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OUTLINES OF THE WEEK. accounts speak of the capture by the Federals of the whole of Morris Island and too guns. Again, Chattanooga by the Confederates. It is said that this place was tslken by stratagem,-or it would have ,detached aforoo, who came suddenly upon the enemy's rear in Cumberland Gap, and made two thousand prisoners. The: Copfecjeratt s are never-, theless determined to fight on, and are using all their energies to obtain reinforcements. Nothing positive appears to be known of the movements of the armies under Lge and Meade/and it is ob- vious that very little reliance can be placed on .L the current rumours concerning them. jSut, not withstanding the strict neutrality the English Government has exercised throughout the war, it every day becomes more probable that our pri- vate commercial transactions with the Confederate States will bring us into bad odour with the North. There has been a good deal of excitement in New York concerning the expected departure of the iron-clads from Liverpool, and some of the leading. American newspapers have impudence enough to advocate war against England if these vessels are not stopped. ACCOUNTS from Mexico report that affairs are anything but settled, there,' for although the Mexican General, Miramon, has declared his allegiance to General Forey, who has made him Commander of the Mexican Forces, Juarez is still supported by a numerous band, and the United States and Central American ministers have de- clared their intention to continue to recognise the Juarez Government till otherwise instructed; and it is furt-her stated that Juarez is supposed to be at Washington, incognito, seeking means to assist him in expelling the French. BUT, connected with, American affairs is a subject that is now causing considerable discussion in Europe, namely, what instruments are legiti- mate in war ? The maxim in America seems to be to "burn, sink, and destroy" whatever comes in the way of either belligerents. We learn that'at Charleston the. "Greek fire," so celebrated in ancient- history, has been resuscitated after a -lapse, of more than a thousand years, during which it has laid in abeyance by the tacit consent of all nations. It is true that General Beauregard has protested against its use, as cruel and un- soldierlike, but it appears that the Federal generals have agreed to adopt it. Our readers will-re- member that the Greek fire waS'used with terrible effect by the Christians, against the Turks in the seventh century,, and was supposed to be com- pounded of and resinous compounds, which caused it to burn eyen.under water. The recipe lias Toeen lorig -'since- lost, "bxvfc modern 'science has produced a material still more powerful and diabolical under the name of "liquid fire." Pro- posals were made by Captain Disney,. Mr..Went- worth Scott, and, others, to bring this into action during the Kussian war; and it is said that the late Earl of Dundonald's offer to destroy Cronstadt with a single ship, was connected with some chemical compound of this .nature.. Another pro- posal was made by a civilian to suffocate. the soldiers in their casemates at Sebastopol with some infernal composition, of his own invention. The English Government, however, humanely re- pudiated all these projects. It might be right, possibly, to use every artifice to destroy an enemy, and it might be considered justifiable to employ any destructive-means against an obstinate fort that" soldiers only defend, but we sincerely trust these fearful missiles may not again be used against a city like Charleston, where there are numbers of non-Combatants—women, children, and old' men; surely, civilisation will not permit the murder of the innocent. It would be thought a cruel act if two men were to fight, and one of the combatants. were to give a blow to a little child merely be-' cause he was the son of his opponent. War, how- ever, is a cruel; thing; men's passions roused to vengeance, know not where to stop. Would that we could see the sentence carried out— Let them that make the battles Be the only men to fight. THE; reply of'the Russian Government to the: last note of Earl Jiussell has been published. It is similar in characterto those addressed to Austria i and France, and gently insinuates that Russia is able to manage her own affairs. The Czar, Prince Gortschakoff: observes in this letter, is willing to I assume the: responsibility of his international! affairs because they are based upon public right,' and as public right has always been regarded as his. guiding principle in his relation with other' Powers, so the writer claims for. his" august. master" the same treatment which he has ac- corded to his allies. THE Schleswig-tlolstein question is again hroughtprominently before our notioe,. The matter itself is so trivial that it is a great pity the' whole of Europe should be annoyed by it. These two petty German States, that legally came into possession of the King of Denmark, have each their own constitution, and are regulated by laws of their own framing, yet the people consider that they have not the privileges of other