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POISONOUS PROPERTIES OF THE…
POISONOUS PROPERTIES OF THE NEW METAL CALLED THALLIUM. Our readers are doubtless acquainted with the his- tory of this new metal, the discovery of which has recently been the subject of dispute. M. Lamy, in a paper addressed to the Academy of Sciences, now announces a property of that metal, the discovery of which undoubtedly belongs to him, viz., its deleterious power. Having1 experienced certain pains, especially in his lower limbs, while pursuing his studies on thal- lium, he was induced to attribute them to a noxious influence of the metal; and in order to ascertain whether such was the fact, he dissolved five grains of sulphate of thallium in milk, and offered it to two puppies, each about two months old. But after tasting the liquid they left it, and could not be induced to take any more. On the following day the milk, which had been left in the yard, had disappeared, and it soon turned out that it had been partaken of by a dog, two hens, and six ducks; for ajew hours after ingestion the dog became sad and refused to eat. During the night it was seized with violent gripes, which .caused it to utter piercing cries. Its features had undergone a change; its back was bent up through the effect of pain, the seat of which was evidently in the intestines. Its hind legs, after a continuance of con- vulsive motions, became paralysed, and it died sixty- four hours after taking the poison. On the day before its death a hen and six ducks died, and in those which were watched in time, the paralysis of the legs was re- marked. The two puppies which had scarcely touched the milk had meanwhile shown symptoms of fatigue; by degrees they were seized with convulsive trembling, and could hardly stand; then came the acute pains which ended in death, although every precaution had been taken, apparently in good time, to save their lives. All these animals being subjected to dissec- tion, there could not be found the slightest corrosion, or even inflammation of any consequence; only the gall-bladder of the dog was found considerably ex- tended, and in some of the ducks various serous mem- branes, that of the liver especially, had assumed a whitish and granulous appearance. As to the nature of the poison, if there could have been any doubt about it, it would have been at once dispelled by the characteristic green band peculiar to thallium in the spectral analysis of the organs of the dead animals. Eight days later another hen was taken ill. Its wings hung down, it could hardly walk, and when it wanted to peck its food, its neck seemed to have lost the power of bending down sufficiently, so that its beak did not reach the food. The hen was killed, and thallium found in the intestines, but in a very small dose indeed, and the other organs did not contain any. M. Lamy next administered a deci- gramme (a grain and a half) of the sulphate to a dog two months old, and it died forty hours after taking it. Hence M. Lamy justly infers that sulphate of thallium is a powerful poison, producing pain in the intestines and paralysis of the lower members. This poison and the nitrate have but little taste, and might therefore be used for criminal purposes but fortunately there is not a poison that can be traced with more certainty through spectral analysis than this. This new method of analysis bids fair to render excellent service in cases elating to forensic medicine.
STRICT NEUTRALITY. (From the New York Times.) England, following out her policy in the East is about to have a turn at Japan. Whether Japan deserves a flogging or not, whether she has violated treaties and assassinated British residents, is a matter concerning which opinions differ. We can view the contest from afar, and, without aspiring to the spirit of prophecy, can easily foretell which will come out of the contest winner. Japan is a wealthy nation, and Eng- land always makes a war pay—or, in 'other words, after whipping a people, sends in the bill and has it cashed. Now, as England has, in our contest exhibited so perfect a spirit and practice of neutrality, it would be the worst of ingratitude if we did not return it in kind. The Siagoon will be looking round about these days for fast-sailing steamers, possibly for a few Monitors, and where can he look but to his friend and ally, Brother Jonathan ? To be sure, we cannot countenance such an application for an instant, and it will be the duty of Mr. Seward and Mr. Welles to immediately inform his Majesty of that fact; but if, in the meantime, the" Em-peror of China" or the "King of the Cannibals" should apply to our Webbs and M'Kays for such merchandise, it would be impossible to refuse, for both these sovereigns are on terms of strict friendship with Great Britain, and have a right to as many fast-sailing steamers as they can pay for. If, when they leave our shores, they should miss their way, and get into some Japanese port, or make a few rich hauls upon British com- merce, will the fault be ours ? We shall be enabled to show from British precedent that the transaction was one of strict neutrality, and that by interfering we should have violated the rights of citizens, and inter- fered with the doings of a nation with whom we were upon fraternal terms. Should a protest be entered, we can seize some cockboat and put our law courts at work upon her while the big craft get out of reach, or we can get up a diplomatic correspondence so deep that the bottom cannot be sounded, which will answer all purposes until a score of millions of pounds of English maritime property is consigned to the blazes. Further, if our enterprising merchants see fit to make some port upon our western coast—say Portland or San Francisco, a Nassau or a Bermuda—can we help it ? If the thousand ingenious inventors of instru- ments of destruction, now looking out for encourage- ment, were to offer themselves and their machines to the Siagoon, and should some fine day blow up the British fleet sent to destroy his cities, would the fault be ours ? Can we be expected to examine every ma- chine and every ship that clears from this port for China, especially when it is paid for ? No reasonable Government would expect it. We have learned our lessons on international law from England, and what- ever she teaches us must be right, although we shall certainly never commit ourselves as a nation in up- holding it. In the meantime, should the Emperor of China," or her Majesty of. Figii want anything in our line, we can assure them that if they should happen to have only Japanese oblongs on hand to pay with., they will not be refused—perhaps not. 4.
