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JUioctilaneoufj. Daring the long dark nights of winter, strict propriety would suggest to the managers of every railway company the necessity of lighting up their third class carriages. A seven hours' ride in the dark is not what ought either to be enforced or tolerated. A veteran, named Donald Ross, died a few days since, at Kiltearn, in Ross-shire, at the great age of 115 years. On Monday last three gentlemen, very curiously named Frost, Williams, and Jones, accompanied by some ladies, went to visit Cardigan Bar, in a phaeton. When going up the hill, the iron rod that connects the seat in which Wil- liams and Jones were seated broke, and they fell, but were not much hurt. It was observed by a byestander that they were more lucky to have fallen in old South Wales, than like their namesakes in New South Wales. MIRACULOUS ESCAPE. On Monday week, as Mrs. Jones, late of the Black Lion Hotel, Cardigan, accom- panied by some friends, were walking on the cliffs at Cardigan Bar, and admiring the view, she suddenly slipped and fell over the cliff. Fortunately it was high water, or she would have been inevitably dashed to pieces. Boats were immediately put off, and she was saved from a watery grave. WESLEYAN CONFERENCE.—At the late conference it was resolved not to admit to the Theological Institution any married student, or any person under engagement of marriage. The reason assigned for this prohibition is, that young men so circumstanced eagerly snatch at any means of getting a livelihood. At the same conference the Wesleyans determined for the first time to avail themselves of the New Marriage Act, and to have their marriages celebrated by their own ministers in their chapels. COPPER IN CARMARTHENSHIRE.—We have been in- formed that a considerable quantity of excellent copper ore has been discovered from time to time in the river Gwilly, near to the farm of Pantey, on the property of Captain J. G. Philipps. It is said that a company for the establishment of copper works, near Carmarthen, will be formed as soon after the construction of some of the various railways now projected, as possible.— Welsh- man. EXPLOSIONS IN COLLIERIES.—These disasters will continue to be of frequent occurrence as long as candles are used in the mines. The only prevention will be the Legislature passing an Act, rendering it highly culpable to use candles, and direct that all collieries shall be compelled to use the Davy layp, or be subject to a very severe penalty, and the consequences of a verdict iof manslaughter .-Mining Journal. RAILWAYS PASSED DURING THE SESSION OF 1845.-As many erroneous notions are abroad respecting the railways passed last session, we beg to refer to a detailed statement published by a gentleman in our office, in our Journal for August 23rd. It is there shown that 115 bills passed, and 100 were lost. The total length of lines and branches granted is 2,8441 miles, the estimates jE49,399,572, the capital authorised to be raised E42,818,330, and loans, £ 14,541,791, making a total of capital and loans of £ 57,360,121.—HerepatK s Journal. RAILWAYS IN SPAIN.-The Spaniards are determined not to be behind the rest of their neighbours, French or Germans, in the construction of railways. Although first attempts have not altogether been successful, the surveys lately made are said to favour such undertakings in that country. We hear of new companies being organised for the London market. The Globe says that at the moment of the taking of Argo, in the Caucasus, the Count de Brukendorff, nephew to the Princess of Lieven, was struck by a ball in the chest. Internal hemorrhage succeeded, and he was on the point of dying from suffocation, when he was struck with a poignard by one of the mountaineers, which proved a fortunate blow for the Prince, as it is stated to have caused a flow of blood, which in all probability will be the means of saving his life. We have heard of a stitch in time," but never before of such "a stick in time." GAME IN THE ROYAL PRESERVES AT WINDSOR.— There is more game (especially pheasants and hares) upon the royal preserves in the vicinity of Windsor Castle this year, than has been known for several pastseasoos. Strict orders have been issued that not a single head of any des- cription is to be shot until the return to Windsor of the Prince Consort. Upon the preserves of Swinley, also one of the farms of his Royal Highness, about eight miles from Windsor, game of all kinds is equally abundant. We rejoice to have it in our power to state, from good authority, that in consequence of the flourishing condi- tion of the public revenue, it is the intention of the Government, if the peace of Europe should continue undisturbed, not to renew the Property Tax at the exni- —Brighton Gazette. T "LORD METCALFE, governor-gerieral of Canada," says a correspondent of the Britannia, is dying by inches; but he is determined to remain as long as he can be of any service. 