States by not being permitted -to join the German Con- federatioij. The King of Denmark rules over them conjointly with his own dominions, as George IV. did over Hanover, and he sees no necessity for uniting with the other States of Germany. The dispute has been going on for some time, and last week the Federal Diet at Frankfort recom- mended the taking possession of the admini- stration of the Duchy of Holstein and the sending an army of six thousand Hanoverian and Saxon troops for that purpose, Austria and Prussia furnishing the reserve. Iu is, how- ever, necessary for. the full .Diet, as it is termed, to confirmor repudiate this: measure, mid all Europe are looking on anxiety to + he results z, of that meeting.ahee.liaa,e tBIT- pressed their sympathy fi >r Dent^aik, whi h i-, rise backed by the neighbouring jpowsr Sweden, -It is hoped, however, that war may yet be prevented, those desirous of peace are- anxious that the i dispute might be submitted to the universal arbi- orator, the King of the Belgians. THE New Zealand chiefs are going about England seeing the lions in every place, and becoming the lions wherever they .afay. Perhaps we may find them useful at some future time in influencing .their fellow-countrymen to live upon more sociable terms with us, and to drop the pursuit of a war ■•which .must of necessity eh<f in their .total dis- comfiture. THE English-Channel squadron, after a succes- sion of entertainments in Ireland, has arrived at Liverpool, and has enjoyed another round of .hospitalitiesj-which:'j"w*Sre "rendered to them with the Hearty gbod will of the inhabitants of that important seaportr MISS RYE has written a lengthy letter to the Times from New Zealand, again complaining of the want of attention, afforded to female emi- grants on landing, and asserting that it is yet desirable to get a better class of females" to emi- grate. She then records the prosperity of the males in the colony, and the amount of wages they receive, and, though she does not positively assert it, she appears to consider that the only draw- back to their happiness is the want of good wives. SCIENCE in England appears to be spreading far and wide; we can every week record some meet- ings where discussions take place that are an advantage to the age, and show the progressive state of the nation. Next-week the Social Science meeting takes place at Edinburgh, with the vener- able Lord Brougham as president, when subjects of special interest will be introduced. We might also mention that during the past week the National Welsh Eisteddfod closed, and we have been amused by the assertions, of some of our. con- temporaries that these meetings are held merely to protest against English tyranny, English cruelty, &c. The" Gorsedd," or council of bards, we must tell the uninitiated; is a meeting held annually at one or other town in the Principality, to foster amongst the educated class a, knowledge of what is not improperly considered the classical literature of the country. That there are many ancient and beautiful compositions in. the "uncouth gibberish which some of our friends repudiate, may be made apparent at a glance to any one who will take the trouble-we may even say who will give himself the pleasure—of referring to the collection of Welsh songs published some years ago by Lady -Charlotte Guest. The history of ancient Britain was well preserved by the bards, and it is to them alone that the nation is indebted for the knowledge" of many past events. It is quite a mis- take to suppose, as our contemporaries say, that the Eisteddfods are intended to preserve among the people not only a knowledge but also the habitual use of their own language. The Welsh people are too wise to think anything of the kind. They know that as English education spreads through the Principality their original language will cease to be spoken, .but they are desirous of learning as much as possible of the early history of the country they love so well, and ímlGh infor- mation is gained by these annual meetings. As to speaking the language, the custom will yet be maintained, thuougliout the greater part of the country for many generations by a far more' efficient and powerful means than an an- nual Eisteddfod, which is only attended by the wealthy. In every town and' village throughout the Principality, Nonconformists, and even clergymen of the Established Church, are constantly preaching and praying in the Welsh language, and the day is far distant when they will take to English as the readiest language in which to exhort their flocks. They will use that tongue in which their congregations habitually converse with one another, even if Bishop Thirl- wall's wish be obtained—thai a Welsh interpeter may not be required in a court of justice in another generation. But the language of the people, at least, in the present day, in no way affects their patriotism; and what the Bishop of St. David's said of the Britons is equally true of'the Welsh —that they yield to no other part of the country in their loyalty and devotion to the Queen of the great empire to which they belong.


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