Advantage of a "Postman's Knook. At the Judges' Chambers, on Wednesday, an application was made to discharge a person named Onions out of custody, on the ground that the arrest had been effected by the sheriffs' officers breaking open the outer door. The officers swore that they got into the house at night, after watching for some time by the dodge of a postman's knock." The door was opened, and after a struggle the capture was made. Mr. Justice Mellor refused to order the discharge, believing that the arrest was made through tile" postman's knock." Singular Case of Smuggling.—On Thursday morning last a large package was delivered at the house of the Rev. Mr. Baldey, at Southsea, having been conveyed there by a railway van. Mr. Baldey had not been advised that it had been consigned to him; but, as there was no mistake about the direction, he opened it, and was astonished to find that it con- tained about 5 cwt. of tobacco. Suspecting that it had been smuggled, he gave information to the Ports- mouth police, and a constable went to his house and afterwards communicated with the officers of the coast guard, who took possession of the tobacco. From subsequent information they received the officers pro- ceeded to a house at Fratton, in the parish of Portsea, and there found a similar case also containing 5 cwt. of smuggled tobacco; It appears that after the case had been sent from the railway station to Mr. Baldey's house, some persons called at the station and inquired for a case of "books" directed to the rev. gentleman, alleging that they had his written authority to take it away; and when they found that it had already been delivered they were of course greatly chagrined. It is clear that the case had been directed to Mr. Baldey to avoid suspicion, the parties having a confident hope that their arrangements would enable them to obtain possession of it before it was discovered. Antiquity of the Bugge Family—From an heraldic visitation of the northern counties of Eng- land in 1530, it appears that Ralph Bugge, of Notting- ham, flourished in the days of Henry III., and pur- chased lands at Willoughby. in Nottinghamshire, in 1241. But, alas even in the great thirteenth cen- tury, men were h. i\-ee from human weaknesses. The sons of Ralph Eugse possessed lands respectively at Bingham auct at Willonghbyy so their sons ungrate- fully cast away t'Mh- grandfather's Bugge, and figure in the pedigree as Sir Richard de Bingham and Sir Richard do Wiiioughby. The gentleman who a few months ago followed their example and took the name of Norfolk Howard perhaps hardly knew how ancient and honourable a surname ho was forsaking.
DARING GAROTTE ROBBERIES AGAIN…
DARING GAROTTE ROBBERIES AGAIN IN LONDON. James Lessy, a notorious thief, underwent a length- ened examination at the Westminster Police-court, on Friday, charged with two daring and serious garotte robberies. This is the first prosecution since the passing of an Act of Parliament which empowers the authorities to order the public whipping of the offender, in addition to other punishment. Mr. W. M. Ansell, solicitor, conducted the prosecution. Mr. Parsons, of 21, Margaretta-terrace, Chelsea, builder, said that on the evening of the 21st of last June, he was returning from Clapham, and was in the Queen's-road, Chelsea, at eleven o'clock at night, crossing from Paradise-street, walking leisurely, with his hands in his pockets, when he was suddenly attacked and robbed. He was violently seized from behind by thethroat, and the knee of his assailant being pressed in the middle of his back, he was dragged backwards, while another man came in front and robbed him of his gold watch and guard chain, after which he was thrown on the ground. He distinctly observed the face of the man behind him while being dragged back, and as he lay on the ground he saw the men before they ran away, and could distinctly sweur that the prisoner was the man who had seized him. His Albert chain, which had been attached by a key to the button-hole of his waistcoat, had been seized with such Violence that the key had been broken off. He wa3 so much injured by the violence with which he was grasped that he could not speak nor make any noise, and although he followed the thieves to the corner of Robinson-street, where he again had a full view of the prisoner's profile, he could not, owing to ihe injuries he had received, get any further. The key was afterwards found near the spot where he was attacked. He at once identified and picked the prisoner out on Friday morning from a number of other persons in the police yard attached to the court. Prisoner,' on being asked whether he wished to question the prosecutor, observed: You say I was behind you when you first saw me, and then you saw me again as you lay on the ground, and I got several yards ahead of you before you could see me again, and you were exhausted; and I say it is wrong of you to say that you can identify me. Prosecutor said that there was a lamp near where he was at- tacked that he saw the prisoner distinctly and clearly, and could positively swear that he was the man. Prisoner: It is a hard thing to swear against me in that way. I think he has taken a false oath, your worship. Mr. Jonathan Peel, a gentleman upwards of sixty years of age, stated to be a relative of Sir Robert Peel, said he resided at 1, Emos-terrace, Chelsea, but was at present staying at South- ampton. At about a quarter to ten en the night of Tuesday, the 30th of June, he was in Turk's-row, walking by the Chelsea Hospital ground in the middle of the street, when he was suddenly seized violently by the throat from behind, and in a few minutes rendered completely insensible, and while in that state he was robbed of a chronometer value L-20, and a gold chain, but was not aware from his unconsciousness that any one had been in front of him. He had once suffered allthe pangs of return to consciousness from drowning, but it was nothing to the pain he