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&0t-'tcttitttr?,$ort(rttUttr*, &c. TOHNIP CULTURE.—No person ever deserved better of a country, than he who first cultivated Ttmips in a field. No plant is better fitted for the climate of Hritain. No plant prospers better in the coldest part of it; and no plant contri- butes more to fertility. In a word, there has not, for two centuries, heen introduced into Britain a more valuable im- provement.— lord frames' Gentleman Fanner. HARVESTING GRAIN CROPS,— This was the subject for dis- cussion at the monthlv meeting of the Maidstone Farmers' Club, on Thursday week. C. G. Whittaker, Esq. the chair- man and about a dozen other members were present. The subject was discussed ahollt this liroe la-t year, when it was te<o!ved that bagging was the best mode of cutting wheat; aftel t! at mowing « as recommended,reapiug being considered rile least desirahle modp 10 he practised, and to this opinion the members present still adhered. A ¡¡ experiment was dc- tailed in which portions of a field of wheat were cut three weeks, two weeks, and One week hefole It was considered ah. solutely ripp; also one week and two weeks afterwards, the result of whirl) was Ihat the porrion cut two weeks before it was ripe produced the best sample. The Spalding variety of wheat v. as very highly spoken of. One member had grown of it as much as eiilit quarters seven bushels an acre— and on the average six quarters an acre. The following resolution was ultima cly agreed to:—'•Hesolved,—That it has been found desirable to cut wheat befoie it becomes sicklc-eared, and other grain rather green. That if m'-u can be got to bag wheat well, it is best to bag the next best plan is to mow; but both bagging and mowing must be done well, or dirt will pet into the sample, from the stalks that are torn up by the roots. That corn should always he made up II smal s'leaves. That when winter ihresbi ig is required, "heat after having been kept in the barn is genera ly be ter tli.m that kept in slack; but that for summer threshing the sample is rather improved hv being s'acked" Crt.Tiv 4TI.)N OK COTTAGE \I.I.OTMT.STS.—'The following is a short accoin; of the system I ronsi icr best adapted fir the most profitable cultivation of 1 acre of lanel, to SllÍt the cottager: — Divide the land into three equal parts, containing 51} perches each, Separa'e these portions ny small alleys of such a size as will permit a wheelbarro v to pass along with manure, and also for weeding the crops, or applying liquid manurp to thprn, The liquid manure '0 be collected It1 a well-constructed (auk suited to the cottagr-. One portion, or perches, should he planted with early Potatoes, to be succeeded by Turnips, Hroccoli, Savoys, I.etlucr, and Mangold W'urzel transplanted. Thp second division should bp planted with Potatoes, in April, for the next summer's supply. The subrfivisions of II", Ihird, or remaining portion, should he as follows :-20 perches planted with early Wellington and Ihtterspa Cabbages, to bp succeeded by trausplantpd Swedes 2 with Carrots; 4 with Parsnips; 3 with Beans; 3 with Peas; I with Onions t of a perch with Leeks. Lettuce, &c. 2 perches sown with various small seeds, such as Broccoli, pady York, Lettuce, and Savovs, to afford a supply of plants 10 fitl vacancies that may océur; -1 perches sown wilh Swedes, which, when thinned, will giye a supply of plants for dibbling after the 20 parches of early Cabbages; 4 perches sold with Mangold Wurzel for transplanting, after the early Potatoes mentioned in th" first division. Ten perches should be sown with Wheat, which will supply the family with nice bread and hot cake for Christmas. The Mangolds,Swedes, and Cabbage strappings will afford excellent feeding for pigs, and wiit pro- duce excellent pork when properly attended to. There should also be planted, eilher as standards or espaliers, 12 dwarf Apple-trees, 4 Ptum-trees, 4 I'car-trees, 4 dozen of Goose- berry-bushes, and 4 dozen of Currant-trees. By ailop irnr this system the cottager and his family will enjoy the sweets and comforts of their labour. The three portion, in which the land is divided can undergo a'ternate changes or rotations of cropping. and one of them should be trenched each succeeding 'ear. — Daniel Her/an, Practical Land Steward. Abridged from the Dublin, Farmers' Gazette. DRAINAGE A PERMANENT IMPROVEMENT. TIIE following is a condensed report of the evidence of Mr. Smith, of Deanston, on this subject, before the Lords' committee on charging settled estates for the expense of the operation :— The way in which r have found it best to drain land is to drain it in a thorough manner. In tbe first place to provide sufficient outiall for the wa'er from the di!b-roi>t fields or from the estate; thereafter to place drains parallel to each other at the distance which I have found in practice to he suitable for all varieties of soil; that dj3t;lnce. is from 18 to 23 feet. Then m iking the drains for 21 feet to 3 feet deep; never less than feet. The propriety of the material with which the op nrng of the drain is to be preserved will depend much on circum- stances. fn some situations broken stonei arc most suitable, and most economical for the purpose; in other situations tiles fIr tubes (which are of the same characeer) are the best for that purpose. I drained my estate in Scotland with stones entirely. I commenced about '25 years ago. The expense of draining per Scotch acre was £ 6, including main drains and all expenditure in drains. I have had an opportunity of ascertaining that those drains have remained efficient up to the present time. I made an inspection very recently, and did not find a spot indicating the slightest damp. I had the drains opened into, to SCVMóll places, and wherever they were opened 1 found them perfectly free from silt, and open for the water. I lie soil of that estate was various—some of it an alluvial clay in some of the hollows, some of it a sort of drift composed of the debris of the old red sandstone, and some of it a sort of moorish gravel. With regard to the expen- diture for 'he drainage, I am quite sure that the return was upwards "f 10 per cent, on the outlay. The farm was increased in value from about 23s. nn ncre, which was ra'her considered a high rent for it and since f have left the farm, and given up farmin 50" f "ndcrstaud has been offered for the farm. But that improvement is not all due to the drainage; there are many other things, such as fencing, and other arrangements; making the fields of a proper size,and a proper number forthe rotation; making roads and fences, and improving the con- dition of the bind. 0 If a tenant is allowed to remain 10 years on the land after lie has drained at his own cost, do you consider he is com- p'etely repaid the outlay?