DEATH FROM LUCIFER MATCHES. When the deadly poisonous nature of lucifer matches, and their but too easy ignition are taken into account, is it too much to expect that they should be kept out of the way of thoughtless babies? There is surely a needed caution in the following sad case, which is but one of many. Last week an inquest was held at Wor- cester Infirmary on the body of Mary Ann Merrett, a child three years and eight months old, residing with her uncle and aunt at 5, Lansdowne-terrace, Worcester. On Monday afternoon she had been left alone in the house, and her aunt, on returning home about 6 o'clock, was told by the neighbours that smoke was issuing from the house. The aunt, in giving evidence at the inquest said:—" My sister-in-law, who was with me, unlocked the door, and we went in. I found the lower part of the house filled with smoke. As I was going up stairs I called out,'Cicy, where are you?' The child replied, 'Here I is, aunty." I thought the voice came from the back bed-room. I went in there, but could not see or feel anybody in the bed, the smoke was so dense. I then went into the room where I had left the deceased. I said, Cicy, where are you?" I could not see the smoke. She said, "Here, aunty dear." When I got to the bed in which I had left her, I found that she had got to the side where she usually slept. I stooped over her. The heat scorched my hands and face, but still I could see no fire. I thought, from the way in which she had spoken, that she was all right. I put put my hands over, and at once felt that she was sadly burnt-in fact, charred, I dropped her, and was greatly overcome. I thought I should have fainted. I brought the child downstairs. Her day-clothes, in which she was dressed at the time, were burnt down to her waist. I said, What have you been doing, Cicy?" she said, "Oh, aunty, the naughty matches," referring to her having been whipt by me for lighting lucifer matches about four months ago, on which occasion she had burnt a hole in the bedclothes. Evidence was then given of the child's having been taken to the infirmary so badly burnt that recovery was hopeless, and she died in half an hour after admission. The house had narrowly escaped destruction by fire, as the sheets, quilts, and part of the bed were burnt. The jury re- turned a verdict of Accidentally burned,"
Superphosphates as Manure. We extract the following from a lecture given by Mr. Alfred Gibson:— The question now," he says," naturally arises—is it advisable for the farmer to make the superphosphate he requires for his own use ? I should say, except under peculiar circumstances, certainly not, and for the fol- lowing amongst other reasons: because it is impossible that it can be made so well on the small scale, by per- sons unaccustomed to the work, as on a large one: by skilled hands; or with the simple apparatus the farmer is able to provide, or the spot, as with the machinery and appliances found by experience to economise labour and improve the result. Again, in places where bones are to be had cheap, acid will gene- rally be dear; indeed, the carriage of vitrol in small quantities is. so expensive in consequence of the almost prohibitory rates charged by most of the railway com- panies for this article, that it can, seldom be procured by farmers with advantage. At the present time especially, when so many excel- lent manures are to be purchased at reasonable prices, the practice of dissolving bones, formerly very common amongst farmers, has now greatly fallen off. If, how- ever,.any farmer out of curiosity should desire to try his hand at superphosphate making, the following directions may be followed, but it must be understood that I by no means recommend this process to manufacturers for the making of superphosphate generally. For a ton of bones, which should be ground small and boiled to extract as much as possible of the fat, the following quantities of acid and water may be used, viz., 740 lbs. white oil of vitriol, or .«56 lbs. of brown acid; this is about equivalent to 41 gallons of the former and 50 gallons of the latter. 1,000 lbs., or about 100 gallons of water, are divided equally, one part being used to moisten the bones, and the other to dilute the acid. The latter operation should be carefully performed in a large bucket or tub—pouring the acid in a small stream into the water—the latter being "fell stirred meanwhile. The bones should be thoroughly moistened with water from a garden watering can, and j^ft for two or three hours, or longer, to get well soaked. The mixing should be made in a wooden trough or large tub; if a sufficiently^large vessel cannot be lad to receive all the materials at once, it may be done in a smaller one, using successive and proportionate quantities of bones and acid,; or the mixture may be made, but not so well, on the ground (with a hard clay surface if possible), a ring being made with ashes (black or red, about equal in weight to the Water used) to prevent the liquid from flowing away. TIM acid should be gradually added to the bones, the whole being "Well stirred with a wooden rake to insure uniform mix- ture. As soon as the acid is all added, and the mixing completed, the greater part of the ashes may be thrown over the mass, and the whole allowed to stand for some days. The heap may then be opened, and the whole of the ashes well incorporated with it; the mass being then allowed to stand again for a week or so, and if not then Sufficiently dry may be broken up again and re-made into a heap, with thin layers of fresh dry ashes. By this means a superphosphate may be got perfectly dry and manageable—the large addition of ashes being of course no when, as we are supposing, it IS to be consumed on the farm where made. A super- phosphate made in this way, with the first quantity of ashes mentioned, was found to contain 12*27 per cent. of soluble phosphate, and nitrogen equal to 2-07 of am- monia.