momentarily felt that night, and he expected in a second or two to have died from strangulation. His mind was preoccu- pied by some painful circumstances which he had witnessed that night, and which, being observed, probably invited the attack. Miss Flavina Hazeldine said that on the night of this robbery she was passing the corner of Turk's-row, near the Royal Military Asylum, when she saw three men together. It was a very light night. She saw two suddenly run away and leave one. Prisoner was one of those two; Mr. Peel was the gentle- man left behind, and stated that he had been robbed of his watch and chain. In answer to a question from the magistrate, the witness said she had repeatedly seen prisoner before, and was positive that he was the man. Rosa Minnie, an intelligent little girl, said that on the night of the robbery she saw a gentleman walking along the middle of the road, followed by three young men, one of whom directly afterwards lagged behind. One of the two remaining men put his arm round the gentleman's neck. It was the prisoner. She knew him well, and had long known him. Mr, Selfe requested the witness to show the court how the attack was macie. The second usher was the person selected for the illustration, and the little girl standing close to his right side, threw her right arm tightly round his tteroat. Mr. Peel said that the mode in which he was attacked pre- cisely corresponded with the illustration. Mr. Selfe inquired what was known of the prisoner. Gadland referred to a paper, and stated that there were seven- teen convictions against him, eight of which were for felony, the rest for desperate assaults and other offences. Prisoner: If a fellow wishes to reform and get an honest living they won't let him. Of course I know I've been wrong-, but that's no reason why I should not reform. If there's anytning wrong done in Chelsea they are sure to say it was me. Mr. Selfe: A man with seventeen convictions against him is not unnaturally an object of suspicion. Prisoner: Although it has been proved that I've been bad, there's still some reform in me. The depositions were then prepared and read over. To the first charge prisoner said he was innocent; to the second he made no reply. He was fully committed for trial on both charges at the Central Criminal Court.
MISS BURDETT COUTTS AND CO-OTEl…
MISS BURDETT COUTTS AND CO-OTE- RATIVE EMIGRATION. The honorary secretary of the Lancashire and Queensland Co-operative Emigration Society (Limited) addressed an application in'May last, shortly after the society was duly registered under the Act, to Miss Burdett Coutts, as well as to other persons of liberality and wealth, setting forth the principles of self-help and mutual assistance upon which the institution was based. Assistance was asked, not in the form of an alms, but as a loan, the terms offered being at least 5 per cent. (which it was contemplated to raise to 7t in the event of the society's undertaking being sufficiently prosperous), while the security proposed was the usual bond, under the Act, upon the share- holders' lands and estates in Queensland. No reply was received to these communications at the time, and in the meanwhile the society proceeded to carry on its operations from its own resources. Last week, however, a note was received from Miss Coutt's private secretary, asking for some further infor- mation as to the principles of co-operative emigration, and desiring to know whether the society had been able to effect the negotiation it had in view. In reply to this note the society's secretary (Mr. J. H. Vickers ) re- stated his former arguments, and pointed to the success which had already attended the society's ope- rations in the number of families it had been able to send out on the co-operative system, adding, however, that operations would have been conducted on even a larger scale if funds had allowed. The next post brought a letter from Miss Coutts, in which that lady stated she had much pleasure in placing at the disposal of the committee the sum oL£50, leaving its disburse- ment entirely to the discretion of the committee. After some kindly expressions of sympathy with the unemployed operatives and the working classes of Lancashire in general, Miss Coutts referred in terms of regret to the statement she had recently seen in the newspapers of some persons having procured their passages by means of forged certificates, and she desired to be informed if such persons were in any way connected with the Lancashire and Queensland Co-operative Society. It need not be added that, in reply to Miss Coutts's letter, the secretary was in a position to answer that inquiry in the negative. Arrangements are now being made for dispatching twenty additional persons by the Light of the Age, outward bound from London on the 25th inst.; and it is hoped that, as in the case of previous batches of emigrants, the Cotton Supply Association will make its usual liberal grant of cotton seed and books of in- spection. As some proof of the popularity of the co- operative form of emigration, it may be stated that between the 20th of March last and the date above mentioned, upwards of £1,100 will have been expended in passages alone, the whole of that sum being con- tributed by shareholders among the working classes. Several of the families allotted for the next vessel are shareholders in the Scottish branch of the Lancashire society. Upon the office books of that local branch there are 115 heads of families, representing 550 persons, three-fourths of whom had, up to the 8th ult., paid up their calls, amounting to J2416. Most of these shareholders are quarrymen and miners, or persons generally fitted, by previous habits and occupation, to make good colonists. Mr. Dalglish, M.P. for Glasgow, is greatly interesting himself in the success of the co- operative system of emigration in Scotland, and an attempt is being made to secure the good offices of the Lord Provost in the same behalf.