'As well to die here as elsewhere.' These are his own expressions and his strength of mind is really astonishing, but his sufferings are deplorable. I speak from my own observation, having recently had a good deal of personal intercourse with him." ANCIENT COAL-WORKS.—A short time since, as the men were working Mr. Harrison's Clapgate Colliery, at Pemberton, they discovered a walled-up place, which they considered led to some old workings on this infor- mation, Mr. Harrison himself went down, and, on breaking it open, they found a cavernous opening, from which the coal had been worked to the extent of an acre and a half, and, from many circumstances, it is calculated it must have remained closed for at least 200 years; a pickaxe and a spade of that remote period were found— the latter cut out of one piece of solid oak, the back and front rim shod with sheet-iron. This discovery will form a fine subject for the British Association, the Geo- logical Society, and the antiquary. FREEMASONRY IN GERMANY.—The movement which now agitates the religious world in Germany extends largely into the Masonic lodges. They are divided into the eclectic system, and such as intend to bring the royal craft more in unison with the moral and ethic tenets of Christianity. The lodges of Berlin and Frankfort—very important in the system of German Freemasonry—are for the latter course but those of Berlin have not yet made any positive declaration to that effect. Prince Frederic of Prussia (heir to the throne) is the Grand Master of the Prussian Masons. His circular to all the lodges, recommending the brothers to join and strenu- ously to co-operate with the societies for the improve- ment of the working classes, has made a very favourable impression, and has been attended with the best results. In Austria, Freemasonry is still prohibited. RAILWAYS.—ASPECT OF THE WEEK.The railway mania continues to progress without any sensible inter- ruption. New projects, not only English, but also French, Belgian, and German are daily appearing, and the manufacture of companies seems to have become a profession. On all sides we find schemes brought out, associated with the highest influence of the localities through which they pass, and lords and aldermen, and knights and squires, itinerate about the country expa- tiating on the great advantages of the giant system with all the eloquence that the first retaining fees can secure. The great contest at the present moment is between the several Manchester direct companies, and Rastrick and Remington as the leading engineers in the field carry on a war of words through the medium of advertisements respecting the merits of their separate schemes. It is questionable after all whether to ensure success these companies will not have to amalgamate, and so join in a stand against the Birmingham Company, their chief op- ponent. Both parties seem confident of success, and Rastrick is understood to be already on his line for the purpose of carrying out his plans. A few weeks, we should think, would show what is likely to be the result of the contest between the two companies. The project- ors of the French lines are on the qui vive for the adju- cations which will now shortly take place. In Germany, lines are being chalked out to connect the several leading districts. Some of the lesser foreign companies are of a doubtful character. A WATER DRINKER.—OnThursday week aman named John Harber, living in East-street, Regent's-park, under- took for a wager of 20,s. to drink a pail of water (four gallons) witliin half an hour, which he accomplished, drinking it by a pint at a time till he had swallowed the whole. He then declared that he would drink 12 pints of beer in as many minutes; no one, however, seeraed to doubt it, and that part of the performance was dispensed with. DREADFUL OCCURRENCE.—A young man named Joseph Brammey, employed at the Dinting Vale print works, Derbyshire, on Saturday week, fell into a pan containing 300 gallons of caustic lie, which was at boiling heat, and before the accident was discovered the body was quite eaten away by the liquor. The liquor in the pan was thrown away, and at the bottom of the pan nothing but a few bones could be found, and these looking as if they had been in the ground a hundred years. The leather and soles of his clogs were eaten away a portion of his clothes that were made of cotton had sustained but little injury; and the iron and nails that had been in his clogs were found. The deceased's teeth were discovered all separate. Strange to say, the deceased's heart was found by itself quite sound. All that was collected of the body did not weigh 71bs., and if these parts had remained in the liquor three hours longer, not a particle would have been left. ELOPEMENT.