Flower Garden and Shrubberies. Cuttings should be carefully looked Over to see that nothing has been omitted, and that a sufficient quantity of everything is in a promising state for making nice plants before winter; it should be borne in mind that things which are not at all difficult to winter rooted after this season may be considerably thinned before spring, and also that they will not be sufficiently strong to fur- nish many cuttingsfor spring propagation; consequently, a larger quantity than would have been necessary had the cuttings been put in a month ago, should be pro- vided. But if there is a reserve stock of strong plants in pots, which is a safe practice where there is a large quantity of bedding stuff required, and proper convenience for growing them and propagating in spring, these will furnish a large quantity of cuttings Oext March, which, as has been formerly stated, will form equally good plants by turningout in time as cuttings put in now- In the case of such things as ageratums. heliotropes) and dwarf lobelias, it is useless wintering young stock, as these grow so freely in heat, and are so easily propagated from soft cuttings that a few good- sized old plants which require but little room or atten- tion ia winter will furnish a very large quantity of plants by bedding-out time. Attend to the potting of cuttings sufficiently rooted, and give every after attention to these in order to get them well established. Persevere with leaf sweeping and other routine work.—Gardeners' Chronicle.
THE ARTS, LITERATURE, &C. M. ROBERT LUTHER has informed the French Aca- demy of Sciences that the planet which he discovered on the 1st of September, and for which he proposed the name of Diana, is identical with Daphne the asteroid discovered by M. Goldschmidt in 1856, and which was lost sight of for six years. The 74th asteroid discovered by M. Tempel is to be named by M. Littrow, Director of the Observatory at Vienna. IGNATZ ASSMEYER died at the end of August, at Vienna. He was First Chapel Master to the Emperor Francis Joseph, and was a very renowned composer of Sacred music, especially of masses, oratorios, &c. Among the latter, tne most important were Saul :¡nd David," U Saul's Dead," and Das Gelübde" (The vow). THE London Society of Compositors have received a handsome present from their brethren of Turin. It consists of the two volumes of the Altacomba; or, His- tory of the House of Savoy, beautifully bound, and a triumph of exquisite typography. The Turin printers received the work as a gift from his Majesty Victor Em- manuel, and when he heard of their intention to send it to London he replaced it with another copy- We hear there is only another copy of the "Altacomba in this Country, in the British Museum. PKGFESSOB MAGNI proposes to issue one hundred CoPiea of the "Reading Girl" in plaster, should sub- scribers to that number offer. Of course the copy will e the size of the original. The price is not stated. It "ould be gratifying (says the Court Journal) to have f?ar>y such facsimiles of the best works in the Exhibi- ll°n, and none would be more worthy than the "An- gelica," or the figure of California. Surely it would pay the artist well to produce the copies, and sell the original afterwards at a lower figure. 4LAT the last great auction of pictures at Cologne, a work by Hans Mummling, only 20f inches in height by 14J wide, representing the Virgin Mary and the Angel, was acquired for the British Museum at the price of 4,600 dollars (nearly £ 666). Pictures by J. Van Eyck, Euys- dael, and Van Evendingen, also realised high figures. A SINGULAR atmospheric phenomenon was observed rear Yvetot (Seine-Infgrieure) the other evening, about 6 o'clock, by several persons who were walking along the Havre-road. The sky was covered with dark clouds, and gust of wind, with occasional flashes of lightning in the west, seemed to portend a storm. All at once a strange appearance presented itself in the south-west horizon. The clouds seemed to form an inclined plane sloping down to the shores of a lake, the blue waters of which were rippled by a gentle breeze. The lake seemed to be surrounded by trees of unequal height, and the whole back ground of the picture presented the aspect of a vast amphitheatre. This mirage remained visible till lost in the darkness of night. MR. BALDWIN, the great African sportsman, is busily engaged in preparing the narrative of his extraordinary sporting adventures over ten years ia South Africa. It will be published early in November. PROFESSOR HUXLEY'S volume of lectured or essays on the Evidence as to Man's Place in Nature will shortly appear. It will comprise four articles. 