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THEY BID ME FORGET THEE.
THEY BID ME FORGET THEE. BY THE HON. MRS. NORTON. They bid me forget thee-they tell me that now The grave damp is staining that beautiful brow; They" say that the sound of thy gay laugh is o'er- Alas: shall I hear its sweet laugh no more! I cannot forget thee-thy smile haunts me yet, And thy deep, earnest eye, bright as when we first met; Thy gay laugh returns in the silence of sleep, And 1 start from my slumbers to listen and weep. The spring of the desert in darkness flows on, When the hand that has sealed its pure waters is gone; And the eyes of the stranger in vain seek to know Where the Arab's bright fountain is sparkling below! So this fond heart has closed o'er the source of its tea.rs- O'er the love it has lived on-yet hidden for years !— Thou art gone and another's rude hand shall in vain Seek to bring that choked fountain to daylight again. I CANNOT FORGET THEE. 1 cannot forget thee-the struggle is vain. Thy image will come in its freshness again; To bring back the past with its hopes and its fear*, Its joys and its sorrows, its sunshine and tean, I love thee, I love thee-I cannot resign The fond hope that whispers thou yet wilt be mine; At morning, at evening, in dream thou art near, And accents I loved sweetly fall on my ear, Let fate do her worst, she never can efface From my mind or my heart thy name or thy place The cold world in vain our union would sever Thou art my beloved, thou art mine, and for ever
MRS. CAUDLE S CURTAIN LECTURES.
MRS. CAUDLE S CURTAIN LECTURES. HRS, CAUDLE DISCOURSES ON MAIDS-OF-ALL-WORK AND MAIDS IN GENERAL. MR. INFAMOUS BEHA VIOtJR" TEN YEARS AGO. There now, it isn't my intention to say a word to-night, Mr. Caudle. No I want to go to sleep, if I can for, after what I've gone through, to-day, and with the head-ache I've got,- and if I haven't left my smelling salts on the mantel-piece, on the righthand corner just as yon go into the room-nobody conld miss it-I say, nobody could miss it-in a little green bottle, and-w('11, there you lie like & stone, and I might perish and you wouldn't move. Oh, my poor head! But it may open and shut, and what do you care ? Ye", that's like your feeling, just. I want my salts, and you tell me there's nothing like being still for a headache. Indeed? But I'm not going to be still; so don't you think it, That's just how a woman's put upon. But I know your aggravation —I know your art. You think to keep me quiet about that minx Kitty,-your favourite, Sir Upon my life, rm not to discharge my own servant without-but she shall go, It I had to do all the work myself, she shouldn't stop under my roof, I can see how she looks down upon me, I can see a great deal, Mr. Caudle, that I never chose to open my lips about-but I can't shut my eyes. Perhaps it would have been better for my peace of mind if I ahrays could. Don't say that. I'm not a foolish woman, and I know very well what I'm saying. I sup- pose you think I forget that Rebecca ? I know it's ten years ago that she lived with us-but what's that to do with it? Things arn't the less true for being old, 1 suppose, No; and JOur cor;dl.1ct, Mr. Caudle, at that time-if it was a hundred years ago,-I should never forget. What ? 1 shall always be the Baine silly woman ? I hope 1 shall-l trust 1 shall always have my eves about me in my own house, Now don't think of going to" sleep. Caudle 1;ecause, as you've brought this up about that Rebecca, you shall hear me out. Well, I do wonder that you can name her! Eh ? You didn't name her ? That's nothing at a11 to do with it for I know just as well what you think, as if you did, I suppose you'll say that you did'nt drink a glass of wine to her 1 Never ? So you said at the time, but I've thought of it for ten long years, and the more I've thought, the surer I am of it, And at that very time-If you please to recollect-at that very time little Jack was a baby, I shouldn't have so much cared but for that; but he was bardly running alone, when you nodded, and drank a glass of wine to that creature. No: I'm not mad, and I'm not dreaming. I saw how you did it,—and the hypocrisy made it worse and worse, I saw you when the creature was just behind my chair, JOU took up a glass of wine, and saying to me, and then lifting up your eyes at the bold minx, and saying, my dear,' as if you wanted me to believe that you spoke only to me, when I could see you laugh at her behind m(', And at that time little Jack wasn't on his feet, What do you say? HeavenfoTgive me? Ha? Mr. Caudle, it's you who ought to ask for that: I'm safe enough, I am; it's you who should ask to be forgiven. No, I wouldn't slander a saint-and I didn't take away tbe girl's character for nothing. 1 know she brought an action for what I said and I know you had to pay damages for what you call my tongue-l well remember all that. And serve you right: if you had'nt laughed at her, it wouldn't have happened. But if you will make free with such people, of course you're SUTe to suirer i'or it. 'Twould have served you right if the lawyer's bill had been double. Damages, indeed! Not that anybody's tongue could have damaged her! And now, Mr. Caudle, you're the same man you were ten years ago, What? You hope so? The more shame for you, At your time of life, with all your children growing up about you, to- What am J talking of? I know very weIl; and so would you, if you had any conscience, which you haven't. When I say I shall discharge Kitty, JOu say she's a very good servant, and I shan't get a better, But I know why you think her good; you think her pretty, and that's enough fQr you as if girls who work for their bread have any bùsiness to be pretty, -which she isn't. Pretty servants, indeed going mincing about with their fal-lal faces, as if even the flies would spoil 'em. But I know what a bad man you are-now, it's no use your denying it; for didn't I overhear you talking to Mr. Prettyman, and did'nt you say you couldn't bear to have any ugly servants about you ? ask you say that ? Perhaps you did ? You don't blush to confess it? If your principles, Mr. Caudle, arn't enough to make a woman's blood run cold!" Uh, yes you've talked that stuff again and again; and once I might have beEeved it but I know a little more of you now, You like to see pretty servants, just as you like to see pretty statutes, awl pretty pictures, and pretty flowers, and anything in Nature that's pretty, just, as you say, for the eye to feed upon, Yes; I know your eyes-very well. I know what they were ten years ago for shall I ever forget that glass of wine when little Jack was in arms ? I don't care if it was a thousand years ago, it's as fresh as yesterday, and I never will cease to talk of it, When you know me, how can JOU ask it ? And now you insist upon keeping Kitty, when there's no having a bit of crockery for her ? That girl would break the Bank of England-l know she would if she was to put her hand upon it. But what's a whole set of blue china to her beautiful blue eye3 I know that's what you mean, though you don't say it. Oh, you needn't lie groaning there, for you don't think I shall ever forget Rebecca. very well for you to swear at Rebecca now,—but you did'nt swear at her then, Mr, Caudle, I know, Margaret, my dear!' Well, how can you have the face to look at me- You don't look at me ? The more shame for YOU, I can only say, that either Kitty leaves the house. or 1 do. Which is it to be, Mr. Caudle ? Eh ? You don't care ? Both ? But you're not going to get rid of me in that manner, I can tell you. But for that trollop-now, you may swear and rave as you like- You don't intend to wy a word more ?-Very weB; it's no matter what you say-her quarter's up on Tuesday, and go she shall, A soup-plate and a basin went yesterday, tf. A soup-plate anù a basin, and when I've the head-ache as I have, Mr, Caudle, tearing me to pieces! But 1 shaH never be well in this world-never, A soup-plate and a basin! She slept," writes Caudle, and poor Kitty left on Tuesday," -Punch.
MERTHYR LITERARY INSTITUTION.