- NANA SAHIB,
NANA SAHIB, The supposed Nana is still the chief topic of con- versation in India; and the latest intelligence received is that he is to be moved at once to Agra. A wing of the 28th, with a proportion of artillery (three guns) and cavalry from Nusseerabad and Neemuch, will form the escort. It would have been as well (says a cor- respondent) to have first settled the question unmis- takably as to whether the real Nana is in custody. or not, before sending 800 Europeans on what may prove Mr unprofitable journey. Another account states that reports are circulated that the gathering of "Budmashes" and "Pandies," who were at Saloomba a short time ago, kave nearly all dispersed, or hidden themselves in the surrounding hills and jungles. This appears to have arisen from the news of the probability of a force moving out from Neemuch having' been conveyed to their locality. The Nana still remains in durance vile at Ajmere and the Government have as yet made no sign with regard to his future destination. It is said in Nusseerabad that Captain Carnell is to proceed in charge of the prisoner to Cawnpore, or at least that this officer has been named for the duty by the Governor-General's agent for Rajpootana. The Nana is now much thinner than when he was first captured, and his skin, particularly of the face, has become much lighter in colour. It is most extra- ordinary nothing should be known as to what is to be done with him, as, putting the telegraph aside, time has elapsed for a reference to Simla or Calcutta almost over again. It is rumoured the Saloomba Thakoor has sent vakeels into Neemuch denying all complicity in the Nalia's, affairs, End stating tha he didnot know that it was the Nana, and that he is innocent of Pandies. There could surely be little difficulty in ascertaining the facts of the case with our military stations of Khairwarrah, not more than thirty miles distant from Saloomba. News has been received that the photographs of the supposed Nana, sent to Cawnpore, were pronounced by Captain Court, of the police, and by Dr. Cheek, the civil surgeon, as not at all resembling what they recol- lected as the Nana. Both these gentlemen were well acquainted with him previous to the mutinies. It must, however, be remembered that the photographs were amateur productions, and that the man must have altered considerably during six years of wander- ing. If not the Nana why does he not indicate the Deccan village from which he came ? But this he is unable to do. The Englishman says:—" The first count against the Nana ought to be for rebellion, and rebellion alone; and, if found guilty, he should be hanged for rebellion, and be thankful for the clemency which does not blow him away from a gun, or flay him alive, or impale him, which would have been his certain lot under a Mogul conqueror. It should only be under the very unex- pected contingency of the Nana being acquitted of rebellion, or acquitted of consorting with rebels, that he should be tried for those horrible crimes on which the memory of the public is too apt to run." We do not agree with the writer, says the Observer. If we try the Nana simply for rebellion we shall fail to carry the sympathies of the people with us, for it is known all over India that he had a grievance against our rule. If we try him for the horrid massacre of women and children at Cawnpore, we shall approve ourselves to the conscience of every native of the country when we hang him.
ALLEGED FORGERIES BY A MERCHANT.
ALLEGED FORGERIES BY A MERCHANT. The people in Birmingham and the environs have been taken by'surprise by the statement that Mr. George Baskerville, junior partner in the firm of Messrs. P. and G. Baskerville, flint grinders, of Bells-mill and Hotlane-mill, Hanley, has ab- sconded, and that with his disappearance has come the discovery of a large number of forgeries perpe- trated by him. It appears that Mr. Baskerville, senior, left the entire management of the business to his son George, who is said to have dealt largely in connection with Smith, who was con- victed of forgery at the last assizes, in accommo- dation bills. These bills were mostly forgeries, the names of well-known respectable persons being attached to them for the purpose of getting them discounted, as there was a difficulty in inducing persons to discount Baskerville's bills. Most of these forged bills were taken to London by Baskerville, and discounted by different firms in London by a person who was formerly in business as a flint-grinder in Burslem, and now a commission agent in London, and who acted as the agent of Baskerville and Smith in these trans- actions. Forged bills to the amount of £3,000 have been discovered to have emanated from Baskerville, but notwithstanding all these he was unable to pay all the debts of the firm. His creditors became anxious for money, and bills were continually falling due. To meet these claims Baskerville went on forging fresh bills, which were also discounted in London. Ultimately, however, bills fell due faster than he could meet them by forging others and getting them discounted, and this brought him to a standstill. Mr. Basker- ville,. senior, appears to have been entirely ignorant of his son's doings, and advanced money from his private means, which were but small, to keep the business going. He is said to be entirely ruined by the dis- covery just made, and much commiseration is felt for him. Young Baskerville, finding a crisis had come, decamped about two days since, and has not since been seen. He is supposed to be out of the country by this time. He leaves a wife and child. On Thursday the furniture of young Baskerville's house, which is said to have been splendidly furnished, was being removed by his directions; but before it was cleared out the owner of the mill, Mr. Jesse Shirley, Etruria, hearing of the affair, made a descent with a war- rant to distrain, and took possession of all that was left. After disposing of this, Mr. Shirley, it is said, will lose £ 150 in the shape of rent, and, in addition to the £3,000 of forged bills held by dif- ferent creditors, there are trade debts to the amount of another = £ 3,000, making in all £ 6,000 as the amount which will be lost by creditors of the firm. The father is in circumstances which will not go far to satisfy the claims of the creditors. What course they intend to take we are unable to say..