—The good people in the quiet neigh- bourhood of W e, in this county, have recently been somewhat excited by the circumstance of the elope- ment of a young lady, the eldest daughter of M—— W-, Esq., of W e, with the son of a highly respectable ikmer, also residing in that neighbourhood. The young gentleman had been paying his addresses to the lady a considerable time, but rather against the con- sent of her parents, and an intimation wa3 given him that he had better be gone, or a very summary mode of ejectment would be adopted. This brought matters to a crisis, and Mr. S. though young in years (being only 19) proved himself, when incited by love, no mean antagonist. The lady's will was soon known, and the young swain equally soon arranged his plans. Accordingly, on the night of the 19th ult. he arrived with a carriage at the dwelling-house of the lady. An opening of a window might have been heard in the darkness of the night; a light step upon a ladder; a movement of persons leaving the premises a crack of a whip; and then the rattling of carriage wheels told the success of the attempt. A very quiet wedding took place in Cheltenham the next day, and the young lady rejoiced in the name of Mrs. S.— Gloucestershire Chronicle. HONESTY REWARDED!—Another of those rare instances of extraordinary honesty, on the part of a very poor man, meeting with a commensurate reward, has occurred this week. A labouring man, residing somewhere in St. George's, the other day, picked up a bag upon the high road, containing about seventeen hundred sovereigns. He instantly put himself in communication with a res- pectable neighbour, and the two were counting the money when they received information that a gentleman in a gig was inquiring after some property he had lost. The gentleman, satisfactorily establishing that the bai^ of gold was his property, and that it had dropped from his gig about an hour and a half previously, it was at once re- stored to him. Of course, in the excess of his joy at the recovery of so large a sum, and, to mark his high sense of the poor man'^ honesty, he left behind him, for the benefit of the worthy man's family, substantial proof that honesty is the best policy Yes, he clutched his bag of gold, said Thankee," and retired! Such an instance of munificence in these parsimonious days is quite refresh- ing.—Bristol Mirror. THE GOVERNMENT OF IRELAND.—When a steamer leaves the smoother waters and goes among head-winds and cross-currents, although its speed be not increased it seems to be making the hubbub which the elements cause by beating against its bow?. So it is with the course of government in Ireland though not more violent than it is in England, it appears to occasion the tumult which it merely marks and does not cause. There is no measure but what must encounter storms in that stormy land, unless it be quite nugatory; and even then it may breed the worst of tumults, as witness the nugcR of Repeal. The assent or even acquiescence of one party implies the frantic hostility of all others. For the May- nooth Bill, the wind with the Repealers is fair: and therefore it meets a hurricane from the Orange quarter: the project of the new Colleges wins the gradual con- currence of the moderate Roman Catholics, headed by the most discreet and intelligent of their Prelates and therefore it provokes the increasing wrath of the immo- derate Catholics and thVtess discreet Prelates, as well as that of the more violent Conservatives. While Arch- bishops Crolly and Murray are promising the measure a fair trial, Archbishop M'Hale is writing fierce invectives to Sir Robert Peel; and Mr. John O'Connell, with a bitter feeling that stings him to candour, admits that the Minister has succeeded in sowing division among the Roman Catholics. Again, when the Repeal Magistrates began to promote an agitation seditious in its tendencies, Ministers dismissed those magistrates: it is now the turn of the Orange magistrates to imitate the offence of their antagonists: Government continue identically the same course, and there is equal fuming and spluttering among the Orange party. In Ireland, every one's hand is raised against all the rest—Repealer, Orangeman, Catholic, Protestant, Ribandman, Landlord, Tenant: there all the relations of society are bitter antagonisms but all are against the Government. Properly speaking, there is no Ministerial party in Ireland—no political party at all; for men are not banded together by open opinions which each individual freely adopts on convic- tion, but banded by traditional hereditary prejudices and factious interests. If real opinion exists in the depen- dency of Great Britain, it shines by a reflected light.— Spectator. THE FRENCH NAVY.