MERTHYR LITERARY INSTITUTION. MR. STEPHENS' LECTURE. On Thursday evening, Sept. 11th, the members of the Merthyr Literary Institution and Debating Society held their fortnightly meeting. In tbe absence of Mr. John Thomas, the permanent chairman, Mr. L. Reynolds pre- sided, and some preliminary matters having been gone through, Mr. Stephens was called upon to deliver his promised lecture" On the Importance and Utility of Historical Knowledge." Of the lecture the following is a brief summary :— In this the nineteenth century, we are placed in circumstances peculiarly favourable; and if knowledge conduces to human happiness, we ought to be infinitely happier than the genera- tions who have preceded us. Knowledge pours in upon us from aU. quarters; the heavens above, the earth beneath, and the 08llb.n with all its finny tenants, contribute their quota to the common fund; every tree that grows unfolds its store of silent arguments, and all nature, animate and inanimate, te11s its in.- structive tale, From all the points of the compass these nume- rous rills converge to the central position occupied by ourselves; but this is not all. The position of the Angel in Marsden's description of Time is eminently characteristic of ours :— "I saw a mighty angel stand One foot on sea, and" one on solid land;" For we are not only tenants of the present, but also masters of the past; and when philosophy endeavours to explain that awfully and wonderfully made c:reature-man, it not only em- ploys all the ston's of existing knowledge, but history enriches its collection with the combined experience of fonr thousand years. Our senses make us acquainted with what is passing around us, and reflection teaches us the proper use of the facts thus acquired hat as there are many disinclined to indulge in the luxury of thought, and too lazy to reflect upon the things presented to their notice, it becomes necessary for their sake* to have lessons of wisdom ready prepared, and to place foun- tains of bubbling thought within their reach, This desideratum is only to be found in the pages of history: there we may grasp mountains of thought without the trouble of thinking, and acquire wisdom without toiling uP, the steep ascent of experi- ence, Ilistury IS a term of very wide signification its object is to make us acquainted with the steps by which things now present to our senses have become what they seem; and under this designation wIll come the detail of the progress of arts, sciences, institutions, and nations—of everything which has ascended from imperfection to perfectIon-from confused frag- ments to order, regularity, and consolidation, and of everything which has attained importance from comparative insignificance. Into so wide a field I need not enter; and on thIS occasion I will confine my attention to the History of Man. This branch of knowledge may be diVIded Into two parts, and Yiewed under two lights. ht, As a source of interest. 2nd, As a medium of instruction. In treating these points I take for granted that the facts of history are undisputed, and that they are related lU the most instructive and interesting form, History, when read as an exercise or searched for amusement, lias no higher claim upon Our attention than that of bemg mOO- resting knowledge. It Conveys to the young and thoughtless, who cultivate It under th,ese circumstances and for these pur- poses, I1ttle or no instruction; though as a source of interest It must ever retain a prominent position, It is interesting to trace the numerous steps by whICh a lu10wledge of the heavenly bodies has become a science—by W;hicb, bundreds of years after their deaths, the sagacious conceptions of Hipparchus Ptolemy, and Copernicus have been by Galileo and Newton established npon the immutable basis of mathematical demonstration and to peep over Herschel's shoulders mto the obscurity of bound- less space, there to discover, in the specks of tinsel studding our native air, worlds quite as wonderful and systems far more stu- pendous than our own. It is interesting to stand upon the threshold of creation, and ascend step by step, stratum by stra- turn, to the present surface of our globe-to see whole genera- tions of animals and several races of plants swept away ere man became an inhabitant of the scene; and it is no less interesting to speculate, from the data furnished by the past. upon what our own ultimate destiny may be, It 1S interesting to see "the starving alchemist" poring over a dirty, crucible, and supremely blest" in the golden prospect of discovering the philosopher's stone; and it .is no less pleasing to reflect that niD Fl.Ir5uit laid the foundation ot that sipit experimental and conclusive of all the sciences—the science of chemistry. The history of all these are objects of very lively interest; but none of them can vie in ecstasy with the interest excited while tracing the progress of mind, as exemplified in the history of man as a member of society. The growth of man—the pro- gress from infancy to childhood—from childhood to youth—from youth to manhood—and from manhood to ripened age, is a perpetual reproduction of the history of social advancement. Here followed an enumeration of various objects of historical interest, which want of space compels us to omit, but which our readers, with a little effort, will imagine for themselves. The lecturer then went on- Modern history, generally speaking, can only be reckoned as interesting knowledge while the greatest fund of instruction is to be derived from ancient story. The reason for this is ob- vious. Society is an algebraic problem: it rises from step to step in an infinite series, but the first step affords no indication of what the next will be until it is practically worked out. Mankind are always progressive—they are sometimes slower on the march than at others, but they are never stationary and for the reason that no one age is an exact couotppart of the preceding. the history of the past stages of modern European society can afford us no clue to what our next step is to be. The early history of this and all other European countries, is about as instructive as a recital of the scufilings of a tavern-the ragings of braces ofbull-dogs, or the battles of kites and crows and the chief truths we glean of its later stages is the fact of progression. The histories of Greece, Rome, and India are there- fore far more instructive, inconsequence of their having already ran over a great portion of the ground which we are now en- gaged in traversing, when the barbarian hordes of Germany broke in upon them, and swamped for ages the glories of the ancient world, thereby commencing the second course of Euro- pean civilization. Literature, however, survived, and we have preserved for our special edification the history of their progress. It is from this source that we must derive the most important rules for the guidance of our own lives. Let us profit by their experience, since we are travelling over the road which they have trod before us—avoid their errors, and practice that which appears in them to have conduced to beneficial results, in the confident anticipation that as like causes will always produce the same effects, the same happiness may accrue to ourselves. In order to give practical illustrations of the views here laid down, we will enquire what are the lessons which these histo- ries teach us in morals, religion, politics, and commerce ? In Morals, we have very important lessons. No where is the proof so overwhelming of the superiority of virtue to vice, as a rule of conduct, and in conferring happiness upon the posses- sors, That honesty is the best policy is a lesson impressed upon every page, and written in the life of every eminent man. If vice is ever in the ascendant, its triumph is of but a moment's duration •. soon its deformity is seen, and is no sooner seen than hated. Honesty may be banished from a tyrant's court; but History lifts up its drooping head, and gives to the petty nabob of an hour a blasted immortality. The Athenians were envious of hearing Aristides called the Just; and yet these little butter- flies have long been forgotten, while the name of Aristides will last as long as the glory of ancient Greece. Alexander, in a fit of drunkenness, slew his friend; and all his glories have been too few to blot out the stain. The glory, renown, and greatness of nations depend to a very great extent upon public morality. In the existence of morality there is a hope but when the man- ners begin to degenerate, that nation is for ever lost. Witness the fate of Greece, Carthage, Rome, Venice, and Genoa. As regards Religion, we are taught the folly and injustice of persecution. A differs from B upon a religious point, which neither can ever hope clearly to prove but the fact of difference does not imply either superiority or inferiority nor is there any reason wh)" one should give up his opinions in deference to another. If we conceive men to hold erroneous opinions, the best way is M convince them of their error by reasoning for we may be assured thumbscrews, racks, dungeons, petty perse- cutions, and slanderous reports, are the worst possible means to effect the desired purpose. No man was ever yet convinced of his being in the wrong by being deprived of his life—annoyed in his business, or by being called a fool or an idiot. The relations of History are, however, most important in their bearing upon the political questions of the day. All the annals of man's political condition bear the impress of two distinct ten- dencies. The first is the tendency to change, progress, and improve, and this has been called the Law of Development. The secondis the tendency which thingshave to find their level, and this is the Law of Equalization. The operations of these laws vary according to the elements upon which they act. In' early times, the Law of Development raised the marauding chief and his band into a haughty baron surrounded by abject vas- sals and its continued action gave rise to the order of nobility, and to the form of government called Aristocratic. The same law, acting upon different materials, created a mercantile class; and the Law of Equalization bringing these two powers into contact, caused the struggle between wealth and nobility. In the old world this terminated in the equalization of the two classes in the modern it is not yet over, but the political annals of the day show that the merchant is treading closely on the heels of the noble. The antagonism of these two laws has given rise to another struggle between property and numbers. A very able essay has lately been written on this subject, in which the writer anticipates that that the bloody scenes of Pelopones- sian wars among the Greeks, and the proscriptions of Marius and Sylla, will be paralleled in modern times by a repetition of the French Revolution. I do not participate in his fears. The progress of intelligence will gradually approximate the extremes of unbounded wealth and wretched poverty and the gradations, just and nice dependencies of one upon the other, must, I think, prevent a hostile contact. In the old world this struggle is over-in the modern it has but just commenced: the result will be recorded by the historian, and form a subject of comment to some future historical lecturer. The lecturer then ably and philosophically entered upon the History of Commerce," and concluded with the following remarks :-The direct is, perhaps, less important than the indi- rect influence of history. Who can read the histories of Greece and Rome without imbibing the spirits of the Greeks and Romans ? Who can converse with heroes without endeavouring to exalt his own moral character ? This spirit is contagious- blends itself with a man's whole character, and imperceptibly infuses into him strengthening, improving, and ennobling tenden- cies. Of all sermons, that preached upon the mount was the best; and the next best will be that which shall present the character of Jesus in all its moral purity-free from the sickly hue of fanaticism-untarnished by any admixture of bigotry and intolerance. To such a precept who can be indifferent, and who would neglect to imitate so illustrious an example ? L. P.
