What is the Object of the War ? (From the Richmond Dispatch, Sept. 30.) The Yankee Government has at last laid aside all disguise. Lincoln openly proclaims the abolition, of slavery throughout the entire South, wherever a slave is held. The time for issuing this proclamation has been singularly well chosen. It is when the discharge of Pope's, last officer has left our Govern- ment, for the present, entirely without the means of retaliation. It is singularly consistent with the behaviour of Lincoln when Pope's infamous procla- mation was issued. That document was not sent forth until Lincoln had assured himself that the cartel either had been or would be signed. For the proclamation itself, it does not in the least alter the character of the war. It has been an abolition contest from the beginning, and is no more an abolition contest now than it was at first. The Yankees have stolen and set free aM the negroes who were willing to go, wherever their soldiers have had possession of the country. It is best for us, indeed, that the mask should be entirely laid aside, since our people, no longer deluded into the belief that their slave property will be respected, will be careful hereafter to remove it beyond the reach of danger. The document is merely, curious, from the clear demonstration which it affords of the entire possession which the abolition party has taken of the Federal Government, that the utter prostration of the last remnant of what used with so much unction to be termed by the canting knaves of New England, the bulwark of our liberties"—we mean that ridiculous old Constitution of the United States, which no party ever paid any attention to when they were strong enough to disregard it, and from which no party too weak to justify its position with the sword ever received the slightest protection. That the whole North will acquiesce in this last kick at the expiring Constitution, cannot be doubted. Experience has proved that we have nothing to hope from any party in that quarter. Eager as they may be to cut each other's throats, they are still more eager to cut ours, and to that pious work, we may be assured, they will devote themselves with all their energy. They are already calling for a million more of men, and the probability is that they will have them long before Christmas. We must make up our minds to meet these men, and to beat them, as we both can and will if they come here. It is interesting to see what is said by some papers in the border slaveholding States. The Clipper and the Lutheran Observer, both published in Baltimore, are in favour of the President. So is the Cambridge Intelligencer, an influential paper published in Dor- chester county, in one of the most thoroughly slave- holding districts in the State of Maryland. An extract from this last-named paper is truly edi- fying:—
The War a War of Freedom. We have never doubted that the war which the rebels have inaugurated would prove to be the destruction of slavery. We warned the people at the time that it began, and events have already proved the truth of our predictions. It is truly, on the part of the rebels, a war of freedom to the black men of the South. But this is not all. There is another sense in which this is a war of freedom. There are other men in the South to be freed as well as hlack men. The white men of the South need the strong arm of the Government to lift the yoke from their necks. These have endured a slavery far transcending that of the blacks. The social system of the South has never been anything short of despotism—a tyranny equal to any of the age. The mind has for ever been bound here. Freedom of opinion has never been tolerated below Mason and Dixon's line. Men have not been permitted to hold, much less express, their own opinions. man might conscientiously have be- lieved slavery to have been a burden upon the State, but he dare not let the public know that such were his convLotions. He would at once be proscribed in business, and happy indeed might he be if he escaped without a coat of tar and feathers. Freedom of speech and the press was a thing un- known in the South. We shall never accomplish -our magnificent destiny until these are free. The war is unbinding them. The true glory of the war is not that it liberates the black but the white men of the South. They are already beginning to shout for ioy. And when the war closes, they will join their voices in one loud hallelujah to the God of liberty for their deliverance. We look with pride and joy to the good time coming when American freedom shall be free in deed, as well as in name. Corinth, a place which our readers will recognise in connection with the exploits of Halleck and Beau- regard, and the great battle at Pittsburg Landing, has been the scene of another engagement. The Confederates, under Price and Van Dom, forty- thousand strong, attacked the Federal forces, under General Rosencranz, on the 3rd inst., and, after two days' fighting, were repulsed with severe loss. Battles in this locality have a remarkable tendency to run in couples. That of Pittsburg Landing oc- cupied two days the battle of Tuka, which was fought on the 19th of last month, began one day and finished the next; and so with the battle of Corinth, the news of which we have just heard. All these places lie within a compass of thirty miles of each other, and it must be regarded as a singular proof of the tenacity of both parties that, after six months' fighting they are still con- tending for victory on the same spot. The object of General Grant would seem to be simply to keep possession