—The Prince de Joinville, having the interests of his country much at heart, has been emu- lating the English patriotism of Viscount Palmerston, in exposing her defenceless condition. He has obtained a Royal Commission, has procured himself to be its chair- man, has instigated it to echo his celebrated "Note on the steam-marine of France, and has published a second and more emphatic version of the Note in the shape of a Report. France, say the Prince and his Commission, has not a steam-navy: 'he largest steam-ships are huge delusions, incapable ot bearing the guns meant for them the 450-horse frigates are deficient in power & speed, fit only for transports, not war-ships the smaller frigates are equally inept; and the "Transatlantic" boats have been made, really as well as ostensibly, packet-boats. For, as the clever young admiral divulged to us his cunning device to come upon ns in the night, anj^" kill, kill, kill," so he now lets us know that the sffcalled post-office packets were meant for war-ships whereas they have actually been- made packet-ships) There is an amazing redundancy of humour in that intent to deceive, self- frustration, and self-exposure both of the fraud and the failure. In such fashion the French might indulge themselves in wars most harmlessly, doing all sides of the contest themselves; planning the attack, providing the defeat, and magnanimously winning the victory over themselves—said by moralists to be the most glorious of all victories. Themselves their sole victors, they may achieve campaigns without ravaging countries, aggres- sions without striking a blow, defeat without disgrace, victories without envy, and a great many other things without a great many other thiugs." Like the serpent chewing his own tail, emblem of cunning and eternity, (though how such a mouthful can be eternally borne, or such conduct be cunning, we are rather slow to conce've) France opens wide her jaws, seeking whom she may devour; and devours—herself. Joinvillesaysso. May good digestion wait on appetite. DISTRESSING OCCURRENCE AT A WEDDING PARTY IN AMBRICA.—[From the Belleville Advocate, July 17th.] —Thursday last, July the 11th, was distinguished by a calamity, in this county, which, in all its circum- stances, is unparalleled in fearful horror by any accident within our recollection. This day, at seven o'clock, a.m., was appointed for the marriage of Charles H. Kettler, Esq., of Prairie du Long, Monroe county, to Miss Rosalie Huelberg, of Dutch Hill, in this county, about ten miles distant, on the east side of the Kaskaskia river. Intervening about half way is the river, which was then very high, and had overspread its banks. The wedding party was assembled and waiting at Mr. Kettler's. The house was decorated most richly for the joyful occasion. The hour passed without the bride. The sun crossed the meridian, and no news from her or an y%f her people. Evening was fast waning, when a messenger arrived with the dreadful tidings that all, except the father and son, were drowned on their way to the wedding. Five women- the mother, the bride, two sisters, and a young female friend in their company, had met their deaths! In the waters of the Kaskaskia all were ingulfed, when life to them was full of promise and joyful anticipation. The bridegroom hastened to the river, and on its bank met the distracted aged father, who fell into his arms: — "They are all—all drowned!" said he. The corpses were before them, dressed in the habiliments of festivity, dripping with water. Death had set his iron seal upon those features. Each corpse was taken up and placed upon a bier, and the sad procession, by seven o'clock in the evening had reached the house of feasting, thus suddenly changed to a house of mourning. The feeling of this wedding party, of the aged father, whose grey hairs are going down in sorrow to the grave, for a family thus annihilated; of the brother, who mourns for his mother and sisters, thus struck down in his presence; of a lover whose heart is riven with a thunderbolt. The feelings anll emotions of these can neither be imagined or described. On the next day one grave was dug for five persons, and side by side were they laid, the mother with her three daughters, and their young friend and companion, Miss Dressel. The funeral was attended by a vast assemblage of the neighbouring country, and the funeral sermon was preached by the Rev. A. Dony, Lutheran pr^jpher of Belleville> ^ad attended for a very different service. Mr. Huelberg, the father, had risen early on the day before, and with his family started for the place of their graves. They were all cheerful and happy, and bounding with hope. One carriage contained them, and as they approached the river, where the ferry was awaiting them, and were crossing the bottom on the road which was covered with water, .he horses were turned off, oversetting the carriage and its passengers into a deep slough of ravine. The water was running rapidly. The father clung to tne vehicle; the son to a cluster of bushes. One girl, the youngest daughter, was floating with a trunk. Hold fast, daughter," cried the father. <« I will," said she. Another girl was between the struggling and drowning horses. The rest had sank to the bottom. Two hunters came up, and to them the old man called to save his youngest, who was clinging to the trunk; he was old and weak and could not swim. One of them swam to the floating girl, who seized him by the leg, preventing him from swimming. He shook her off, intending to take her up again by a better hold but he saw her no more; she was gone for ever, HYDROPHOBIA.