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tthe Churctt. m




.r. FARM DRAINING. At the last monthly meeting of the Cardiff Farmers' Club, Mr. David, the president, called the attention of the members present to an Essay on Draining Tiles, which was read by Mr. Maughan at a recent meeting of the Stewponey Farmers' Club. Mr. Maughan com- menced by reviewing the various plans of constructing kilns, and then gave his plan of construction, which appeared to be the most economical as well as the most efficient. He then entered upon calculations which had reference to the cost of procuring tiles—the different forms in use. and then proceeded as follows to speak of the good effects produced by draining, and to comment upon the different systems adopted :— Of the efficacy of the piocs there is not the least roornfor doubt; some years of experience in other countics, as Kent, Sussex, Essex, and Suffolk, have demonstrated their efficip.ncy.. In the 'course of last winter I drained some lands in the occu- pation of Mrs. Russell, at the Straits, near Askew Brirlpe, about a mile from Himley, and I laid the drains (three feet depp) alternately with one Inch pipes, two inch pipes, and with tiles and soles. The main or carrier diain has been left open, that the neighbours might observe, if tbey thought pro- per, the aClion of the different drains. The one incll pipes have discharged after heavy rains as freely as the others. I purpose leaving the main drain open for some little time to come, and I hope that parlles in the nei!1;hbourhood, both farmers and tile makers, who have any prejudice against pipes. wIll take occaslOu to observe the action of those drains "fter a tall of rain. I was myself at first rather distrustful of the one inch pipps; I never doubted their sufficiency to carry off the water required of them in ordinary frequent or furrow draiA- irJg; hilt I was apprehensive of displacement at the ends, and consequently of obstruction. If care be taken in the laying of the one inch pipes, experience ha" assnred us that they are in all respects efficacious. To make certainty, how- ever, doubly slIre: and to guard against any displacement at the ends, I have adopted and shall continue the plan, of lay. ing the ("ud of the otle inct. pipe into the end of Ihc two inch pipe, or rather of laying the pipes end to end, with a collar M before described, which is perhaps the betler plan; and as to the sufficiency and efficacy of drains so constructed for surface draullng in stiff clay soils, I do not entertain any doubt \\Ihatever. With men who hllve familiarised themselves to the use ef the large heavy draining tile, there wiJ1 no doubt lurk for 1\ time to come a distrust of the etllcacy of these pipes of small diameter. Prejudices are not all at once sltrmonn' cd. I put however, to the consideration of the most prejudiced of those who now hear me whether, if they will doubt the efficacy of one pipe of onp. inch in diameter, they can entertain any douht of the efficacy of a pipe two inches in diameter; or, better sdll, of two pipes of oue inch in diameter laid in the same drain sic1e by sMe—the junctions ,1f the one line of pipé3 being made to lie h"lf way down the lengths of the pipes in the other and parallel line ? In (he doctrine of chances, re- mite, indeed, mnst be the prJbabiJity of the two orifices or tubes becoming obstructed Even with these double line of pipes laid in each drain, the saving to he effected in the exp mse of drainage is most iinpottant, as compared with that ineurred by the use of tiles and soles, whether large or 8111 ill. It is hardlv pflssible to over-estimate the impnrtance of bringing down tiiecost of drainage from £ 8, £ 10, aud £ 12 per acre to .£:3 0,. £4, The cost of 1111 effective, permanent, and extensive drainage, Huder the old system, was wont to daunt both landlords anil tenants. Few men had courage to face it. It was indeed a serious matter to undertake •, and hence it is that so many thousands, aye, millions, of acre?, have never yet been subjected to I hose* ameliorations of which drainage must unquestionably be the foreruuner. ttwiiiheobserved that it is in the cost of production, and inthccost of carriage, that the swing under the pipe system arises. The cost of labour remains as before, or nearly EO j indeed, in many soils, entirely 50. f' nm experience & observation, I am fully convinced that a great majority uf d rai ;ers are cutting theirdrdins much too shal- low. I advise men who have any itoubt upon the subject, and who consider twenty and twenty-fonr inches sufficient, to try in the same field depths of two feet, three feet, and four feet, and to leave their mains or carriers (where practicable) open, and to observe closely the working of the. different drains, and the clf. ct of the drainage upon the condition of the laod. The experiment is easily made, and the subject is most important. ft might also be suggested to gentlemen who are