, however, limited even these dealings, and when large quantities were required, conces- sions on the part. 01 the buyers were inevitable. In the course of the day it transpired that an agreement had been entered into for ten thousand tons of rails at £ 1:l per ton; which, allowing rails to be 3?,.¡. per ton above the price of bars, would make the pnce for merchant iron in this case tobejElO 10s., or 10s. above the advanced price agreed upon. It may, therefore, he stated that the advance was fully sustained. rl he iron trade may, consequently, be considered at the present time as in a most prosperous con- dition; but the effect of the advance upon the manufac- tures of the district in their competition with foreign productions, does not aflfurd so cheerful a subject for con- templation, as the derangement of prices for orders on hand tends materially to unsettle the foreign trade. The effect upon the workmen of a general advance is no less injurious, as it leads, and not without Justice, to a demand for increased Wildes iu the several departments of the col- liery, the furnace, and the forge. These demands are accompanied by a temporary suspension of industry, and even when complied with, tend but in few cases to promote the comfort of the families of the operatives. Enlarged means cf indulgence too frequently lead to an increase to time being required for spending them, and thus, even a higher price being paid for labour does not secure an in- creased supply- The education of the working classes, & its consequence—their increased intelligence- .can alone lead to that idenlifiealion of their interests with the masters, which will tend to that full and energetic co-operation which alone can ensure, eveu under favourable circumstances, permanent and general prosperity, ■—Birmingham Gazette.

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