—HORRIBLE, IF TRUE.—A case of hy- drophobia occurred at Ennistymon on Tuesday last. A girl named Anoe Gallery, about 15 years of age. was bitten six weeks since by a dog. The dog did not show any signs of madness, but he has not since been heard of or seen. Our informant adds," this poor creature was smothered between two beds." Can this be true? We presume it was not advised by the medical attendants. The circumstance being known, an inquiry will, no doubt be instituted into the murder.—Clare Journal. THE IRON TRADE.—In our notice of the coal and iron trade last week, and the recent strike of the workmen, we expressed an opinion, founded on information on which we could rely, that another rise in the price of iron might safely be calculated on. The advance which we anticipa- ted has taken place during the present week, several of the largest houses in South Staffordshire having issued cir- culars on Thursday last, quoting the price of bars at 20s and pigs 10s. in advance of the former prices. Under these rates no further orders will be executed by the lead- ing firms. The effect of this rise will be injurious to the manufacturers of heavy goods, whose trade suffered scvere- ly during the rapid advance about nine months ago, and was but just recovering the shock it then received. There is every probability, however, that the present rates will be maintained, as the demand for rails for the new companies is very great, and likely to continue so for some time. The colliers have given notice of another advance of 6d. a day; but whether they will succeed in their present move- ment, the policy of which is very questionable after the late concessions on the part of the masters, remains to be seen.—Birmingham Journal. PROFESSIONAL INCOME, &c., OF SiR W. FOLLETT.— As, like Scarlett, his main object was to make money, his gains must have been immense. He bad as many special retainers as Scarlett in his best days, and more general and varied business; but Scarlett enjoyed forty-four years' practice, while Follett bad only been twenty-one years at the bar when he died. Scarlett had been twenty-five years at the bar before he obtained a silk gown Follett obtained one in ten years, as Lord Plunkett had done; but they were both outstripped by Erskine, who obtained his silk gown in 1783, when he was only five years' standing in the profession. Scarlett was thirty-six years' standing before he became Attorney General, while Follett was not twenty, and only ten when named Solicitor General. The 'professional income of Scarlett was for many years rated at jE 17,000 a year, and we have ourselves heard him say, he one yearmade £ 19,500; but we doubt that Follett ever made more than £ 15,000 a year; and we incline to think the gains of Lord Abinger must have been greatly exaggerated. He has left no more than £8,000 a year behind him; and making full allowance for some impru- dent purchases, we doubt that his professional gains put together, ever amounted to £220,000.-Fraser's Mag. CASTING OF THE WELLINGTON STATUE.—On Saturday afternoon a number of scientific and literary gentlemen, together with several ladies, witnessed the casting of 17 tons of metal at the atelier of Mr. Wyatt, Dudley Grove, Paddington. The bronze casting was for the fore part of the colossal horse intended for the Wellington statue at the West-end. The hinder part has already been cast, and is now in progress of being finished. The immense body of metal was occasionally seen through the iron door of a huge furnace it was intensely brilliant and perfectly fluid. A deep "run" led from the door of the furnace, and conveyed the liquid metal to a large pit wherein the model was deposited. At a given signal an aperture in the front of the furnace was opened, and a hollow noise like that from a volcano was heard. The metal then in a complete state of fusion glided forth like a stream of lava, hissing and spitting as it went along to the model-pit. A thick whitish smoke, like that from burning arsenic, and nearly as mephitic, entirely filled the atelier, to the roof, making it dark—a darkness which might be felt below, while the red burning river of metal continued to send forth an almost insupportable heat. In about half an hour the whole 17 tons had run into the pit in a continuous even flow, giving indication that all was right below. It will take five weeks before the mass can be sufficiently fixed and cool—a period of considerable excitement and suspense to the artist. It is curious that the two principal workmen employed on the occasion are Frenchmen, chosen by Mr. Wyatt for their knowledge in bronze casting. They are two hearty fellows, and