about to drain their estates in different aud dis'ant situations, to pause in some instances before they incur the expense of erccltllg tileries of their own, because a tilery can seldom he placed upon a large estate within a convenient distance of all the tenantry, and the carnage is rendered onerous to many. If there be existing tileries in the country, and the proprietors of them reasonable ri.en, a landowner possessing a ponable pipe machine might have it shifted from ti.ery to tilery, the proprietor to be paid a proper consideration for making and bumiug any given number of pipes or other goods By ar- rang.on nt, the man rendered by practice expert in the mc of the machine might travel along with it. Some of the pipe machines are now so portable that they can be placed in a cart, and conveyed with perfect ease. FLOWER GARDEN AND SHRUBBERIES.—Ten-weeks Stocks sown when recommended some time ago. should now be potted otf and placed in a shady situation for a few days, and then exposed until they are stored away for the winter. Cuttings of China ffoses that are rooted should be planted out m the reserve garden, or potted otf. Ctipandfrf-shtay Box edging. Gather all seeds as they ripen, partic ilary the cones ot Abies and Piceas, as a few hot days at this season opens them, and the least wind shakes out the seed. riants in beds that are constautlv overgrowing Box or other edgings, should be cut back for cuttings, or taken to the rubbish yard. Pits and Frames.—Take particular care during the present damp weather not to water cuttings too freely, unless they are very dry; no shading will be required, but give air every morning. Continue potting* off the most forward struck cuttings, and till the pots agttin with choice or scarce kinds. FLORISTS' FLOWERS.— Tulips* — From information received from various quarters, much business has been done in these favourite flowers, and we anticipate, in consequence, strong competition throughout ihj floral world during the next blooming season. As advised last week, purchasers should lose no time in making the desired acquisitions many north and south country flowers, valuable additions to even the most select beds, may be obtained now at moderate prices. Carnations and Picoti es.—Where additions to collections are required, this is a good time to get them in; the amateur should bear in mind that early potting, to insure the plants being well established before winter, isindispensabte for their perfect preservation and health. In potting off rooted layers, the pots must be well drained, and the compost as simple as possible it is advisable to have the sod in which they are wintered rather poor than otherwise. Dahllus are now receiving their share of the florists care, aud where attention has been paid to the dlreCilOns given in the Chromclet we doubt not the result has been satisfactory these attentions ought not, however, to slacken, as the bloom will probably be prolonged to a later period than usual this year. Duck off all malformed lyids, and support side branches with small stakes, and dfligently examine the traps for earwigs, &c.&c. Pillk alld Pansy Beds must be kept constantly free from weeds, by careful hand-pickiug, &c. &c.; and a watchful eye must be had to all seedlings which are pricked out, fastening those dragged from the giotind by worms, &c. HARDY FRUtT AND KITCHEN GARDEN.—The propriety of cutting off the leaves of Strawberry plants has been frequently questioned. The runners should be ail cleared away, but the foliage should be allowed to remain to decay and form manure. Mont of the varieties have been obtained from species originally natives of America, and consequently well adapted for pushmg through the mass of foliage with which they must have been annually covered in that wooded country, in addition to that of their own decay. If au old plant be taken up, it will be observed that the lower portion ot the roots has a tendency to die off; but divest the stem of some of the lower leaves, and it will be seen that fresh spongioles are forming higher up the stem, ready to push in any accu- mulation of decayed foliage or other congenial substance. In some cases Strawberries produce a superabundance of foiiage and but little fruit; either fresh plantations should be made, or the old should be thim\e<l into patches not less than two feet apart. Kitchen Garden.—The taking up of the Potato crop will require to be done with more than usual care. Separation must be made of the perfectly sound, the doubtful, and the bad. The former ifcay be immediately pitted in narrow ridges, and secured by soil or turf from the access of frost and Wet. Those that are doubtful had better be laid wherethcycanbereadityiuspeeted. The effect of washing them with lime-water should be tried. Prick out Cauliflower plants; draw earth as support to the stems of Broccoli; expose the fruit of Tomatoes to the suu,


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