i&atltoag Intelligent. The South Eastern Railway Company, at their half- yearly meeting on Thursday week, announced in the report of the directors to the proprietors, that the use of propelling engines is now forbidden on every part of the South Eastern Railway." This announcement was received with loud cheers. It was also stated that the directors had come to the determination of having the electric telegraph laid down over the whole of the railway. At present it is laid down only between Tonbridge and Maidstone; hut even this limited extent has so clearly shown its advantages as a means of communication, and as adding greatly to the safety and regular working of the railway, that they no longer hesitated to adopt the course above-mentioned. In addition, the speed of the ordinary trains has been accelerated, and the accommodation of third-class carriages much increased. We congratulate the directors upon these reforms, as well as upon the con- templated comprehensive operations mentioned in the report for connecting the South Eastern, at convenient points of junction, with the Sonth Western, the Great Western, and the London and Birmingham lines. With regard to the reforms, however, it may not be amiss to observe, that with the exception of the extension of the electric telegraph, they had all been prominently discussed in Parliament and through the press; thus showing that a little" pressure from without" is sometimes as useful to railway directors as it is to Cabinet Ministers. WELSH MIDLAND RAILWAY. On Wednesday week, the Directors of this Railway, attended by the officers of the company, pursuant to an appointment previously made, met the Provisional Com- mittee of this great undertaking in the large room, at the Green Dragon Hotel, Hereford, for the, purpose of con- ferring with them as to the general policy ot the Welsh Midland measure, in so far as it affects the county of Hereford. J. Palmer Budd, Esq., opened the proceedings by ob. serving, that coming out, as the Welsh Midland did, from the great manufacturing districts of South Wales—taking Swansea, the great outlet into the Channel, the Harbour of Refuge, and the great seat of the copper trade of this kingdom, in its route—coming by a main hne up to Brecon, joining there with the Carmarthen and other lines, and in its course uniting with lines already existing in the mineral districts — viz., from Llandilo to connect the Llanelly district by means of the Llaneliy Railway, and from Brecon, by means of a junction with the Taff Yale Railway—thus connecting the whole of the works in the important district of Merthyr Tydvii with the main trunk of the Welsh Midland, which passes through the country in the most direct manner possible, to the great seat of manufacturing industry situate in and around Bir- mingham, on the one hand and passing, from a point north of Eardisley, up the Wye Valley, to Hereford, thence via Ledbury (where an extension will be made to Glou- cester) to Malvern and Worcester, and from Hereford to Shrewsbury—would, by these means, render the city of Hereford the great centre of railway accommodation, and afford the most direct course from the manufacturing dis- tricts of South Wales, and from the agricultural counties of Hereford, Brecon, and Worcester, to the great railway system of the Midland Counties and the North of England- It was an object with the company to open the whole of the Welsh iron and coal districts; to supply the county of Hereford with minerals, and give it also an outlet for its produce. By this railway accommodation it appeared to him that the city and county of Hereford would have the means of supplying itself with coal from Staffordshire, Glamorganshire, Monmouthshire, Shropshire, and the Fo- rest of Dean even, and in return it would have the advan- tage of sending out its produce to the best markets; by it they would be enabled to purchase coal and lime at greatly reduced prices, and he believed that it would greatly benefit the landed interest generally. In addition to the straight line which would go from Hereford to Shrewsbury, there would be a direct line from Leominster to Kidderminster, where it would join the great railways to the north. Mr. Newton had asked, why they left out Merthyr 1 In reply, be would say, they did not leave out Merthyr, they accommodated Merthyr, and the whole iron trade of South Wales, in the beat possible way. There was at present a very extensive line from Cardiff to Merthyr, which they took advantage of at two points, one at the station at Merthyr, the other at the terminus at Aberdare, and they brought the whole of this great district into con- nexion with the Welsh Midland at Brecon, where the traffic would enter the main line. Then as regarded Newport, by means of the measures of the Newport and Abergavenny Railway, with which important Company they were in friendly alliance, and with whom they bad agreed for an uniformity of guage, they would receive the whole of the produce of the Monmouthshire iron field at Hereford from whence they would convey it to the North and other parts. The Newport, Abergavenny, and Here- ford Railway Company had purchased the tram road from Hereford to Abergavenny, and having also purchased the whole of the Monmouthshire Canal interest, the most com- plete communication possible between Monmouthshire and the North, in conjunction with the Welsh Midland at Hereford, would be effected. The same means of com- munication which took the produce of the works to the sea, would, by this continuation northwards, now bring it into the great manufacturing district of Staffordshire end Warwickshire. The Welsh Midland would put the pro- duce of the iron and copper and tin works into direct and unbroken communication with the whole kingdom. He made these observations in the presence of Mr. Bailey, who, as a great iron master, and a gentleman well ac- quainted with the wants and wishes of the country, would say in how far his statement was a correct one. He trusted that the statement he had made would settle the question, and throw overboard the assertion that had been made elsewhere, that the Welsh Midland accommodated two iron works only, the fact being that the Welsh Mid- land accommodated the whole of the iron, copper, and tin trade of South Wales, and the great population necessarily employed in their production. Not only would the Welsh Midland carry to the North, but by small loops it would give accommodation to the ports of Swansea, Llanelly, Cardiff, and Newport. Joseph Bailey, Esq., jun., M.P rose and said, that after maturely considering which he thought would be the best for the county of Hereford, he was induced to join the Welsh Midland, he cause he thought it answered the wants and requirements of the county generally. Largely connected with the mining districts as he was, he could readily say that the Welsh Midland would fully meet all the wants of those important districts also. Upon this point he wished to be clearly understood that by the Welsh Midland and those necessary connections which they had entered into, the whole of the mineral districts of South Wales would be brought into the most direct communica- tion compatible with the engineering circumstances of the country with those parts of it which it was their end and aim to be closely connected with. Looking to the interest of the county of Hereford, he thought they would secure that by the Welsh Midland, a competition between the different coal fields which would have a very beneficial effect; by it they could have coal from all the surround- ing counties instead of being confined to one or two. In addition to this they would also secure communication with the best markets for their agricultural produce. (Hear, hear.) These were thfr views which made him take part in the Welsh Midland Company. He should be sorry to disparage any other scheme but it should be borne in mind that in this company the public had a great local interest, the landowners and others along the line having taken a large number of shares, thus showing in the best possible manner the interest that they had in the success of the undertaking. The various landowners, now assembled around the tables, proceeded to examine the plans, and the engineer explained how the various properties would be affected by the line. The line running from Hay via Kinnersley, Weobly, Leominster, Bewdley, Kidderminster, and Birmingham, I was but little discussed. The line, however, running from the more northern trunk by Yazor to Widemarsb (where a station is to be made capable of accommodating the traffic which will concentrate to that point, from Wor- cester, Malvern, and Ledbury in the east-Swansea, Merthyr, Carmarthen, and Brecon in the west—Newport, Cardiff, and Abergavenny in the south-and Liverpool, Birkenhead, and Shrewsbury in the north), and thence through or near to Tupsley, Longworth, Stoke, Tarrington, &c., to Bosbury, Great Malvern, and Worcester, and also to Ledbury, Newent, and Gloucester. The directors were exceedingly anxious to meet the views of the landowners.
THE IRON TRADE—PROBABLE SUPPLY…
THE IRON TRADE—PROBABLE SUPPLY AND CONSUMPTION. We find the following letter, containing many interesting particulars regarding the iron trade and the proposed railways, in the London Jfercantile Journal: Bring an old subscriber to your journal, I take the liberty of troubling you with a few plain facts, and with some simple observations, which will, I think, place the subject in its true position. It has been gravely and repeatedly asserted that a double line of railway creates a demand for 700 tons of iron per mile. This is a great exaggeration. Reckoning the rails at 70Ibs. per yard, and the chairs at 201bs. each, and making full allowance for pins, bolts, sidings, turn-outs, bridges, stations, locomotives, carriages for passengers and luggage, and the long et cetera connected with a railway, you will find 500 tons per mile to be a fair and sufficient estimate. The number of miles for which Railway Acts were passed last session is 2,841. Reckoning 500 tons per mile, 1.420,500 tons of iron will be required to complete them. By far the larger portion of this quantity being wrought iron, and a great deal of it highly-finished iron, at least 1,800,000 tons of pig iron will be consumed in manufacturing the 1,420,500 tons required for the 2,841 miles of railway. The experience which has now been attained in railroad making, warrants the conclusion that three years is ample time for completing the 2,841 miles. If the 1,800,000 tons is divided equally over the three years, it amounts to 600.000 tons per annum. But we must not stop here. The impetus for railway making has been given, and nothing will check it until every town in the kingdom is accessible by a railway. Judging from the many Bills which were impeded in their progress bv the prorogation of Parliament, and the number of new lines since proposed, and which number is augmenting almost every day. we are justified in supposing that not lessthan 2,000 miles of railway will he sanctioned by Parliament next year, and at least 1,000 miles in the year following. This additional 3,000 miles will, according to the foregoing estimate, require 1,500,000 tons of finished iron, or 1,900 OIJO tons of pig-iron -that is, 1,266,000 tons for the 2,000 miles, and 633,000 tons for the 1,000 miles. Allowing three years for comple- tion, one-third of each of these quantities will also he required in each year after the passing of the Acts of Par- liament-consequently, there will be wanted, in the year 1846, 600,090 tons of iron, in respect to the 2,841 miles of last session in the year 1847 there will be wanted 1,022,000 tonS-VIZ., 600,000 tons in respect of the Acts of last session, and 422,000 tons in respect of the estimated 2,000 miles of next session; and in the year 1848 there will be wanted 1,233,000 tons-viz., 600,000 tons the residue for last session, 422.000 tons on account of next session, and 211,000 tons in respect of the estimated 1,000 miles of the session of 1S47, making a total quantity of 2,855,< 00 tons in three years. Should the atmospheric principle be adopted on some of the lines—which is highly probable-the requisite quantity of iron will, in these cases, be increased about fifty per cent per mile. It will be observed that the foregoing calculations are confined to the railways of this country. 