of Corinth, and the line of railway between that place and Memphis. This position enables him to embarrass the movements of the Con- federates, it keeps in check a large number of troops who would else be employed in Kentucky and Tennessee, and it also reserves an important ad- vantage for the Federals against the season when the Cumberland and Tennessee rivers will again become navigable. On the other hand; the aim of General Price is not simply to get clear of Grant's army, in order to join the Confederates in Kentucky—for that he might easily do by steering a little further- eastward-but to get rid of it, either by defeating it or rendering its position untenable. He is not known as a fortunate commander. In his hands the cam- paign in Missouri completely failed, and he has not had, so far as we recollect, the honour of winning a single battle; but, if he does not win, he manages to survive his defeats and figlit again. In the recent battle of Juka, a few miles south of Corinth, he was attacked by Rosencranz, and compelled to retire. General Grant, in his official report of the battle, expressed his opinion that his army would be broken up; he had then 18,000 men. Thirteen days after, on the 3rd inst., we find him at the head of a force estimated at 40,000, and this time attacking Rosen- cranz. In the absence of further details we can form no idea of the magnitude or relative importance of the defeat. It is presumed that Price advanced from the south against Corinth, and yet the result of the battle was to drive him five miles across the Hutchie river towards Corinth. Hitherto the reports of General Rosencranz has been believed to be correct, though it is possible they may bear some modification, yet it cannot be mistaken that it was a signal victory for the Federals. The discourage- ment of this defeat will be all the more severe for the Confederates from its following so soon after the retreat from Maryland. The tide has began to turn, and it is quite possible that the aspect of the campaign may be wholly changed before winter sets in with its armistice. At New Orleans a large number of people have taken the oath of allegiance, to avoid the penalties of the Confiscation Act, which General Butler is rigidly going to enforce. The operations of the civil war have been resumed in that city. The sheriff had opened six district courts. The country below New < (rl^ans is much troubled by Confederate marauding parties, and a provost-marshal has been appointed for both sides of the river. Twenty guerillas have surrendered themselves. The Federal gunboat Iroquois has been sent to the mouth of Rio Grande. The British prize steamers Circassian, Memphis, Bermuda, Stettin, and Columbia, are being fitted out as Federal cruisers. The Con- federate Congress has passed a new Consciiptioa Act, to include all able-bodied men between the ages of 35 and 45. It has been rumoured, but with little credit, that the- reason of the existing quietude on the part of both armies on. the upper Potomac is that commissioners are now either in or on their way to Washington, sent by the Confederate Congress, to propose terms of peace. These commissioners are appointed by a resolution introduced by Foote, and acted upon by the rebel Congress. In a speech made upon pre- senting the resolution, Foote stated plainly the desperate plight the Confederacy is now in, and said that, as starvation is already staring them in the face, something must be done to stop this war other than fighting. The terms of peace which they propose are somewhat as follows:—The loyal states are to take all the territories, Missouri, Ten- nessee, Kentucky, and Maryland, and to make them free or slave States, as may best please them. The cotton States are to be permitted to have a Congress of their own to regulate their own domestic affairs only. In all other things to be again as one, and an inseparable people. For defensive and offensive operations against other countries; to be a unity. In all matters of postal and revenue service to be as heretofore, they pledging to return all Government property as they found it. They, in addition to having: the North recognise their authority to have this Congress, to regulate their peculiar institutions, are to be permitted senators and representatives in Congress, but only in such numbers as their free white population is entitled to. Governor Morgan, of New York, has issued an important general order, authorising the recruiting of nine months' men until the order for drafting is issued. These recruits will be formed into com- panies only to be used to fill up regiments in the field. The State of New York had raised 20,000 three years' volunteers over her quota under the first call for 300,000 men, and volunteers for nine months would now be accepted to fill up the second call. Twenty thousand more men were needed, and it was hoped that they would be furnished under the encouraging terms offered by the governor. The Louisville Journal is informed by a gentleman who has had opportunities of possessing information as to the movements of the Confederates in Kentucky, that the whole number of Confederate troops in that State is 78,000 men all told, including 9,000 recruits, who have joined them since they entered the State. Two thousand of the latter were said to have already deserted. The news from Lee's (the Confederate) army is to the effect that General M'Clellan's army had arrived to the south side of the Potomac, and was advancing in force to meet Lee. The latter had taken a strong position, and was awaiting the attack.