THE STEAM RAMS AT LIVERPOOL.
THE STEAM RAMS AT LIVERPOOL. It now appears (says the Liverpool Post) that the steam-rams just launched from the yard of Messrs. Laird were built for the Confederate Government. Neither the French Government nor the French people were concerned in the business, but a French banker was. The two rams were to be paid for out of the pro- ceeds of the Confederate Loan. M. Langier was one of the contractors to that loan, and he was also a guarantee for the payment of the contract to Messrs. Laird for the cost of the two rams. He has a mortgage on both. They may, therefore, ultimately become his, but then the law would have to deal with a new feature in the transaction. M. Langier might sell them to the British Government at cost price, and they are well worth the money-not for sea, but for coast and harbour service. It might be dangerous to send them across the Atlantic in winter. For privateers they are totally unfit. The inexcusable crime of destroying private property at sea has at length been universally condemned. Even the Times is liquefying its opinions, in the form of natural progression towards a final condemnation of ram building and ram practice. Already it has arrived at the opinion that both are morally wrong, and is not without hope that the law will step in and put an end to a practice so abominable. The moral condemnation will probably suffice. At all events Mr. John Laird is too honourable a man, feels too responsible to public opinion, to persist in doing any- thing that honourable and honest men would disap- prove of. The representatives of the Confederate cause in this country must now see that persistence in Alabama doings will operate against their interests. When affection becomes doubtful there is danger in out- raging feelings; and the public feeling now admits being outraged by the wanton and causeless destruc- tion of private property. The purpose of sowing discord between England and the Federals will fail when in America it is known that England disap- proves. The Federals will be the dullest of dull dogs if they do not now put forth all their strength and bring the war to a close, before France and steam- rams are subsidised bv the Confederates.
RESCUING ELEVEN PERSONS AT…
RESCUING ELEVEN PERSONS AT SEA. The Inverness Courier says, that on Friday evening as darkness was coming on, the Helens, of Alloa, Capt. Grinly, on her way from Thurso to Inverness, fell in with a -boat nearly twelve miles at sea, off the coast of Helmsdale. It contained five women, three children, and three men; the sails were torn to shreds, there were no oars, the boat itself was badly injured, and she was drifting' helplessly to sea. Captain Grinly bore down upon them, and was immediately greeted with cries of anguish and distress from the women and children, who, wet, cold, and much alarmed for their safety were with difficulty removed from the boat to the deck of the Helens. It appears that the same, day the party had started from Helmsdale intending, now that the herring fishing is over, to sail to Brora, where they usually resided. The wind was from the south-west, and it was expected that after a pretty long run out to sea, they would have been able to make Brora at the next tack but it shifted suddenly, and came on to blow violently. The sails tore away and became useless, and the boat having suffered a good deal in the fishing season, when there was not much time to repair her, was making water very rapidly; in this condition they were driven out to sea, and were providentially seen by Captain Grinly. He gave them hot tea and other refresh- ments, and gradually they recovered heart and spirits. One of the women suffered much from wet and cold; for a long time after the rescue she was extremely sick and weak,. but she, too, ulti- mately came round. They were all safely landed at Tarbatness, deeply grateful to Captain Grinly and the crew of the Helens.
Weather Hints for Farmers.