0 It is not unrea- sonable to suppose that as many miles of foreign railway wiil be undertaken in the next three years as the aggregate of the British railways. To think that the foreign supply of iron will, during that period be equal to the foreign demand, is absurd. Foreign countries will look to this country for the deficiency. We will, however, confine ourselves at present to the inquiry, How is the increased demand for home consumption, to the extent of 2,855.000 tons in three years, or upwards of 950,000 tons per annum, to be met?" X have called it an increased demand for 2,855,030 tons ■ the annual quantity of iron hitherto used for railways being comparatively insignificant so that the increasing con- sumptions for other purposes may be considered more than equivalent to the demand, which was created by the railways already made. Past experience will help us very little in answerim* the inquiry, how is the extra quantity of nearly 3,000,000°tons of iron in the next three years to be supplied ? In 1825 there was a great demand for iron, prices rose enormously pig-iron was sold at £ 10 per ton, and bar iron at £14. This induced a large addition (as it then appeared) to the previous make of iron; so that the quantity manufactured increased from 450,000 tons in 1825 to 680,000 tons in 1830, being an aggregate increase of 230,000 tons per annum in five years, and an average increase of 46,000 tons per annum; but we NOW want an additional million tons per annum. Since 1830 the annual make of iron in this country has gradually extended from 680,000 tons to about 1,400,000 tons, being an aggregate increase of 720,000 tons per annum. The use of hot blast and the discovery of the blackband iron ore greatly aided this increase. It is not to be expected that such new auxiliaries to iron malting will be found in the next three years and, if they should, a considerable space of time must elapse before new inventions can be successfully applied and extensively adopted. The production of iron has not materially varied in the last four years, owing to the prices not being remunerative during the greater part of that time; the make of 1841 was not much below the present make. We may, therefore, consider the increase of 720,000 tons per annum, as being thrown over a period of eleven years, from 1830 to 1841—being an average increase of 65,454 tons per annum. But we require (an increase of 600,000 tons in the next year; of 1,022,000 in 1847; and of 1,233,000 tons in 1848; being an average increase of 411,000 tons in each succeeding year beyond the make of the preceding year-an annual progressive increase nearly equal to the total make of the kingdom in 1825; and an aggregate increase in three years quite equal to the total make of the last two years. A gain. we inquire, how is the additional quantity of nearly 3,000,000 tons of iron to be produced in the next three years? It has been asserted in the Mining Journal. that the fur- naces now in blast could produce double the quantity of iron which they now make. Had it been stated that they cannot produce five percent, beyond their present make, it would not be far from the truth. The assumption is perfectly absurd. Would an iron. master have built two furnaces, if one would have made as much iron as is now made with two? Would he keep ten furnaces in blast, employing ten sets of founders, fillers. &c., if nine furnaces could produce the same quantity of iron? Would be refuse orders upon orders, at remune- rating prices, as he has done in the last six months, if his present furnaces would furnish an additional supply ? Certainly not. The incieased demand can be met in no other way than by a vast extension of mining operations, new furnaces, forges, and mills new tramroads and railroads for the use of the iron-works; new steam-engines for pumping, windiug, blow- ing, hammering, and rolling; new carriages for conveying the minerals to the furnaces and the iron to the shipping places. All this must be a work of time, and will require an immense expenditure of money. In order to produce the presumed extra quantity of 1,233,000 tons in the third year from the present time, 244 new furnaces (with all their appendages) must be provided, in the next two years, reckoning each furnace to produce 5,000 tons of iron per annum. Not less than 500 tons of iron per furnace will be consumed at the iron-works in con- sequence of the erection of these 244 new furnaces. Thus, more than 120,000 tons of iron in two years, or 60,000 tons per annum, will be taken away from the present means of supply by the attempt to meet the future demand. Five hundred tons per furnace may seem to the inexpe- rienced to be an over-statement; but when the iron-master calculates upon the quantity of iron consumed in steam-en- gines, blast-pipes, furnaces, cast-houses, forges and mills, workshops, tramroads and railroads above and under ground, carriages for raw materials, and for manufactured goods, and a variety of tools and implements, he knows that the quan- tity is more likely to be exceeded than otherwise. Next as to the probable outlay consequent on these 224 new furnaces. It cannot be reckoned at less than f 20,000 per furnace, or £ 4,880,000. Many an iron-master would con- gratulate himself, if his past outlay were as moderate as our estimate for the future. Five millions of money is a for- midable outlay in two years, for the extension of any one trade. It may appear a small sun) to railway companies, whose capital is held in shares of £20 or £ 50 each. But, to suppose that fifty iron companies each composed of a tew individuals, can or will expend £ 100,000 each in the next two years, in the extension of existing iron works, or in the erection of new ones, is almost incredible especially when it is recollected that, for the three years immediately pre- ceding the present year, most of the iron works were carried on at a positive loss. Some of your readers may be surprised at the fact, that an increase of 1,233,000 tons of iron in a year, requires the ad- dition of 20,000 tons of coal, and 13,000 tons of iron ore per day, and it will give employment to about 100,000 men. Two years will be quite little enough to provide this vast addition to the supply of minerals, to turn boys into men, and to convert ordinary labourers into skilful co'liers, miners, me- chanics, founders, fillers, finers, puddlers, and roller-men. Shall we look abroad for assistance ? Foreign countries will feel the difficulty much more than ourselves, and. after all their exertions to satisfy their own wants, they will be obliged to come here for a supply, when time and entcprisp, money and men, have enabled us to meet the demand for home consumption. We have hitherto presumed that there will be something like a systematic apportionment of the orders for railway iron over a period of three years, so that in each succeeding year there will be a progressively increasing demand. But, will it be so ? Are the railway companies so free from rivalry and competition, and so cordial in their co-operation, as to agree together to apportion their orders equally over three years? And, if the companies who have already obtained their Acts of Parliament could be induced to take so friendly and so prudent a course, would not new railway companies be sure to disturb such an adjustment of demand and supply ? No- thing of the kind will be attempted. Immediately the rail- way companies are convinced that the price of iron will go higher and higher, until it becomes unprecedentedlv high, each company will endeavour to secure its own supply before others, and before iron has reached the maximum price— and thus accelerate and still further augment the advance. Symptoms of this movement are already too evident to be mistaken. It may be said, perhaps, that a great advance in the price of iron will induce the railway companies to slacken their sperd, and extend the time for completing their undertak- ings to five or seven years. It might be so with cautious, calculating, individuals; but it will not be so with public companies, led on by enterprising engineers. They would rather pay any price for iron, th-in pay 4 per cent interest to the shareholders without any actual return for their capital, and thus fearfully depreciate the market value of the shares. The advance in the price of iron will afford an excellent excuse for exceeding the estimated outlay the powers of borrowing will be exercised; or, if more convenient, additional shares will be created. If iron can be had, no railway will be stopped on account of price. The difficulty of obtaining iron at any price will shortly present a novel feature in the manufacturing and commercial history of this country. I may then take the liberty of again addressing you. A LOOKER-ON,
I The Church.
The Church. The Ecclesiastical Commissioners have resolved to appropriate JE:3,000 towards the restoration of Exeter Episcopal Palace. A grant of £ 500 has been obtained from Government, by the National Society, to meet the expense of an inquiry into the statistics of education among the children of the poor throughout England and Wales. The form of queries will be the same which the Society made use of four years ago in its inquiries into the statistics of the diocese of Rochester, and which has since been success- fully adopted by the Archidiaconal Board of Bristol, and by the Diocesan Board of Ripon. ABERYSTWITH.—A clergyman, said to be deputed by it the Privy Council, is now examining into the state and condition of the endowed schools of the upper portion of Cardiganshire. He was at Llanilar and Llanbadatnfawr on Tuesday week, and we understand from good authority that his lordship, the Bishop of St. David's, has given orders for the clergymen in his diocese to give the Government Commissioner all the information in their power. VISITATION OF THR BISHOP OF ST. DAVID'S.—The Lord Bishop of Saint David's held his usual Triennial Visitation for the Archdeaconry of Carmarthen, recently at Carmarthen. His Lordship said that the indiscretions of the ministers of the Established Church must be a source of great regret to all who took an interest in her welfare. These occurrences were, happily, few, and could not seriously damage a Church, which, in her origin and progress, rested on the Holy Spirit for guidauce and support. He had no doubt that the objects at heart with the Tractarians were good, and that their only aim was to purge the Church of those practices which they considered detrimental to her true interests still it must be admitted that those persons who would plunge the Church to which they belonged, and whose doctrines, in the main, they professed, into all the bitterness of party animosity, and merely for the sake of a few points of forms were, to say the least, exceedingly imprudent. His Lordship then observed with reference to the vote he had felt it his duty to give on the Maynooth grant, that he did it on the ground of giving a better and more complete education than at present to the Catholic priests. When it was considered the great influence they possessed over the minds of the great body of the Irish peasantry, it must, doubtless, be admitted that a well educated man was more fitted to perform such responsible duties, and was a far better preceptor than one who had devoted the few years of his college life to the discussion of purely theological points alone; he was more likely to be divested of the bigotry which such discussion must engender, and thereby be more open to a conversion to the only true faith. 1 lie greater part of the petitions presented against the grant showed no adequate reason or just cause for the withhold- ing of it. A practice had crept into many parts of this diocese of not collecting the alms at the administration of the sacrament; a deviation from the rule so strongly and forcibly laid down by the rubric, was extremely to be reprehended, especially when it was recollected that the money collected was for the benefit of the poor. The charge, which occupied two hours, was listened to throughout with a becoming and respectful attention. An advertisement which appears in the Launceston Examiner, published in Van Dieman's Land, shows that the excellent Lord Bishop of Tasmania is actively engaged in the performance of the duties of his important diocese, and that Church principles are rapidly extending. In the course of fourteen days his Lordship had appointed to lay the foundation of six new Churches, and as many school-rooms, to consecrate three new Churches, already erected, and one burial-ground; to preside at three anni- versary meetings of Sunday schools, and at the annual meeting of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts; to preach three sermons, besides de- voting attention to a vast number of matters ot minor importance. The number of Clergymen labouring in the diocese of Tasmania is gradually increasing, although many are wanting to supply the spiritual deficiency which Still exists. rf',e Society for the Propagation of the Gos- pel in .Foreign Parts have undertaken to send out two efficient Clergymen, ifsuch can be found to offer themselves. SONS OF THE CLERGY.—The anniversary meeting of the Society of the Sons of the Clergv, in the diocese of Dur- ham, was held at Newcastle, on Thursday se'nnight. Ac- cording to annual custom, the friends of the charity met on the previous day 10 order to nominate the stewards, and examine the claims of new petitioners, so that the business might be brought within the compass of a more speedy settlement; and these proceedings were confirmed when brought before the general meeting. In the forenoon, the members of the Society and the friends of the charity at- tended Divine Service at St. Nicholas's Church, where the Rev. the Vicar, in the absence of the Archdeacon of Lindisfaoe, who was prevented attending from sudden indisposition, preached an excellent sermon from the 14th chap. of Deut. fl. 29, In the afternoon the friends of the Society dined at the Assembly Rooms. The Bishop of Durham being engaged in his Visitation was prevented from attending- TITHES COM«Utati.on—A Parliamentary paper has been recently issued, showing the returns of all agreements aud of all awards for the commutation of tithes, which have been confirmed by the lithe Commissioners in England and Wales, as also of all apportionments confirmed from the' 1st January, 1845, to the 1st July, 1845. The first branch of the return document has reference to agreements for the commutation Of tithes which have been confirmed from the period mentioned, from which it appears that the compositions and rates in England and Wales amounted to £ 10,027 17s. rent charges, £ 10,687 13s. 10§d.; increase of rent charges, E714 12s. lljd.; decrease of rent charges, £ 5^ 4"|d. rent charges for which the compositions cannot be ascertained, £ 2,432 8s. 9|d.; rent charges of the present return, £13,120 2s. 8d. rent charges of former returns, 1:2,441,118 17 s. 1 id. i total rent charges, t2,454,338 19s. Old. The result of these figures is, that the total increase in the present return amounts to f714 12s. I Id.; and the decrease, f.54 16s. 4|d.; making balance of increase, £ 659 16s. 6id" with which the increase in former returns makes a total of E56,542 5s. 51\1, The second part of the document men- tions the awards with amounts confirmed by the Tithe Commissioners. It hence appears that the rent charges awarded to be paid in lieu of tithes, in the present return, amount to £65,918. 4s. lOjd.; the total rent charges of former returns were £,1,022,364 3s. 5id.; the total rent charges in lieu of tithes are declared to amount to £ 1,088,282 8s. 4|d. The concluding portion of the return states the number of appointments confirmed by the Tithe Commissioners in the six months specified. We are happy to state that the Very Reverend the Dean of Exeter is not likely to sustain any permanent inconvenience from the accident which happened to him at Culmstock, on Friday week.-We.rtern Luminary.