MELANCHOLY DEATH. Mr. H. Raffles Walthew, the deputy coroner for East Middlesex, held an inquest in the boardroom of th., Mile-end Workhouse, on the body of a man named John Gould, aged 50 years, who was understood to have only recently arrived in London from Kent. From the evidence it appeared that a police-constable found the man in Crown-row, in a state of starvation, and annoying the shopkeepers, who said he was mid. He was taken at once to a doctor, who examined him, and pronounced him to be suffering from the want of the: common necessaries of life. L'he policeman consequently, took him to the workhouse. Ia reply to questions asked deceased said that he had left his child at Cray ford, Kent-, in the charge of a Mrs. Garrett, so that he might come up to London to obtain employment as a shoemaker, and, after a few incoherent remarks, he became al'o¿šeth"r irrational. The master of the workhouse visited the deceased in the receiving ward and endeavoured to cheer him. He replied that he had not slept in bed for a long tims. A man was ordered to remain, up all night to. watch. hi;n. On the following-morning after deceased was admitts ?, the warder was alarmed by hearing a woman cry out, He is catting hia throit," when, upon. examination, deceased was detected in the act of cutting his throat with a razor. He died shortly, after. The medical evidence proved that he was in a most shockingly emaciated condition, and tha.t even if he had not cut his throat he could not have survived. The cor&ner remarked upon the deplorable nature of the case, and the jury returned the following verdict "That deceased died from inflammation of the brain, and that his death was accelerated by his cutting, his throat with a razor, and also by his emaciated state; and the jury find that deceased had not been searched until 10 or 15 minutes after his admission to the union house, and they recommend that in future persona should be searched immediately on thair admission."
mTEMATIOEAL EXHIBITION. The attendance at the Exhibition, both on Monday and Tuesday, was very well sustained; and during the latter day, in consequence of the fineness of the weather, the company kept pouring steadily in until a late hour. Many of the company came in vans, and there were many whose provincial bloom, indicated that they were excursionists. Indeed any one who studies the appearance of town must be convinced that at this particular season the Exhibi- tion depends almost entirely on the provinces. There is now plenty of room in Piccadilly, and the Park is a desert. On passing it the other day, at 3 p.m., we saw the famous line in "Rejected Ad- dresses literally realised, for I I A single horseman rode down Rotten-row." Our influx of 50,000 a-day must, therefore, come up from the country, and the flow will most probably go on increasing until the end. As the Exhibition season is about, to close, the testimonal season shows symptoms of setting in. We have heard rumours of testimona15 on the tapis ] to various parties, but no facts have been stated. Among the Portuguese contributions to the Ex- hibition is an illustration of the metric system of weights and measures as established in France, and lately introduced into Portugal, which will be found worthy of attention. This system of weights and ] measures, which is entirely decimal, and is gra- dually extending itself over the world, has for many years engaged the attention of the Portuguese ] Government, and has recently been put in force under the direction of Senor Fradesso da Silveira, the chief inspector of weights and measures at Lis. bon. In compliance with the request of the Inter- national Decimal Association this officer has sent a complete series of weights and measures adapted for teaching the system, together with a beautiful coloured diagram entitled (in Portuguese) "A Table of the New Legal System of Weights and ] Measures for the Use of Schools." A representa- tion of the earth at the top of this diagram shows how the metre was determined by taking the ten- millionth part of the quadrant of a meridian as the unit of linear measure. The figures which follow represent all the measures and weights of the system accompanied by their names and an explanation of their relations to one another.. They are depicted either in their real size, or reduced to one-thousandth part. Figures denoting the same quantity in dif- ferent forms are put exactly under one another. Thus the cubic decimetre drawn in perspective, the litre in a cylindrical form for fluids, the wooden litre j for grain, and the kilogram, both in brass and in iron, are arranged in the same column. The real weights and measures, which are shown in the handsome mahogany case aiw.vi.ca (,1.1" diagram, and which clearly explain it, are the following A metre, divided into decimetres and centimetres a double decimetre a cubic decimetre in solid wood, showing its division into 1,000 cubic centimetres a cubic decimetre in tin plate, hollow decilitre, litre, and measures of 5 and 10 litres, in tin plate, cylindrical; the same in wood, with iron hoops the same in wood, quadrangular, height half the diameter, for dry measure iron weights, hexagonal, as shown in the diagram, viz., g-hecto- gram, hectogram; 