Weather Hints for Farmers. We extract the following from Admiral Fitzroy's work on Practical Meteorology ":— Whether clear or cloudy, a rosy sky at sunset presag'es fine weather; a sickly-looking greenish hue, wind and rain; a dark (or Indian) red, rain a red sky in the morning, bad weather or much wind (perhaps rain); a grey sky in the morning, fine weather; a high dawn, wind; a low dawn, fair weather. Soft-looking or delicate clouds foretell fine weather, with moderate or light breezes; hard-edged, oily- looking clouds, wind. A dark gloomy blue sky is windy, but a bright blue sky indicates fine weather.. Generally, the softer clouds look, the less wind (but perhaps more rain) may be expected; and the harder, I p more greasy," rolled, tufted, or ragged, the stronger the coming wind will prove. Also, a bright yellow sky at sunset presages wind; a pale yellow, wet; therefore, by the prevalence and kind of red, yellow, or other tints, the coming weather may be foretold very nearly—indeed, if aided by instruments, almost exactly. I Small inky-lookmg clouds foretell rain; light scud clouds driving across heavy masses show wind and rain; but if alone, may indicate wind only. High upper clouds crossing the sun, moon, or stars, in a different direction from that of the lower clouds, or the wind then left below, foretell a change of wind toward their direction. After fine clear weather, the first signs in the sky of a' a coming change are usually light streaks, curls, wisps, or mottled patches of white distant clouds, which increase, and are followed by a murky vapour that grows into cloudiness. This appearance, more or less oily or watery, as wind or rain will prevail, is an infal- lible sign. Unusually the higher and more distinct such clouds seem to be the more gradual, but general, the coming change of weather will prove. Light delicate quiet tints or colours, with soft unde- fined forms of clouds, indicate and accompany fine weather but unusual or gaudy hues, with hard, defi- nitely outlined clouds, foretell rain, and probably strong wind. Misty clouds forming or hanging on heights, show wind and rain coming, if they remain, increase, or descend. If they rise or disperse, the weather will improve or become fine. When sea-birds fly out early, and fly to eastward, moderate wind and fair weather may be expected. 'When they hang about the land, or over it, sometimes flying inland, expect a strong wind with stormy weather.. As many creatures besides birds are'affected by the approach of; rain or wind, such indications should not be slighted by an observer who wishes to foresee the weather or compare its variations. There are other signs of a coming change in the weather known less generally than may be desirable, and therefore worth notice; such as when birds of long flight-rooks, swallows, or others-hang about home, or fly up and down or low, rain or wind may be expected. Also when animals seek sheltered places, instead of spreading over their usual ranges; when pigs carry straw to their styes; when smoke from chimneys does not ascend readily (or straight upwards during calm), an unfavourable change is probable. Dew is an indication of fine weather, so is fog. Neither of these two formations occur under an over- cast sky, or when there is much wind. One sees fog occasionally rolled away, as it were, by wind, but seldom or never formed while it is blowing. Remarkable clearness of atmosphere near the horizon—distant objects, such as hills, unusually visi- ble, or raised (by refraction)—and what is called a good "hearing day," may be mentioned among signs of wet, if not wind, to be expected. More than usual twinkling in the stars, indistinct- ness or apparent multiplication of the moon's horns, halos, wind dogs," and the rainbow, are more or less significant of increasing wind, if not approaching rain with or without wind. Near land in sheltered harbours, in valleys or over low ground, there is usually a marked diminution of wind during part of the night, and a dispersion of clouds. At such times an eye on an overlooking height may see an extended body of vapour below (rendered visible by the cooling of night) which seems to check the wind.
Hardy Fruit and Kitchen Garden.
Hardy Fruit and Kitchen Garden. As formerly recommended, look over fruit remaining out of doors frequently, and gather it as it becomes fit. Also examine that stored in the fruit room, as there will occasionally be found a few decaying for a few weeks after housing, and these should be removed as soon as perceived. Keep the fruit room cool and airy, in order to allow of the escape of moisture given off by the fruit, which is considerable for a few weeks at first. Where it is intended to make fresh planta- tions of fruit trees this season, the ground should be prepared at the earliest convenience, and any fresh soil to be used for planting should be thoroughly ex- posed to the action of the weather so as to have it in a mellow state when wanted for use. If not already done, clean and dress strawberry plantations, clearing away all useless runners, giving a good dressing of manure when necessary, but be careful to select that which is thoroughly decayed, and which can be covered without the necessity of digging deep or injuring the roots. The principal crop of celery should now be kept rather closely earthed up, using quicklime and soot freely to destroy slugs. Give every attention to autumn broccolies; also to autumn and winter lettuce, watering with liquid manure to make them crisp, and tying up in regular succession. Blanch endive and cut away all superfluous shoots from tomatoes. Brown and Bath cos letttuce, as well as Hammersmith cabbage, for early spring work, should now be pricked out; more especially if getting what is technically termed proud.—Gardeners' Chronicle.