—In most cases I should say he would be. Which do yon think the best mode of draining, supposing thilt could be done at the same expense, tile draining 01' stone draining? — As regards permanency, I should say. especially in steep land, Ihat stnnr-s are better thall tiles, provided they are properly executed. It requires a little more care to execute draining with stones well, and therefore there is always a risk that they are not so well done, and tiles are to be preferred on that account. I should say where there is not much fall tiles would be preferable to stones. f) > you mean tiles or the tube tiles?—[ think it makes no difference. When you say that stones require greater care, is there any particular manner of laying them, or do you merely tumble them into the drain?—The drain ought to he cut as narrow as possible to the bottom. The stones ought to be broken to a veryequa) size, about the size of road metal they should then he put in carefully, and he well straighted on the surface after there is a sufficient quantity put in; and I think that from f) 10 8 inches of s'one is quite sufficient. Will not stones with angular points consolidate an I unite in one rn?ss, which roan stones would not do ? 1 do not see that that would make any material difference; it is the falling in of si!t among the stones that consolidates the drain; not the form if diP stones themselves. In orllcr tf) prevent that silt getting in, I recommend that the stones should be covered at first with a very thin tnd; and if a moorish turf can be had, so much the helter. After the turf is carefully laid on, and the meeting ends lapped over. so as to prevpnt any direct opening in'o the drain then 1 recommend as stiff soil as can be bad -clay, or if clay cannot be had, the stiff,;st soil thH can be obtained—should tie placed over the turf, and be well beaten or tramped down so as to prevent the pmsib jity of anv di ect opening from above into the open of the drain. Do you think that a pipe tile of an inch diameter is largo enough for draining most lands? —It depends upon the length of the drain. As far as regards the sufficiency of area to dis- charge the water quick enough, a tile of an inch in diameter will serve a great dis-ance. If the drai is are from 18 to 20 feet apart I should say you might discharge the water of a couple of hundred yar is, or perhaps more, by a pipe of an inch in bore; nevertheless I prefer a tube of larger diameter, as being more fitted to retain its place in the soil. FLOWER GARDEN A\T> SHRUBBERIES.—Climbing Hoses out of hloom trained against walls would be much improved next season by having aO large por.ion of the old wood cut cut; nailing or tying in as many of the strong young shoots as are necessary to replace those which have been removed. Clim- bers of all kinds should be constantly nailed or tied as they advance in growth, in order to prevent them from being inju- red by the wind. Karly planted beds covering the ground should be constantly weeded; and beds in which the plants have not advanced much in growth should be occasionally Watered, and hoed to keep the surface loose and clean. |i()|i and sweep walks daily. Pits and Frames.—S >w Mignonette for blooming early in autumn, and pot off plants out of borders for training as trees; train them to one stem, and keep the flowers pinched off as they appear; shifting occasionally into larger pots; grow them in a pit or frame until they are suffi- ciently large to be removed to the greenhouse. Cuttings of choice Verbenas should be put in for store plants next season. Sow Nemophila insignis for blooming in autumn, either in a bed or in pots for planting out. Dahlias-They will require great precautions for entrapping insects; dry bean-staiks, or shoit pieces of reeds, laid near where these flowers are plan'ed, will form harbours for them, from which they may be blown off every morning and killed. Secure the advancing shoots, to their respective stakes, and should dry weather ensue, water with liquid manure, mulch, &c. HARDY FRUIT AND KITCIIKN GARDEN.—The forcright shoots of Pear-trees against walls Of espalieis should he so reduced as to occasion no injurious degree of shade to the fruit now swelling, nor to the foliage of buds forming for future bearing. If previous directions have been attended to the tre -s should exhibit only a sprillkling of shoots anti these, already partially shortened, may now be cut back to withiu 3 inches of their bases All shoots that have pushed a second time, or that may afterwards do so, must be chocked. The shoots of Peach, and other trees of the stone-fruit kinds, should be kept neatly trained, but more especially the free exposure of their fn)i.t;o to light should be kept in view. It is improper to lay two shoots in a space which the foliage of one would sufficiently cover, whilst the other might be trained along an adjoining old naked branch, the covering of which is no disadvantage, but rather the contrary. See that nails have not been driven too near the fruit. Trench down Straw- berry plantations intended to be done away with as soon as the crop is gathered. Kitahen Garden.— Prepare ground for a firsi sowing of Flanders Spinach, the seeds of which are not prickly, neither are those of the Letttce-leaved Spinach, an excellent new variety for winter, with thick dark-green leaves. Finish planting out Celery and Broccoli. Sow Spanish Uadish; and some Karly Horn Carrots on a rich light border for drawing young. Make a sowing of ea ly York. Vanack, or other approved Cabbages. Take up Garlic and Shallots, when their teaveshave faded lay the bulbs on clean gravel, protecting them from rain, and storing them up when their coats are thoroughly dried. Gather herbs for drying before their flowers open; they should be spread out thinly and dried quickly.

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