2 hectograms, § kilogram, kilo- gram, 2 kilograms, 5 kilograms, 10 kilograms. Another very important part of this Portuguese contribution consists of two cases, covered with black, leather, secured by lock and key, and provided with suspensory leather straps for carrying them from place to place, These are for the use of the inspec- tors of weights and measures. They include three pairs of scales, a set of brass weights, a ladle for melting lead or solder, files, chisels, pincers, shears, I punches, and other instruments. Senor Fradesso da Silveira, to whom we are in- J debted for this most munificent and judicious contri- bution, has published an excellent account of the Metric System, first in Portuguese, and afterwards 1 in an English translation also a book of tables for reducing the old Portuguese measures of capacity I to the new. This splendid gift, of the highest importance and j utility to all countries which are preparing to adopt the system has been followed in the same generous k spirit by a set of the new coins of Portugal. These are placed in the series of the current coins of all i countries, which accompanies the display of weights and measures, and is intended to assist in the study of monetary science. The descriptive catalogue of the Indian depart- ment, prepared by Dr. Forbes Watson, reporter on the products of India, has just been issued. It is a work of such a description as the commissioners i ought to have prepared for the British Department, ■, instead of the books of advertisements which they I have dignified with the name of an official catalogue, t The object of Dr, Watson has been to supply not I merely a correct guide to the articles exhibited, but s to afford as much information as possible relative to < the products of India and the result is a work which will be found to be of great value to the trad- j ing and manufacturing interests of the country, and f exceedingly useful for reference. In the portion of I the catalogue which refers to articles of clothing, I for instance, the descriptions indicate not only the I nature of the materials employed, but also the man- ( ner in which variety of pattern is secured by the in- j troduction of silk, or of gold and silver thread, into 1 the borders and ends of even ordinary cotton fabrics. j Fabrics designed as coverings for the head 1 for the upper portion of the body and shoul- ders; coverings for the loins and lower por- tions of the body upper clothing made into coats, jackets, &c., for waistband; articles of female attire, 1 materials used for scarfs and petticoats are par- I ticularised, and the native names by which they are known are explained. The same system is adopted in the various textile classes, so that the manu- facturer in this country may make himself acquainted I with the wants of the people of Ind:a, and set to work to supply them. The portion of the catalogue occupied with the raw produce will be found not less useful in directing attention to the various products of India which may be useful in various branches of our industry. The faets relative to the growth of cotton in India have been very carefully collected ] from every part of the country, and will be of especial value now that attention is directed to that country as the source of a future largely increased supply of this staple. Indigo, tea, saltpetre, opium, silk, sugar, coffee, rice, hemp, and a variety of other native products are treated, not merely as articles to be arranged in a catalogue, but very useful infor- mation is given as to the localities where they are at present, or rright be obtained and statistics are given of the quantities produced or exported, and their prices and values during a series of years. The whole forms a complete and valuable body of information relative to the products, of the Indian empire, The descriptive catalogue prepared by order of the Royal Commission of the Kingdom of Italy is also a work which, like that just referred to, is cal- culated to answer something more than a merely ephemeral purpose. The Italian Commission have in the preparation of the volume been actuated by the conviction that the most urgent necessity of a nation determined to take her proper place in the scale of civilisation is to study and know herself, and to point out to others her present position and the various natural resources at her disposal." The compilers state with perfect truth that the economi- cal condition of their country is less known than that of any other civilised country:—"Subdivided into many petty states, most of them governed despotically; destitute of harbours and railways in many provinces, and her commerce impeded by numerous custom-house lines in every direction, Italy has not only been unable to develop her natural resources, but has remained almost unknown to herself and to others;" and they point with great satisfaction to the fact that the number of medals and honourable mentions awarded to Italy has far exceeded that given to any country except England and France. The localities and statistics of the various industries of Italy are described at con- siderable length, as well as the extent and value of the natural products of the country.