Hfrt0ceUatteottg* THE LEAGUB.-It was well answered by a gentleman of Newcastle the other day on being applied to for a con- tribution towards the League fund 111 I shall give you nothing; the money you have already got is applied to the basest of purposes — namely, to corrupt the constitu- encies of England, that you may unconstitutionally usurp their rights."—Durham Advertiser. SOUTHWARK ELECTION.—Sir Wm. Molesworth was returned for Southwark, on Thursday week, by a large majority. At the close of the poll the numbers were-for Molesworth 1942, pilcher 1176, Miall 353. The soldier who was brought from Dublin in conse- quence of his assertion that he was the murderer ot Eliza Grimwood, was examined at the Southwark police-office, when he retracted all that he had stated. A boy drowned himself a few days ago in a well at a Redditch, Worcestershire, through fear of a flogging from his father. A couple of frenzied fanatics have been exciting and alarming the lower classes in Exeter, by proclaiming that the second coming of Christ is to take place on the 10th of the ensuing month of October. The total number of deaf and dumb in the United Kingdom is 14,328, of these there are 1,018 under the course of instruction; while in France the number is 20,189, and the number educated only 789. A curious fact worth mentioning transpired lately in the purchase of a large estate, in Yorkshire, by Mr. Hudson, M.P. His solicitors, in the course of an in- quiry into the titles to the property, discovered that it had once, about the year 1702, belonged to Mr, Hudsoo'i ancestors. SUCCESSFUL RAILWAY SPECULATION.—It is asserted that Mr Frederick Ricketts, Chairman of the Bristol and Exeter Railway, has cleared £160,000 in the last four months. This almost goes beyond Mr. Hudson's success. -Railway Bell. At the meeting of the Academy of Sciences, held in Paris, M. Laborde laid before the academy a description of a new electrical telegraph, the signals of which are made by sounds. A system of electric telegraph was also presented by M. Gamier, which, however, has one re- markable feature viz., a double dial-plate for letters or signals, arranged in such a way as to prevent some of the confusion that exists in the present system. The Cologne Gazette contains an article declaring that Russia is busy summer and winter in her dockyards at St. Petersburg, and that she has lately introduced Paix- han's mortars into her navy. She possesses, in the Baltic, at present, I ship of 120 guns, 3 of 110, 15 of IB, 1'2 of 74, 30 of 64 to 44, and 120 of less power, amongst which are steamers armed for war. In the Black Sea she has 2 ships of 120 guns, 2 of 110, 12 of 84, 8 of 74, S of GO, 10 of 44, and 100 smaller vessels in the Cas- pian and White Seas. SCALE OF EUROPEAN MORTALITY.—It appears that England is the healthiest country in this quarter of the globe; the mean annual deaths being about 1 to every 45 persons living. In France, the yearly mortality is as 1 to 42 in Prussia, as I to 38 in Austria, as I to 33 and in Russia, as 1 to 28. The average duration of life in England is 41 years—that of Russia is less than 27 years. It ice is an excellent substitute for potatoes; it should be simply dressed by throwing it into boiling water, and boiled for half an hour, and then strained through a sieve or colonder. PRECEDENCE AMoNGsr SOVEREIGNS.—The Prussians have a curious method of settling the law of precedence amongst the Sovereigns of Europe. They place first in order, the Queen of England, because she can boast two houses 2ndly, the King of the French, who has two chambers.-3nlly, the Sovereigns who have only cabinets. -4thly, the Grand Seignior, who has nothing but a divan (or sofa). And lastly, the Pope, who is reduced to a chair. P RON ABLE EFFECTS OF RAILWAY ACCIDENTS.—Who —that reads the almost daily accounts of fearful railway accidents, chiefly owing to trains running off the way- but would not, if he has a spark of humanity remaining in his composition, do all in his power to mitigate, if not entirely prevent, so great and crying an evil 1 Rely on it, if trains continue to run off the rails, coaches will be required to run on the roads yes, the four-in-hand will again be in vogue, in spite of the great speed acquired by steam on railways, with the almost daily occurrence of accidents.—Mining Journal. POISON IN POTATOES.—It has been affirmed of that portion of the damaged crop of potatoes of this year's growth, that the unsound parts are poisonous. An intel- ligent correspondent of the Taunton Courier suggests, that to obviate any mischief which may arise from this fact (assuming it to be true) that the potatoes should be boiled, not steamed, as by the latter process the noxious ingredient is retained but which, being soluble in water, is extracted by boiling. The liquor should be carefully thrown away. To CONSTITUTE AN AUCTION,—It is, we believe, ge- nerally supposed that three biddings are necessary to make an auction. Some would contend for it that two only are necessary. Mr. Freeman, in the course of his address in the case of Notter v. Marmion in the Record Court, on Satuiday, said that it was a vulgar error to suppose that either three or two are required, and that one bidding was enough to constitute a legal auction, This is not generally known.-Cork Reporter. THE OWENITES.- The Social Institution in John-street, Tottenham-court-road, is defunct, like its late prototype in the Blacklriars-road. The. buildinff changed hands aat week. Its members and finances have been slowly, dwindling down till they are considerably in debt, so that the neighbourhood is, at last, free from that vile fraternity. The building, which is very commodious, is now turned into a Mechanics' Institute." It may also be mentioned that the socialists (about six years since) expended about £ 30,000 in buying land, and building a hall in Hampshire. Harmony Hall the place was called, and the Owenite principles were there carried out to the fullest extent; this has failed likewise, and in a few weeks time all will come under the hammer to pay the loans granted at the commencement of the undertaking. To LADIES.—" Avec de mauvsis dentsjamais femme n'etoit belle, Avec de jolis dents jamais femme n'etoit laide. J. J. ROUSSEAU. -VALUE AND IMPORTANCE OF ARTIFI- CIAL TEETII.-The teeth influence the form and expression of the countenance much more than is generally imagined, and the finest face is disfigured if any of the teeth are lost, and a disagreeable impression is prodttCed. Where the teeth are good, there is, when speaking, or smiling especially, a fascination present, which prevents further examination of the countenance. The new Incorrodible Teeth introduced by Messrs. Thomas and Howard, surgeon-dentists, 64, Berners Street, Oxford Street, London, are fixed without extracting any roots or teeth. or giving any pain whatever. They will also be found much more economical than any others. AN AWKWARD SQUADRON.—It seems the vessels of the experimental squadron are dreadful slow coaches. Some of them only go eight miles an hour. We propose that their nnmes be altered to suit their intuitive powers of slowness, for it looks like mockery to call a vessel the Monkey when it goes no faster than a night cab-horse. We suggest that the Grampus be re-christened the Tortoise, that the Jackal be changed into the Snail, and that the slowest of the lot be appropriately called the Omnibus, or the Chancery Suit. The Monkey steamer might take the name of Prince Joinville, out of compli. ment to his pamphlet for invading England, for we must say we never knew anything in nautical matters slower than that.-Punch. MILITARY FLOGGING.—On Thursday morning, soon after six o'clock, the peace of the neighbourhood of Picton Terrace was disturbed by dreadful and agonising cries issuing from the barracks. Upon inquiry we learned that one of those brutal exhibitions—a military flogging, was taking place. The first man flogged rent the air with his terrific screams, and we under- stand that one of the sergeants actually fainted on seeing the punishment inflicted. Two other men were after- wards tied up to undergo a similar disgraceful punish- ment which they bore in sullen silence. We last week copied from the Edinburgh Pout that no less than 75 men had deserted from this regiment (the 37th) whilst in Edinburgh barracks, and we cannot but express our con- viction that a surer mode of inducing others to follow their example cannot be adopted than a repetition of this inhuman practice. There is a treadmill at the county gaol close at hand, and why not send the culprits to hard labour when they deserve punishment, rather than brand them with an infamy which they can never recover.- We/sltman. CURIOUS DISCOVERY OF AN ANCIENT BIBLE. A copy of the first complete edition of the English Bible, printed by Myles Coverdale, bearing the date 1535, was acciden- tally discovered a few days since in the false bottom of an old oak chest, at Holkham Hall, Norfolk, the seat of the Earl of Leicester. There are numerous imperfect copies of this edition of the Holy Scriptures in existence, two being deposited in the library of the British Museum, one 'e in the Bodleian Library at Oxford, one in the Cambridge University library, and in fact most of our great libraries and public institutions, as well as many private individuals possessing the volume. The above book is the most valua- ble specimen of Myles Coverdale's labours hitherto brought to light, being in every respect perfect, whereas all the other volumes enumerated are deficient of many leaves, both at the beginning and the end. During the religions persecutions in the reign of Queen Mary, the proof ot the possession of the Bible subjecting the parties to the con- sequences of the accusation of heresy, most of the impres- sion were buried, which accounts for the discrepancy, e humidity of the soil having destroyed a considerable por- tion of the leaves. The noble proprietor of Holkham has had the book appropriately bound and enclosed in an oaken box, and it now graces the shelves of his magnificent library. Some idea may be formed of the estimation in which the bibliographical treasure is held, from the circum. stance of a London bookseller having offered to purchase it for the sum of £500. STATISTICS OF VIOLENT DEATHS.-U appeals from the last annual report of the Registrar-General that, exclusive of suicides, executions, some doubtful cases omitted, and 971 imperfectly returned, that in one year 3,305 persons were killed by mechanical injuries of various kinds-by falls, falls of stone, &c., machinery, railways, waggons, carriages, horses, and other agencies, fracturing their bones or crushing their bodies 1,950 lives were lost by drowning, 3,057 by fire, viz., 148 by explosions, 2,577 by burns, and 332 by scalds; 188 persons were accidentally poisoned, 65 were murdered, and there were 83 cases of manslaughter. It is believed that although deaths by personal violence have diminished poisoning, the violence called accidental, and the result- ing dangerous, have increased within the present century, which may be ascribed to the number of deadly poisons now so accessible in every chemist's shop, the introduc- tion of the new force of steam, the redoubled activity of traffic, travelling, navigation, agriculture, manufactures, and mining operations—science itself creates new instru- ments of death. COAL-FIELDS OF CANADA AND TIIE UNITED STATES. -The coal-fields of the United States and the British posessions in Canada are, beyond all comparison, the most extensive and most valuable of any at present known in the woild; and the geological position of these deposits of vegetable matter, as well as the conditions under which they occur, are matters of very considerable importance to the future interests of the continent of America. The great coal-fields of the United States are the Appalachian, the Illinois, and the Michigan those of the Canadas are on the eastern extremity of the colony, and occupy a great space in New Brunswick, Prince Edward's Island, Cape Breton, &c. A large proportion of the coal is anthracite. It is not very easy to do justice to these formations by the hasty sketch to which our limits necessarily confine us in this place but some idea may be formed of their extent, when it is stated that the Appalachian coal-fields extend for a distance of 720 miles from north-east to south-west, with a width in some places amounting to 180 miles—its superficial area is calculated at 63,000 miles;—that the Illinois basin is not much inferior in dimensions to the whole of England that the Michigan coal-fields and the coal-fields of Canada are also of very considerable dimen- sions and that the thickness of the seams of fossil vegeta- ble matter in some instances exceeds even that of the Staffordshire coal, amounting at the Lehigh summit mine (where the usually intervening shales and grit have thinned out) to one mass of fifty feet without any greater interpolated matter than two thin layers of clay. In some places this vast bed is quarried in the open air; but in others where the coal is accessible to a degree scarcely to be imagined by strangers to the condition of the country, the time has not yet arrived when the value of its fuel is apprecia.ted.