stirred up the liquid metal with perfect nonchalance, apparently heedless about its having origi- nally been cannon taken from the armies of their country in order to form a statue of Wellington. The coincidence afforded subject for remark among the ladies and gentle- men present. Of these there were Mr. Faraday, Mr. Donaldson, F.R.S., Mr. Jerdan, &c. — Observer. The commissioner of the Times continues his letters; writing from Donegal. Derived more directly from his own experiences, they become more interesting and forci- ble and though the subjects are inevitably state, they are to a certain extent calculated to extend a better knowledge of the facts among many classes in England who have not read much upon the subject. We give a few of the salient points in a greatly condensed form. One of his facts, to show the neglected natural resources of Ireland, is the want of a canal, four miles in length, to open Lough Erne to the Western shores of Ireland. By the enterprising people of the North-east, Lough Neagh has been opened to the sea; and Belfast is the key to the whole of that in- ternal communication, reaching to the Western extremity of Lough Erne. By a similar enterprise, Enniskillen would become the Belfast of the West: but the canal is still uncommenced and the vast amount of water-power in the river that falls from Lough Erne is all wasted. This neglect arises from want of capital. The Commis- sioner takes for one cardinal datum the calculation of political economists that the rent should absorb one-third of the produce ot land; and that the other two-thirds should go to support the farmer, and to replace expenses, including seeds and wages ot labour; the last portion con- stituting "capital." In Ireland, the excessive rents exacted by landlords and by middlemen, both of whom are often absentees, deduct not only from the subsistence of the farmer and labourer, but also from the capital thus prevent all improvement, and ultimately subtract from the means of all parties. The tenant-right" of Ulster, which secures a charge sometimes of £10 an acre to the outgoing tenant for the "good-will," constitutes another burden on the land, similar in its nature to rent. Instances are shown of the working of this high-rent system. On a very superior farm in Donegal county, of which the produce is worth £:i0 a year, the tenant pays a rent of £ 10; his wages as a labourer (fcr he works him- self) are taken at £10, his expenses are £9: and his profit qua farmer is just £ L. In the same neighbourhood, a labourer pays 30s. rent for his cottage, 30s. for a quarter of an acre of conacre-£3 in all: he grows 32 pounds of potatoes a day, has a pig worth JE 4, and makes £7 16s. wages leaving, after his rent is paid, assets tor his family subsistence £8 16s. and the potatoes. But when living on potatoes alone, a man needs 8 pounds a day allowing G pounds for the wife, and three for each of four children, there is a human consumption of 26 pounds a day leaving hut 6 for the pig, which ought to have 20. Ihe deficiency must be made up from the 3s. 4d. a week in money. Such a man is well off; and in Donegal there is no "Molly Maguireism." In Leitrim, matters are different: land- lords are not in repute, and rents are higher. A ten-acre farm will yield in butter, &c., produce worth £ 20; the rent is £10 (half the produce) the expenses, (including interest of money for purchase of stock, £3) are £7; the working farmer's wages, £9. Out ot that £9 ivagcs he must pay the excess in the rent, about £6; leaving him about £3 remuneration fur the year! The tabourtn Leitrim makes in the year about JE:3 18s. wages; pig £4 deduct rent, (cottage £2 10s., a rood of conacre £2 lOa.) £5, and his net yearly income will be £2 18s. and the potatoes. If he cannot get conacre be starves. I his county is in the cdfitre of Molly Maguireism.' With these cases the Commissioner contrasts some improvements et, fected by Mr. Hamilton, at Pettigo, in Donegal land reclaimed by draining. Mr. Hamilton rents a farm for which he pays 18s. an acre rent. Three years ago, a field of 1 acre and 18 perches was quite worthless berechumed it at a cost of JE18 10s. In the first year, the profit was £19s. 2d. in the second, £ 13 His.; In the third, £9 2s, Bd. With similar results, 20 more acres ot this tarm were re- olaimed two years ago; 50 acres last year; and loO will probably be reclaimed this year. The Commissioner, by the help of such facts and the Tenure of Land Report,# calculates that the reclaiming of 150,000 acres of waste land in the county of Donegal would add 150,000 guineas a year rental for the landlords, would Increase the wealth of the tenant-farmers by £750,000 a year, and would provide constant work and wages for 6,390 labourers in Donegal alone. The great wants of Ireland are want of capital and want of employment for its labour. here is a mine of capital and employment.

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