GARIBALDI AT SPEZZIA. A correspondent of a morning contemporary who is himself on intimate terms with Garibaldi, writes thus:—"The pains under which General Garibaldi was suffei ing, are very much diminished, and have indeed resolved themselves into a slight attack of muscular rheumatism, or, more correctly speaking, of" gout," in the right leg and arm. This, though a considerable aggravation to his other pain, is only temporary and in the meantime the wound is pro- gressing as favourably as possible. Dr. Prandina, who for a month has entirely given up all his other patients and devoted his days and night to the General, left here to-day to look after his own affairs, and I need not say that no bulletin" could speak so favourably of the patient as this fact. Major Vecchi, aide-de-camp, secretary, and head nurse, has, after two days' absence, returned from Genoa and Turin, where he found all the people firmly persuaded that the wound of Garibaldi was quite healed, as the Patrie had several times asserted that the General could move about, and was to be seen every day at the window of the Varignano smoking his cigar. To bo sure La Patrie is sometimes deceived, as, for instance, when lately it mistook Basilico, the head of the Genoese porters, for the king of Italy but Italians will believe print. As the Major had just received news that the General was not so well, I should like to have heard his indignant denunciation of the folly Qf the writer, and the credulity of the readers of the imagina- tive French paper. Then there came reaction at Genoa, and it was reported that the General was very much worse. The Movimento first spread and then contradicted this story, which, however, was so far true that the rheumatic pains caused some anxiety to the doctors, on account of the weariness and exhaustion which they might produce and then the arrival of Dr. Zannetti gave a colour to the greater danger. Happily, all has passed off quietly, and when we yesterday visited II Varignano we found the medical garrison reduced to two doctors, and only Major Yecchi" in waiting." The General was fast asleep, and having received an excellent account, we left without disturbing him, much to his vexation, as we were informed later in the evening. Signor Garibaldi, from Genoa, was with his brother he is a short stout man, with just likeness enough to be taken for so near a relation. As usual the whole quarters were filled with votive offerings, and the tables were covered with papers and pamphlets, like the Uiwiuing <vf <v Louvlun olwt. CPw IWUI'U all that is written to General Garibaldi would require a folio volume. First we have a letter, to which the following answer is sent To the Ladies of Fontanella,—From my bed of pain, in which I received the sweet consolation of your kind and loving words, I send you, with a salute, thanks coming from my heart, which is deeply affected by the vivid memory which you retain of me. The mind is always firmer in misfortune, and I am sure that you will not believe that I should ever be subdued by it. Yours from the heart, Varignano, Oct. 8, 1862. G. GARIBALDI. The working men of Genoa have remitted 500 francs for the wounded, to which Garibaldi replied as follows:— My Brothers,—Thanks for the money and the noble feeling which caused you to send it. I will forward it where it is most required, to alleviate the sufferings of my poor companions in arms. G. GARIBALDI. As for English correspondence it is overwhelming, and one of the aides-de-camp visited me last night with such a budget of "letters unanswered," that if he has done his duty I am sure sleep has not visited his eyes during the past night. And then it is such a curious and varied correspondence. Female letters of four crossed pages, treating of every subject from treason to tea-parties effusions from clergymen who seem to mistake Garibaldi for Martin Luther redivivus; ethical epistles from elderly females; platonics from political prancers "-to quote from Albert Smith; copies of verses of curious inanity; and, finally, one gentleman had forwarded his pho- tograph, and, if I may be allowed to suggest it, should now add a lock of his hair. Then the agent of Monsieur Dumas had brought his account of the affair of Aspromonte to be corrected, General Gari- baldi having warned that talented romancer" that he must confine himself to a statement of facts.