-Quarterlv Journal of the Geological Society. At a recent meeting of the French Academy of Scien- ces, Mons. Amblard presented a paper on oxygen, which he contends is neither the agent of combustion nor of a cidification. At the same sitting M. Ruaux propounded a great discovery in locomotion which is to substitute horse power for that of steam on locomotive engines. THE POTATO CROPS.—The Dusseldorf Gazette states that a farmer of the lands of the Duke d'Aremberg, near that city, has found a means of preventing t he disease with which the potato crops have been affected, and even of curing those which are already attacked. The method consists simply in harrowing deeply the potato-grounds, whereby the fermentation produced by too great humidity is allowed to evaporate. It has completely succeeded. CONFERENCE OF EVANGELICAL MINISTERS.—A pro- posal having been made, that a great meeting of evangel- ical Christians, of different Churches and countries, should be held in London, for the purpose of "associating and concentrating the strength of an enlightened Pro- testantism, against the encroachment of Popery and Puseyism, and to promote the interests of a scrirtural Christianity," it has been thought desirable that a preliminary meeting of the various denominations in Great Britain and Ireland should be held and it has accordingly been decided that this preliminary conference shall take place at Liverpool on the 1st of October. It is expected that 200 Ministers will be present, and that the proceedings will occupy three days.—Manchester Guardian.
ftgrtctiltur?, ftforticulturi, &c, THE POTATO DISEASE. The following letter, which contains some valuable information for the people, has been addressed to the Bristol Mercury by Mr. Herepath Sir,—-My attention has been given to the disease which has shown itself so extensively amongst the growing potatoes. I find, in almost every instance, that the epidermis of the stalk below the surface of the ground is more or less in a state of decay, often disintegrated, and completely rotten the leaves and branches accord with the state of that part of the stalk bel,)w the ground. The tuber, heneath the outer skin, is first spotted brown (like a bruised apple) these spots extend and penetrate towards the centre, quite changing the nature of the potato. Those near the surface are most injured in some cases, the lowest on the root are not at all affected, while the upper ones are useless. I should, therefore, expect that the longer the crop remains in the land, the greater the injury will be. It seems, from the microseopie appearances, that the starch escapes injury for a long time, after the skin and cel- lular parts are gone; and as the whole of the nutritive powers of the potato reside in the starch, I should recommend that wherever the disease has shown itself to any extent, the crop should be dug whether ripe or not,and the starch extracted by the following simple process After washing the roots, let them be rasped fine and thrown into a large tub or other vessel pour a considerable quantity of water, and well agitate and ruo the pulp with the hands- all the starch or feeula will, from its great weight, fall to the bottom, while the skin and fibrous matter will be carried away bv the water; wash the starch with one or two more waters allowing it to fall after each washing spread it upon cloths in a warm room to dry. In this way, about 20 or 21lbs. will be obtained for every lOOlbs. of potatoes, and it contains as much nourishment as the original lootS, it will keep any length of time, and may be used with flour to make bread, pies, puddings, &(' as well as farinaceous spoon-mea'. This is much better than throwing awav the diseased roots, and will furuish food for tens of thousands who might otherwise want it. WILLIAM HEREPATH. REVIEW OF THE BRITISH CORN TRADE DURING THE PAST WEEK.—The continued fine weather has enabled our farmers to make great progress in harvest work, and in most of the southern and south-western counties all the grain crops are housed or stacked. In the northern districts, however, in Scotland, and in the North of Ireland, although reaping has become very general, there still remains a vast breadth of corn abroad. As to the probable acro-,able produce of wheat, the reports which have reached us are as contradictory as ever. From some parts of the country we are told that it will nearly reach an average, whilst a correspondent in North Lincolnshire,—whose means of obtaining correct information on the subject we believe to be very superior, as regards that quarter, and upon whose opinion we are disposed to place considerable reliance,-informs us that he does not expect a yield of wheat equal to two thirds of last year's crop- The wheat trade has assumed a decidedly firm aspect, since Monday week, and improved prices have been realised at some of the leading provincial markets heM within p the last week. In London during the week, the arrivals of wheat coastwise have been moderate, and by land carriage, samples small. The best qualities sold readily, at slightly enhanced rates, and ordinary sorts were cleared off at quite the currency of last Monday. The transactions in foreign wheat have been comparatively unimportant, buyers having generally given the preference to that of home growth. Holders have, nevertheless, been very firm, and the previous value of the article has been well maintained. We have heard of no speculative bargains in bonded wheat, but there has been a good deal of inquiry for fair qualities of red for shipment to Holland and Belgium. Owing, however to the high pretensions of sellers, comparatively little business has been really done; :i8s. to 40s. per quarter have been freely offered for Lower Baltic red without success. Flour has hung heavily on hand, and ship samples have barely sold so well as before. The receipts of barley of home growth have been very trilling, but the malisters and distillers having hitherto refrained from purchasing, the supply has proved more than adequate to the demand, and prices have rather tended downwards. Malt has also been offered the turn lower without exciting much attention. Of English and Scotch OClt, the market has become quite bare, and the quantity of Irish on hand is small the cargoes received from abroad have, consequently, moved off freely, and British as well as the fine sorts of foreign oats must be quoted at 6d. to Is. per qr. higher, Beans and grey peas have sold slowly at previous prices. White and maple peas have on the other hand commanded fully former terms.—Farmers' Journal, FLOWER-GARDEN & SHRUCBERms.—NeapoHtan Violets which were parted and out in spring, should now be carefully taken up with go >d balls, aud removed to a frame or pit for flowering during winter; the soil most suitable for them is well rotten turf, but if that cannot be procured, equal portions ot leaf mould, sweepings of ro_&ds, and any light soil will answer. Late plauted beds, and piants turned out into borders, should now hi occasionally watered this should be done early in the morning, as the nights are now cold and frosty. Sweet Peas, Dahlias, and OIlier plants requiring tying np, should now be att-nded to, before they are destroyed by wind; climbeis on walls should again he pruned and nailed if they req iire it. Mow, sw, ep, and clean Grass lawns, hoe and rake borders during this fine weather, and destroy all weeds before rainy weather sets in. Pits and Frames. Mig- nonette to come in in spring should he thinned and pricked out into other pots, kept c:ose, and shaded for a few days. Cuttings of Pelargoniums should be occasionally looked over picking off any leaves that exhibit a'endency to damp off, Continue to put in cuttings of new or scarce plants a close frame without artificial heat will answer to keep them in at present. FLORISTS' FLOWF.RS.—Carnation layers that are rooted may be taken off as directed last week, placing them in a close cold frame for a few davs, in order to accelerate their again striking root. During dry weather, those that are y>t ready to remove from the parent stool must be regi larly watered. I have found it a good plan to place a smooth flat pebble over each layer where it is inserted in the ground this most assu- redly hastens the emission of roots. Seed must be well looked after, the pods being carefully covered from the wet; caps of oiled paper will be found to afford the best protection. Tulips.-The amateur will now be arranging his bulbs for planting, removing those which did not please him last sea- son, and replacing thein with better strains or breaks. Some splendid new flowers have been broken and exhibited during th« present year, notices of which will be shortly forthcoming. This is a good time to obtain fresh varieties, as surplus stock may often be bought cheap. The bed for the reception of the bulbs should be occasionally turned over, exposing it to the influence of the sun and air. If the bulbs have been grown in it two years together, it will be necessary to remove it, and substitute some decayed turf soil; this, when well rotten, grows them cleanest and finest. Continue to attend to Poly- anthuses, Auriculas, Dahlias, &c as directed last week. HARDY FRUIT AND KITCHKN GARDEN.-Galherincr the various kinds of fruit as they become fit will be for sometime the principal occupation in the fruit-garden. The skins of Apples and Pears should not be rubbed, for they are covered with a sort of bloom, although not so conspicu- ously as those of the Plum and Grape; yet it does exist, and should not he displaced, as it prevents mois- ture from soaking into the skin. The common varieties of Apples and Pears may be stored in heaps, and covered with kiln-dried straw, but the choice kinds of Pears sh-mld be carefully placed in close drawers, made of non-resinous wood. Peaches and Nectaiines a e generally packed for carriage much too loosely, for fear of bruising the consequence is, that they jostle against each other during the journey, each giving and receiving a thousand concussions, which may indeed be very slight, but ultimately the effects are too evident. Therr- fore, after packing these fruits, shake the box or basket, and observe if the whole appear as fixtures; if any do not, plug them more securely with cotton-wadding. Kitchen Garden,- Gather various productions for pickling. Sow Lettuces in frames. Earth up Celery. Prepare ground for Cabbages. Blanch The blanching is generally performed by pressing the heart of the plant gently down, on which a frag- ment of tile is laid; over this a light covering of earth is sifted. The fringed edges of the leaves are carefully freed from earth, and exposed to light, having small bits of tile laid over that portion of soil from whence they protrude, to render the blanching perfect, and produce what gardeners particularly pride themselves on, viz., a plant of Endive white all over, excepting the edges of the outer leaves, which should show about two inches of green.