EPITOME OF ISTEWfj, --
EPITOME OF ISTEWfj, Hop-picking has commenced in the north of France, but the yield is not so abundant as was expected. Sales of this year's crop are effected at from 105f. to 110f. the 50 kilos. The slock of 1862 is completely exhausted. Pilgrimages by rail appear to be getting in fashion. The Journal du Havre states that between 60) and 700 pilgrims arrived at Honfleur, a day or two ago, by rail, and on the following day they went in procession to Notre-Dame-de- Grace. The rectory of Fladbury, near Pershore, has become vacant by the death of the Rev. Frederick Gauntlett, M.A., formerly of Wadham College, Oxford. The benefice is worth £750 a year, and is in the gift of the Bishop of Worcester. The directors of the Great Western Railway Com- pany recommend to the proprietors a dividend of £1 per cent, for the seven months ending July 31, being at the rate of;S!Hs.3d. per cfent. per annum, leaving a balance of about -61,000 to be carried over to the next account. One evening last week, the halyards used In displaying Admiral Fitzroy's signals on the Dorsetshire coast, were severed by some miscreant. A large reward is offered for the detection of any persons hereafter found indulging in such a senseless offence. At the recent Oxford local examination two pupils of the Royal Asylum of St. Ann's Society obtained the degree of DD., and three of the junior pupils obtained certifi- cates. The Syndicate of Cambridge examined the scheol lately, and reported very favourably of its effic cy. A railway train on the South-Eastern Railway has had a narrow escape, owing to the straying on the line, near Bickley, of a horse, the owner of which had to appear at the Greenwich Police-court m answer to a summons charging him with endangering the lives of the passenger?, and the magistrate bound him over to take his trial at Maidstone Assizes. I The annual account of the county rat JS of England and Wales shows that in 1862 they were' assessed on £ 73,975,96?. This amount increases year by year; four years before it was but £ 65,207,286. His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales has generously sent zC-5 for the relief of two poor persons Uviag in Aberdeen. The parties are two women, named MacJonaid, widow and daughter of the late Sergeant-Major John Macdenald, of the 42nd Highlanders, who had served in the army for the ong period of thirty-six years. It is rumoured that serious frauds upon the Government have been detected at Devonport. It is said that the clothing contractor, having had cloth served to him for the purpose of making the articles he had contracted to supply, substituted for that cloth a very infeiior material, consisting of cotton instead of wool, and of this he has been making the sailors' clothes. The nail masters in the South Staffordshire and East Worcestershire districts have determined on resisting the demand of a rise of sixpence per cwt. made by the horsc-nail lrnakers. The men, at the end of last week, gave a fortnight's notice to their employers, and if, at the expiration of that time the advance is not made, they determine at once to strike wo:3s.' The Act of last session prohibiting the exporta- tion of salmon has just taken effect. Between the 3rd September and the 2nd February the law was formerly evaded by salmon being exported for sale in France, but now it is enacted tha: a penalty of £5 shall be levied for every salmon exported, or entered for exportation, within the limited time. It is said that a memorial is circulating, the object of which is to prevent Earl Spencer inclosing Wands- worth-common. The report that Dr. Colenso is coming home has stirred up the clergy of Natal, who are preparing a house- warming for him such as he will find most unpleasant to encounter. A protest against the doctor's writings is the pre- liminary proceeding. A ventilating oilskin waterproof is described with horrible accuracy by the Saturday Rtview as a contrivance for frying people in their own grease. Seldom has Baden-Baden been so full of visitors as during the present year; for, as we learn by a letter, the number last week in the city amounted to 31,000. In a few days the Isle of Man will be placed in telegraphic communication with England. The total enrolled strength of the Volunteers is now 159,000 men of all ranks, of whom 1,300 are cavalry, 23,000 artillery, 2,500 engineers, and 132,000 rifle vo'unteers The Underground Railway and the Omnibus Company are both to return five per cent, to their shareholders. It will be curious to many to know what the exact value of the life of an omnibus horse is-namely, Is. 6d. a week. We regret to hear that the Lass of Gowrie has met with an unfortunate accident at Dundee. The unfortunate female was making her first trip to the Ferry, and blew up by bursting her boiler. She was about 300 tons. We understand that the Bishop of British Co- lumbia will leave England, on his return to his distant diocese, on the 25th of November. It is said that the late Mr. Beriah Botfield, late M.P. for Ludlow1, has left his widow a jointure of £10,000 per annum. He had no children, and bis largepropert/ is estimated at £ 60,000 per annum. Quite a furore has been occasioned to see the ruins of Campden-honse, owing to the recent trial. A con- temporary says that the Sun fire-office might make a good thing of it at a shilling a head. A correspondent of a local journal states that Madeline Smith, whose trial for the murder of her sweat- heart by poison created so much sympathy and interest, has been comfortably married, and mayoccasionally be seen on a Sunday, along with her husband, in a church in the town of Linlithgow. The ridiculous issue of the trial of the life- boat at Hastings was that she nearly became a wreck herself, and the crew had to be rescued by other bo its. Some of the crew were hurt. She ought to be named the Mote henceforth, as a practical application of the parable. The second of the All England matches of this autumn came off on Thursday at Thame. Ploughs of the great rival makers—Kansome's, Howard's, and Hornsby's- competed. Geo. Brown, who has won so many prizes, ploughed for the Howard's, and was met for the first time by James Barker, who ploughed for the JRansome'u, and won the champion prize. The dirty hermit, celebrated by Mr. C. Dickens's visit, is now known to be a Mr. L-, who resides near Hitchin, on the Great Northern Railway, about twenty-five miles out of town. He is as rich in cl1>h as he is in alluvial soil, not having washed for