EXTRAORDINARY THEFT Ol A DIAMOND RING. At the Lambeth Police-court, on Monday, Elisabeth Wilson, a young woman dressed in deep mourning, who was 8aid to be living under the protection of a gentle- man at 64, Walnut Tree-walk, Lambeth, was placed at the bar before Mr. Elliott, and charged on suspicion of being concerned with a Frenchman not in custody in stealing a diamond ring of the value of £ 65, the property of Mr. Richard Attenborough, pawnbroker, of Knightsbridge. Charles Palmer, assistant to Mr. Atienborough, said a foreign gentleman had called at the shop on Saturday, examined the ring carefully, and finally bought it for zM, directing it to be sent to his residence, 64, Walnut Tree-walk, where he would pay for it. Witness went with the man to the house, and he, meeting t; e prisoner in the passage, called her his darling, apologised for being lata in coming home, and they entered the parlour together. The man wrote one or two notes, which he gave to the prisoner, who left the apartment, and the man shortly followed, under pre- text of showing the ring to people upstairs. Shortly after, the female returned with a dog, and, beginning to converse about it, SRemed anxious to engage witness's attention, so that he might not notice the continued abgence of the man. Witness, after the lapse of about five minutes, inquired for him, when she said she knew- nothing about him beyond having met him on the street the night before. Witness, finding that the man WHS gone away with the ring, went to the station-house, and having obtained the assistance of Sergeant Shep- hard, a detective, he gave the prisoner into custody. Shephard said that when prisoner was taken into custody she stated she had only met the foreign gentleman the night before. She also said that on leaving her on Saturday morning the man said he was going to call on the French Ambassador to get some money, and should be back in the oourse of the day. He (witness) had ascertained that the prisoner had occupied the two parlours of the house for some months, "that she was under the protection of a gentleman, but saw other visitors. The defence set up was, that the foreigner who stole the property was a perfect stranger to her beyond one night's acquaintance, and that she had no partici- pation whatever in the robbery. The prisoner was Ie- manded, but allowed to go at large on good bail. — —
According to advices from Newfoundland, the I cod fish caught this season will not be much above one- third of a good average one.
EXECUTION OF CATHERINE WILSON, The wretched woman Catherine Wilson, who was convicted at the last session of the Central Criminal Court of the crime of murder by poisoning, was executed on Monday morning, at eight o'clock, ia front of Newgate, in the presence of an immense crowd; and down to the last moment she main- tained the same calmness and firmne is of demeanour that have characterised her sinee she has been ia custody. Notwithstanding the apparent conclusiveness of the evidence against her, the prisoner has all along maintained her innocence, and only a few days before her execution she, herself, prepared a state- ment in writing to be transmitted to the Secretary, of State, in which she entered into a detail of the circumstances connected with the death of her sup- posed victim, and declared most positively that she never administered any poison to her, and that she was entirely innocent of the crime of which she was convicted. It would seem that there was such a strong feeling in the public mind as to the guilt of the prisoner, that no effort was made by any section of it to procure a remission of the capital punishment, and even the Society for the Abolition of Capital Punishment appeared to feel that it was a case that would not justify them in interposing, and the prisoner's own memorial, and a statement of her case by her attorney, were the only steps taken to induce the Home Secretary to interfere. Mr. Under Sheriff Mackrell, as is customary upon these occasions, went to the Home-office on Saturday, and had an interview with the Chief Secretary in reference to the prisoner's case, and he received from him a communication in writing to the effect, that upon a careful consideration of all the circum- stances the Home Secretary did not feel himself justified in interfering with the course of the law < The prisoner was informed of this very soon after- wards, and she heard the announcement without ex- hibiting the least concern. Since her conviction the prisoner has been con- stantly attended by two female warders, and it appears that to them she has repeatedly stated that she was innocent of the crime for which she was to suffer. Her demeanour, however, was such as not to create any belief in the minds of the officials of the gaol that she was speaking the truth. The prisoner was evidently a woman of the most firm and deter- mined spirit, and it was the opinion of all those who have been about her that she had resolved from the first to pursue this course, and her indomitable will enabled her, as will be seen, to carry it out to the last moment. The prisoner attended the prison service in the chapel twice on Sunday, and she appeared to pay great attention to the discourse of the Rev. Mr. Davis, the ordinary of the prison. She took her meals as usual, and did not seem at all dismayed at the near approach of death, and after she retired to