BANKRUPTS.-(Prom the London Gazette.) FRIDAY.—Nathaniel Geo. Coombes, Craven-street Strand, coal-merchant. John Sutcliffe, Halifax, Yorkshire, rectifier. John Adamson, Stockport, grocer. Robert Johnson Sharp, Liverpool, victualler. Wm. Soffe, Strand, print-seller. TUESDAY.—John Stevenson, Frederick-place, Hampstead- road, china-dealer, hlijah Cook, Little Newport-street, Soho, grocer. Roderick Mackenzie, Hunter-Street, Bronswick- square, commission-agent. James Taylor, Adam Adshead, Silas Garner, Joseph Warren, and Wright Hume, Stockport, and William Barnes, Katcliffe-bridge, Lancaster, cotton manu- facturers. Hugh Jones Owen, Madeley, Shropshire, surgeon.
BUTE DOCKS.-Arrived, the Taff, Hooper, Bristol, light.. Swift, Tawton, do do.. Manuel a, V allnit, Swansea, ballast.. Charlotte,Thomas, Lymington,ballast..Olive Branch, liowen Barry stones.Earl Mulgtave, Booth, Plymouth, ballast. Diadem, Kllwoud, Wateriord, limestones..James Murphy, Brown, Bristol, light.. Dolphin, Fry, do., do. Sally, Thomas, St Ives, rope and ballast.Thomas, Bunt, Penzance, ballast ..Heed, Hendy, do., do.Landshipping, Connor, Gloucester, do.Heed, Gill, Barnstaple, do.. Dinas, Mills, Brisiol, do.. Uhondda, Bowen, do., d'A)tiance, Ley, Bideford, li_ht. Speculator, Jumes, Newry, pitwood..Martha, Knox, Glouces- ter ballast..Robert, Mendos, Newport, cinders..James and Ma'ry, Harry, Truro, ballast.John George, Gulliford, Bridg- water, light.. l'liza, Palmer, Fowey, iron ore.Ocean, Dusting. Penzance, tin and ballast.Ann, Koberts, t!oss, ballast and oats..Swan, Hill, Quebec, timber.Tariff, Clements, Fowey, iron ore Sarah, Sullock, Brixham, bailast..Temperance, perance, Llewellyn, Cork, limestones Regulator, Angel, London, ballast.Bee, M'Carthy, Kinsale,sundries..Welcome Return, Richards, Falmouth, ballast.John and Rebecca, Salt, Fowey, iioaore..Lord Fitzgerald and Vesci, Yorke, London, ■'allast..Fnends, Staples, Newport, light..Billow. Fishwick, Iloss,ballast.erton, Hayle, TfllrO, do.John and Janeper. Kl ery, Fowey iron ore Edward Sawlr, Houde, Penzance, ballast.. Royal Oak, Tyler, Falmouth, do.. Martha, Rosewall, Lowes, do.. Undaunted, Foster, Bridgwater, do.. Clonm'l, iMltott, Waterford, do.. Wllliam, Narramore, Cork,limf stones V 'iaV°'" "e' W,lliams' Bideford, ballast.. Matilda de Marie. Ai.lct, a. Bricne, ballast.. Conference, Spine, Quebec, timber • • .New Minerva. 8'inton, Whitehvven, iron ore..Mariner, Jermyn, 'Iruro, ballast .William and Ann, Noall, St. Ives. „ 'ctavia, Read Liverpool, do ..Olive Branch, Bowen, Barry, stones.. Elephant, Silvest, Nantes, ballast. Prince of Wales (s.), Jones, Bristol, general cargo Lady Charlotte, (s ), Jeffervs. do .df). J bailed, the timeline, Trick, Waterford.Ann, Peake, Ply. mouth. Thomas Mahonev. Mulcarrv, Waterford Arina, Trcvis, London, all with coal..Taff, Hooper, Bristol, coal. n- „™lon' ,l0-' d°.- Brothers, Davies, Newport, light. mas Muls Bristol, coal.Rhondda, Bowen, do., do.. Emma. Ktrs, Waterford, do Pencalenick, Rule, Hayle, iron and coal., f riend*. Beer, Bristol, coal.Kleanor, Hawkes, Bridg- water, d^ King of Tyre, Stephens, Plymouth, do..Olive branch. Bowen, Barry, light..Success, Sims, Gloucester Caroline, Paynter. St. Ives,Carnsew. Clark, Hayle..John P,!rreVfl!?ar"ant, ,l?*'VKate' Plymouth..Victoria, I..reel ,G|o,,cester..Do|phin, Fry, Bristol.. Liverpool, StaV, P,rk »fl •• \nCnd?- JT)am"s> Bridgwater..Kn»as, CashnTan, Cork, all with coal.. ortreval, Chrnestiz, Cronstadt, iron.. Ilaphna, Sprague, Torquay.. Hereford, Fryer, Chepstow. Joanna, Richards, Hayie..Liberty, Andrews, St. Ives.. Bel- lies, Corish, Dublin, all with coal .Francis, Davies Watc— tord iron .John and Susan, Brown, Waterford, coal..Cathe- rine O Flanagan. Phillips, Sciliy.. ^Eolus, Fortune, Waterford Brandon. M Carthy, Kirwale.. Rapid, Pavey, AVaterford. r ttrAty' WIlh coaI-- fame, Grenfell, Hayle, I I i"p|mT /VV.aIes (s )' Jl>nes, Bristol, general cargo. Lady Charlotte (s ), Jofferys, do. do. GLAMORGANSHIRE CAs^Aruved, ihe. SNtem, Knaop, Bullow I lb.Reaper, Irwin, Whitehaven.Blossbm, Luckes uZt riet'V-e'F"pe' W'-TredPgar, Crockford MineheadI ..Nottingham, Knapp, Bullow Pill.Britannia, Byrne, W h.tehaven.. Anne and Elizabeth, Jones, Barrow. William, Hi. Bullow Pili; a!l with iron ore. Euphemia, Grimwood, Whitby..Victory, Richards, Bideford. Cordell a, Sprague, Bnxham.. N'fmrod, Perriam, Brixh.m..Johann. Gezina, Bulling, Bremen.. PadUs, Westley, Brixham Fox Morgan, Neath.. Kliza, Harris, Milford.. Lively, Buse Pad- stow.Jean Marie, Diatnado, Nantes. Hisayeul, Lewain, Nantes Kleanor, Barrett, Dover. Water Witch, Wallis, Jersey.. H rot hers,Pnpham, Brix ham.. Amiable Thcrese,Necbo. Nantes.. Le Bonne Heline, Rollando, Nantes.. Livelv, Martin, Exeter.. Perseverance, David, Bristol Eli Nlarie, Inbert, Nantes. 1 endenms, Hannaford, Brixham.. Benoni Trinity, Ronzi, Nantes.. Amiable Hyancinth, Beude, Nantes.James Reed. Bristol Castle, Fryer, Bristo)..Perseverant. Holyaud, St. Martin..).. Hen, Perkins, Milford.. Avontuir, Sterling.Veen- dan.K),zabeth, Martin, Btixham..Brisk, Gregory, Brixham .Confidence, Williams, Ptv.nonth..Le Mo.bidham, Louet, Nantes j all with ballast..Gleaner, Thomas, Newport..John, Wes ley, Bristol. \mity, Pearson, Bristol.. Ann, Davies Bristol.Swan, Hiat, Chepstow.Shamrock, Bailey, Bridg- water..Three Brothers, Browning.Gloster.. Elizabeth Wright Bristol.Newport Trader, Jackson, Gloster.. Abeona, Carler, uloster. ndeavour, Greening, Gloster. Hope, Chidgey, Watchet.Butc, Walters, Bristol.Cardiff Trader, Howies, Gloster.. William, Lawrence. Newport.. John. Mayo, Gloster ..John George, Gulliford, Bridgwater.. Endeavour Hswkin? Gloster.Nautilus, Roberts, Liverpool. Brothers, Bryant! Bridgwater.Mary, Evans, Uristo)..Hitz.both & Jan ,Davies Portmadoc.. Gyffdan. Jones, Portinadoc..Cardiff Lass Mor- gan, London.. Martha, Jones, Barry.. Union, Prewett, New- port..Earl of Mar, Taylor, Aberdeen Gleaner, Thomas i ewport.Shamrock, Ellis, Youghal. Merthyr Packet, Tho- mas, Biistol.. friends, Evans, Bristol .Vlinerva, Knight, Gloster; all with sundries. ° bailed, the Gleaner, Thomas, Newport.Vriendschan. Sap, Amsterdam. Elizabeth, Wright, Bristol.. Brothers, Popham, Newcastle.. Defiance, Davi