fifteen years, and could grow a salad all over his body. It is understood (says the New York Herald) that the Government has selected an agent or agents to go to Europe to operate largely to augment the present tremendous volume of emigration hither. It is desired that the tide ot new comers, representing all vocations, shall be turned into the slave States, with a view to put a new people in contact with the freed men. A tradesman, who was robbed about two months back of two watches in Paris, offers, in the French journals, to pay the thief 150 francs if he will return them, promising at the same time not to prosecute hitn. Such an offer would in England be visited by a heavy penalty. A balance sheet of the United States British Resident's Fund, in aid of the Lancashire operatives, gives the total amount raised at 25,800 dollars, which has been remitted, less expenses, in cash and provisions. The Liverpool magistrates have fined a cab- man named Doverson X5 for driving through a volunteer band, and causing injuries both to men and instruments. A fine of forty shillings was also inflicted for furious driving. A terrible accident lately occurred to a little girl in Gallowgate, Glasgow. The child had been looking over a window at a height of three storeys from the street, and in the absence of her grandmother, who had gone out a short time, she fell over and was killed on the spot. The grand review of the troops stationed at the Curragh camp and Newbridge-barracks, was held last week before General Sir George Brown, C.B., commander of the forces in Ireland. Contrary to expectation, the Lord-Lieutenant was not present, but there was a large attendance of spectators. The second great sale of Shropshire rams and ewes took place at Shrewsbury last week. Mr. W. G. Preece sold by auction upwards of 150 rams and nearly 700 ewes from the most noted flocks in thecounty, and nearly all were disposed of at good prices, notnithstanding a very large number were sold at the July sale. Dispatches from Paris assert that the French Government will insist on carrying out the arrangements with regard to the Suez Canal, notwithstanding the, opposition of the Egyptian a nth o-ities. The dividend declared at the general meeting of the Bank of British Columbia was at the rate of 5 per cent, per annum; and a. balance was carried forward of £ 2,000. The dividend, it is announced, is free of income-tax, and is receivable on the 80th inst. A letter from Alexandria speaks of the slaughter on the VVhite Nile of several boats full of ivory traders. They were surprised by the blacks, and every one on board was hilled. The writer of the letter expresses his belief that the slaughter was merely "an act of wild justice," as the ivory traders are neither more nor less than slavery. The autumn show of flowers at the Horti- cultural Gardens, London, was miserably attended, few fashion- able persons being present, and only one band of music. Holly- hocks, asters, gladioli, phloxes, verbenas, and dahlias were in great profusion and in splendid condition. Miss Henrietta Nelson, a lady of independent fortune, residing at Tooting, came to a terrible death by burning a few days since. She had risen early, and, rather than disturb the servant, was lighting her own fire, when a spark is supposed to have fallen on her dress arid been fanned into a flame, from, which ?he was so frightfully burnt as to expire in three hours afterwards. A very heavy thunderstorm broke over the metropolis on Wednesday evening and Thursday morning. Throughout the day previous the weather had been sultry and dull, heavy clouds presaging the coming storm, which, for intensity, has not been surpassed this summer. Two men who intruded roughly into an already full carriage on the Metropolitan Extension of the London, Chatham, and Dover Railway, had to pay the clerk of the West- minster Police-court zC3, by way of fine, and as fee for the lesson in politeness to women and children with which the magistrate favoured them. A cloth merchant and commission agent has been charged at Leeds with a very serious eilence. lie had absconded, leaving liabilities behind him to the amount of £ -5,000 and assets to the amount of X200. He had taken a passage to New Zealand, and was captured by a detective on board the vessel. A Stockholm letter confirms the account pre- viously received of an offensive and defensive alliance having been concluded between Sweden and Denmark. Sweden, Nor- way, and Denmark have resolved, it is said, to oppose the occupation of Holstein by Germany. A violent collision took place at Deal during the gales which prevailed, as well on the coast as in the metro- polis, on Sunday night and Monday morning. The Ocean King, a steam vessel, in the heavy sea, r n down the bark Elvira, off Dungeness, and the barque foundered. A curious fatal accident occurred at a tavern in Westminster. The waiter was going 0o*n the cellar steps with an empty wine bottle in his hand when lie stumbled and fell, and, the bottle breaking, his arm was cut by some of the broken glass. The wound bled profusely, delirium came on, and ultimately he died. A monster snake is said to have appeared at Warning-camp. It is asserted to be not less than ei^ht feet in length, and its size round greatly exceeding what is rropor- tionate to ib An organised crusade against the life of this dan- gerous reptile is seriously contemplated. Captain Grant, the Eastern traveller, is to be presented with the freedom of the burgh of Dingwall. The respected mother of the traveller (widow ot the Hev. James Grant, of Nairn) resides in Dingwall. The clergy of the diocese of Natal have ad- dressed a decided prot.st to Dr. Colenso against his heretical teaching. The protest is signed by tha most influential of the clergy, h d by the archdeacon, and speaks iu no mild terms of the writings of the Zulu Bishop. Operations have been commenced for the raising of the Baron Osy steamer, which SUlIk. the other day in the fairway of the Thames. It is to be hoped that the sunken object upon which this vessel struck, wdl be at once removed. A Turin paper announces that the Roman Peni- tentiary Court has demanded a formal recantation from the priests in Italy who profess principles contrary to those of the Roman Curia; and this under pain of heavy ecclesiastical pnn- ishment. The Customs-officers at Haumont, France, last week arrested a lady's maid who was attempting to cross, the frontier with no less than 29 kilogs. of Belgian tobacco con-. cealed in her crinoline.