rest on Sunday evening she slept soundly for several hours, undisturbed by the fury of the elements, it being a most tempestuous night, or the noise of the workmen erecting the scaffold, which can be plainly heard within the prison. She was visited at an early hour by Mr. Davis, who prayed with her for some time, but he forebore from making any allusion to her crime, or to press her to make any statement upon the subject. Mr. Alderman and Sheriff Lawrence, and Mr. Sheriff Jones arrived at the gaol shortly after seven o'clock, accompanied by the under-sheriffs, Messrs. Farrer and Mackrell, and a few minutes before eight they were joined by Mr. Jonas, the Governor of Newgate, Mr. Humphreys, the principal warder, and several other of the prison officials, who escorted them into the gaol to the room where the pro. cess of pinioning was to be performed. Here the prisoner was introduced, after a short interval, accompanied by one of the female warders, and she walked across the room to a seat that was pointed out to her with a firm step and apparently as unconcerned, and, indeed, even more so than any of the spectators. The female warders kissed the pri- soner and shook hands with her, and then retired, n.nA a fter a short interval. Caleraft, the executioner, was introduced, and he commenced placing round the prisoner's arms and body the leathern straps and apparatus by which unhappy criminals are secured. During all this the prisoner did not ex- hibit the least emotion. She only once raised her handkerchief to her eyes, and appeared to press it to her forehead, as though she had felt some sudden pang, but she quickly withdrew it, and resumed her composure, which never again abandoned her to the last moment. The fatal moment having by this time nearly arrived, Mr. Jonas, the governor of the prison, went up to the culprit, and in an impressive manner said that her time was now very short, and he inquired whether she had any- thing to say to the sheriffs. The prisoner, in a firm, calm tone, replied I am innocent," and after this nothing more was said to her. The melancholy cortege then proceeded to the scaffold, and the prisoner walked without the least assistance the whole of the way, and also up the steps to the drop. Her ap- pearance was the signal for a loud murmur among the crowd, but there was no other manifestation of feeling. During the time that Caleraft was adjusting the rope and pulling the cap over her face,the wretched woman stood quite firm and unconcerned, and she did not appear to exhibit the slightest emotion, and when the drop fell she appeared to be dead almost instantaneously. The body was cut down at nine o'clock, and it was buried within the precincts of the gaol, in pursuance of the terms of the sentence. The crowd assembled was immense, and the number present was variously estimated at from twenty to thirty thousand persons. They were, however, certainly much more orderly than usual on these occasions. After the execution was over no serious effect seemed to have been produced on t'n rrowd. While the body was hanging, a party ot' soldiers were rolling about considerably intoxicated. Several loose women who were with them were in the same drunken state. The great bulk of the crowd must have gone away ignorant whether the woman had confessed or not. The authorities of the prison stated that to the very last she firmly protested her innocence. It ought to be stated that when the woman appeared on the scaffold, the railing on the wall between the Court-house and the gallows gave way. Several persons who were clinging to it were pre- cipitated to the ground, but it does not appear that any one sustained serious injury.
Several convictions under the new Factory Act took place at the West Riding Magistrates' Court, Huci- dersfield, on Saturday. The offence in every case was employing children under the prescribed age, and without having their names entered on the register. Determined Suicide of a Fatalist. Dr. Lankester held an inqaest at the Elephant and Castle, King's-road, Camden-town, on the body of Ann Bush, aged between 60 and 70 years, lodging at 17, Chapel- place, Little Coram-street. Mrs. Honchon, the landlady of 17, Chapel-place, stated that deceased was a vendor of laces, &c., of a remarkably eccentric and determined character. She took snuff prodigiously, and, for the last four years had declared her intention to commit suicide, bv hanging, because she had a deep-rooted impression that God would have nothing to do with her, and that she was sure to go to hell. This terrible impression witness often endeavoured to remove, but totallv failed in her endeavours. She appeared to set her mind on hanging herself with a rope in her room, and, when that was removed by witness's husband, she clasped her hands in despair, and exclaimed, "Now, I am done." At six o'clock in the morning the deceased left the house, and that was the last tune witness saw her alive. The lock-keeper at HawleVa Lock, Regent's Canal, said, from information received from two girls he dragged the canal for three hours, when he found the body. Police- constable, 47 S, found her hawking basket, containing laces, &c., nine duplicates, and a razor, on the towing path, near where the body was seen. Mr. W. Saul deposed tha; death took plac8 from drowning, and the Jury returned a wrdicn of'" Suicide by drowning, whilst in an unsound state of mind."