s, Hamburg. Queen, Harvey, Constantinople.. Rapid, Weeks, Newcastle.. Pendennis, Han- natord. Newcastle..Mary, Evans, Bristol.Earl of Mar.Tay- lor, Newcastle.Britannia, Byrn •, Newcastle.. Fairie. Welsh, Live pool. Merthyr Packet, Thomas, Bristol.. Akke Boon, I otjer, Amsterdam; all with iron.. Eliza. Harris, Milford.. Royal Forrester, Furney, Bridgwater.. John, Westley, Bristol • .Swan, Hiat, Chepstow.. Newport Trader, Jackson, Newport ..Lively, Buse, Cannarthn..Charles Marie, layoff, Nantes CMI SAY,EU'» Legain, Mantes.. Perseverance, David, Bristol. i?r' en.' Falmouth.Le Bonne Heline, Rollando, Nantes • • iza Marie, Jubert, Nantes.Three Brothers, Brownin", Gloster.. Castle, Saycr, Biistol.. Brothers, Bryant, Brid»wa- ter.. Cardiff Trader, Bowles,Gloster. \miable Therese, Necho, Mantes.. Nautilus, Roberts, Swansea.. Ellen, Perkins, Milford Victory, Richards, Bideford.Hope, Chidgey, Watchet. lamrock, Ellis, Youghal.. Jaines, Evans, Bristol..Tredegar, Grockford, Minehead..Cardiff Lass, Morgan, London.Faust, Field, Gloster; all with coal.. Comet Giiffitus, Bute Dock., lary, fcvans, Barrv.. Martha, Jones, Barry. Lark, Mayo, oster..Sisters, Knapp, Bullow Pill.Endeavour, Greeninp, G oster.. Ann, Davies, Biistol.. William, Laurence, Newport ..John George. Gulliford, Bllte Dock.John, Mayo, Gloster.. Active, Cope, Bullow BiU.Endeavor Hawkins. Newport.. nion, Prewett, Newport Amity, Pearson, Bristol.. Not- Ilughalll, Knapp, Bnllow Pill.. Martha, Jones, Newport. Abeona Ba rett, Swansea.. Gleaner, Thomas, Barry.. Wil- liam, [Jill, Bullow Pill, light. PORTIICAWI.Arrivals -Eleanor. Grace. Lewis. Ross.. Pretty Maggy, Lastaway, Cork.. Nancy Dawson, Murrow,Cork .Kuty, Rix, Youghal..Seven Brothers, Monokins, Wexfoid ..Lord Keane, King, C nk.. Victoria, Griffiths, London. Union. Kastaway. Cork.Hazard, Croscombe, Penzance Cornish Trader, Beer, Falmouth.. Hannah, Dempsey, Cork. Nancy Brown, M'Atthy, Cork, all with ballast.. Bee, Storey. Ulverstone, iron ore. Castle. Jenkins, Portmadoc, iron ore Duke of Wellington, Noell, Aherthaw, slones.. Providenc.), Parker, Newport, loam.Elizabeth, Daniel, Bristol, sundries. NEATH,-Sailed, the Falmouth, inlills, for London.Taylor and Nay lor, Cleary, Wexford Pagle, Richard, Holyhead.. St. Piere, Jones, Newport.. Lively, Caddey Prompt,Walsh, Bridport; Two Sistcis, Roberts, Porthdinllaen..Clara, Lewis, Newport.. William, Whitbarn, Truro.. Equity, James, New- quay. Coly ton Union, Good, Beer.Lady Eliot, Fowler; Union, Davey Concord, Bartlett; Two Brothers, Wheaton Active, May. Plymomh.. Charlotte, Thomas, Bridgwater Rambler, Walsh Magnet, Bevan. Cork. ianger, Dobson Happy Return, Salt, Fowey.. Lidy of the Lake, Holten; Sylph, Hodge; Twins, Cooper Union, Peters, Falmouth Neath Castle, Davis, Bristol. Friendship, Evans; Providence, Griffi tis, New Ross Z>pliyr, Borlasj Arab, Richards-, Unity, C ark, Penzance.. Devonshire, Stevens, Portsmouth. Ceres, Weeks; Active, Baiinauo, Exeter Nancy, Andrew, Hayte..Ma)eottn, Edmonds, Waterford.. Heroine, Ball; O.P. Auam.,Sa.combe. Dasher, Squire; Swift, Gain->y, Caroiff.. Racer, Strout, Padstow..Nancy, Humphreys, Aberystwith. Fly, Andrew, St. Ives Ocean, Hopkins, l.iverpool..John and Susanna, Skinner, Port Isaac.Christianna, Walters James, Baitlett, Looe..Mary Ann, U orller; Maria, Holmes, Lyme.. Erin, Byrne, Wick)ow.Azo..an, Dawkins, Portreath.
LONDON MARKErS. GENERAL AVERAGE PRICES of CORN per Quarter computed from the Inspectors'1 Returns. GENERAL AVERAGE. s. d. g. d • Wheat 5.5 10 Rye. 34 "2 Barley 30 0 Beans 41 5 Oats 22 6j Peas 33 n DUTY ON FOREIGN CORN. s. d. 8. d Wheat. 17 0 Rye. 8 6 Bailey 8 0 Beans 1 6 Oats 6 0 | Peas 4 6 CORN LXCrlANGE—MONDAY. WHEAT. „ 8> S- S. s. Essex & Kent red 56 — 58 White 62 65 Old Do 5S — GO Do 62 68 RYE. s- I s. s Old 32 — 3-1 j New 36 — 38 BARLEY. S. S. 9 Grinding '28 — 30 Chevalier • 34 Malting. 0 — 32 Bere 23 — 0 Irish 26 28 Irish 26 28 MALT. s s. 8. S. Suffolk and Norfolk 58 — 63 Brown 56 — 60 Kingston and Ware 60 — 0 | Chevalier 65 — 0 OATS. s. S. a. s. Yorkshire and Lin- colnshire feed 22 — 24 Potato 24 26 Youghall and Cork Cork. white 0 — 22 black 21 2-2 Westport 22 — Publin 21 22 Black 2t—22 Waterford white 21 22 Newry 23 24 Gal way 20 21 Scotch feed 2) 24 Potato 24 — 25 Clonmel 22 23 Li me rick 23 2:10 Londonderry 23 — 24 Sligo .22-23 BEANS. s> s- S. 8. Tick new 34 — 36 | Old small 38 — 40 PEAS. s. s. s, s. Grey. 0 40 Maple. 40 42 White 40 40 Boilers 38 40 SMITHFIELD MARKETS—MONDAY. A Statement and Comparison of the Supplies and Prices of Fat Stock, exhibited and Sold in Sinithiield Cattle MarkHt, on Monday, Sep. 16, 1844, and Monday, Sep. 15, 1845. Sep. 16, 1844. Sep. 15, 184). s. d. a. d. s. d. s. d. Coarse and inferior Beasts. 2 8 to 3 0.2 4 to 2 8 Second quality ditto 32 3 4.2 10 3 2 Piiine large Oxen 36 3. 8.3 + 3 6 PritneScots.&c. 3 10 4 0.3 8 4 0 Coarse and inferior Sheep.. 32 3 4.3 0 3 4 Second quality diuo 36 3 8.3 6 4 0 Prime coarse woolled ditto 3 8 3 10.4 2 4 6 Prime Southdowu ditto. 3 10 4 0.4 8 5 0 Lambs 36 4 6.4 6 5 Ö Large coarse Calves 3 4 3 8.3 6 4 4 Prime small ditto 310 4 6.4 6 4 10 Large Hogs 32 3 10 3 0 3 B Neat small Porkers 40 4 2.3 10 4 4 ^———|——^ SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 20, 1845. Published by the sole Proprietor, HENRY WEBBER,. aiC his residence Charles-street, in the Parish of Saint John the Baptist, in the Town of Cardiff and County of Glamorgan, and Printed by him at his General Printing Office in Duke-street, in the said Parish of Saint John, in the Town and County aforesaid. Advertisements and Orders received by the following Agents LONDON: Mr. Barker, 33, Fleet-street; Messrs. Newton and Co., 5, Warwick-square Mr. Gr. Reynell, 42, Chancery-lane; Mr. Deacon, 3, Walbrook, near the Mansion-house; Mr. Joseph Thomas, 1, Finch-lane, Cornhill; Mr. Hammond, 27, Lombard-street; Mr. C. Barker, 12, Birchin-lane W. Dawson and Son, 74, Cannon-street, City Messrs. Lewis and Lowe, 3, Castle Cuort, Birehin Lane. MERTHYR Mr. H. W. White, Stationer, BRECON Mr. William Evans, Ship-street, SWANSEA Mr. John Lewis, 64 Nelson Place, And by all postmasters and Clerks on the Koad. This paper is regularly filed in London at Lloyd's Coffee House City.-Peel's Coffee-house, Fleet-street. -The Chapter Coffee-house St. Paul's,—Deacons* Coffee-house, Walbrook,