THE SHILLING A WEEK FUND. The following letter has been addressed to the Mayor of Manchester :— 55, Buckingham-place, Brighton, Oct. 8. "Sir,—May I solicit the favour of your enablino- me to answer objections which are continually made in opposition to my efforts to extend the fund of which the particulars are contained in the ac- companying paper ? You will observe that our object is collection, Distribution we propose to leave in the hands of the already constituted relief committees. We are told that these committees, with very large funds at their disposal, are unduly husbanding them for the winter, and distributing a minimum at the lowest possible rate of 1¡s. 6d. to 2s. a week per head, the consequence of which may be that, when importations of cotton arrive, a surplus will remain unappropriated, and (objectors urge) to be mis- applied to other purposes, or held in hand.to no benefit to anybody. And other such funds are brought forward as instances, v:z.. the Colliery Accident Fund and the Patriotic Fund. "The general opinion expressed is, that the dis- pensers of the public charity ought at once to rescue the unemployed, not merely by sustaining them on what are called 'starvation' or I half-starvation I rates, but by raising them to or maintaining them in working condition,' trusting that, through God's blessing, a liberal public will not fail them in the winter and that if not sufficiently provided for by private contributions, and by the 'Manchester Men,' as the masters are called, the Government must meet any exigency that may arise out of this crisis of nations. "I have the opinion of men of comprehensive mionds, proved so by eminent success in the most gigantic of the operations of this age of progress, that the scheme which I have started, if liberally supported at 6rst, and assisted by able and zealous collectors, will spread far and wide and lead a large and continuous flow of relief to bear on the distress. One of these gentlemen tells me that he too is met, in endeavouring to spread its benefits, by these objections; and that the want of sympathy on the part of the masters is given constantly as a reason for withholding support. "I hope you will kindly excuse this application, and be able to assure me in reply, for publication, that these objections are wholly or partially un- founded, and that the 'Manchester Men' are at last coming forward; and not only loosening the strings of their own liberality, but setting free the current of the liberality of others, which will be greatly restrained, I fear, until the public are satisfied that they have done their duty at this extremity of dis- tress in the cotton districts.-I have the honour to be, sir, your most obedient servant, "The Mayor of Manchester." W. PETERS. To this letter the following reply was returned:— Fund for the Relief of Distress in the Manufactur- ing Districts. 2, Bond-street, Manchester, Oct. 10. Sir,—The Mayor of Manchester has desired me to acknowledge your letter, and,if possible, to remove the difficulties under which you are labouring in your good work in aiding us. The. local committees have had large funds. As much as £ 65,000 has been locally rpceived in ten towns, independently of all private benevolence, and in almost every case (if not in all) every farthing has been expended, and new subscriptions are being set on foot in the hope of getting more. The committee of this fund have had £140,0.0.0. given and promised; but, excepting very small amounts, the subscriptions are payable in monthly instalments, commencing in September and ending in March, or earlier. "This committee is urging a minimum rate of 2s. a head and 2s. 6d. to single persons, and is using its influence to compel the boards of guardians to raise their scale, which is Is. 6d. and in many instances it has been successful. "If cotton ports were opened, it would be three months before relief to any extent would be felt, whilst, if the present distress is to last, £500,0.00 will go a very short way to pay 28,. a head, when the number of operatives and dependents are con- sidered. As a rule, the masters have'bean liberal, but when not, this committee is determined to bring the force of public opinion to bear on them. Hence the advantage of a central committee, well acquainted with what all the districts ought to do locally.— Yours truly, JOHN WM. MACLURE, Hon. Sec. W. Peters, Esq."