1, The Natural History of Man-like Apes. 2. The Relation of Man to the Lower Animals. 3. The Methods and Results of Palaeontology, and 4. The Fossil Remains of Man. This, with Sir Charles Lyell's forthcomingfr Geological Evidences of the Antiquity of Man," and Professor Daniel ilson's 11 Pre-Ristoric Man," should furnish (says the Literary Budget) abundant subject-matter for many a lively and tough discussion during the coming winter. MR. SLATER, being engaged in the restoration of Weston Church, Sussex, has discovered some wall paint- ings of extreme interest. Their subjects comprise a "Descent from the Cross,Scourging," "Adoration of the Magi;" Christ's Charge to Peter and to Paul," and a "Crucifixion." There is an Agnus Dei, adored by angels, in the ordinary, place over the chancel arch over the north porch a "Judgment." In the soffit of the unmoulded chancel-arch are medallions concaining em- blems of the Seasons; and on one of the jaolbs oftha same arch is a representation of a female figure in the pre- sence of a demon, from which she is recoiling. It is evident from the remains, says our authority, the Builder, that the cLurch was once entirely covered with such pictures. These works seem generally to have been set out without any ornamental border or geometrical boundary forms. Those on the north side are arranged in two corners, one above the other, and separated by a band of inscriptions written in Latin hexameters. These inscrip- tions occur immediately um-er the wall-plate, so that they refer always to the picture immediately beneath. Such arrangements recall to mind the simple system of the early Italian painters, seen, amongst other examples, in the Chapel of Giotto at Assisi. MR. Soon's restoration of the Church of St. Mary-in- the-Castle, Dover, has been completed. This most interesting edifice was at one time, quite of recent date, J used as a coal-cellar, and was beyond even the uses of Si that low office, being roofless. Mr. Scott has performed jj his office with much courage, in leaving the most ancient j portions of the structure-e. g., the brick arches and stone window- dressings—without plaster or other covering, se that their peculiarities may be seen.
A VOICE FROM LANCASHIRE. The following letter on this subject appeared in the columns of a morning ,contemporary Let the existing depression in the cotton trade asad the distress it engenders,, coupled with the noble forti- tude-shown by the factory operatives now on the point of starvation, be my excuse for detailing what I saw to- day as I made my fortnightly round for rents. An elderly female, a widow with two boys, who in times of full work paid her Tent regularly and -cheerfully for several years, had, up to last week, by thriftiness and industry, and the earnings of her two sons, aged respect- ively fifteen and thirteen, who worked in a coal-pit, managed to keep herself above the' guardians. But for the last five weeks her boys have had no work; anxiety has made her ill. The little hoard, which she had care- fully saved, has, bit, been exhausted; her stockings, petticoats, and other articles of attire, have, one by one, been sold for food; and on Saturday last her boys, as she stood dressed in -nothing but a pair of old slippers, and a cotton dress, trembling with cold, asked her for food; -but had nøne. She then sent the lads out to get what they could, and this (Monday) morning she was without food. She next sent her boys to the relieving officer. He heard their tale of suffering, and on Monday morning, knowing they were without food, told them u that their mother must come before the guardians on Friday next, and they would inquire into the-ease." No help in the meantime. Four days more to be spent without food! Impossible! Go to the policeman," says the poor mother, and tell him to come here." The policeman came a kind old man—and searched the house, and saw for himself. Be felt for the poor woman, heard-her tale, and went to the houfie of a manufacturer close by, and told it there. The bsok- keeper soon went and gave the woman a shilling. He left, and, returning again, brought her some new calico to make up articles which she stood in need of. iLpaflsed him at the door, and, as she raised her sad wan face, and sighed, Ah here you are for the rent." I felt entirely unmanned by that look, and at once said, "I did not expect any." On inquiring into her circumstances, I learnt than the shilling, had been spent in bread and treacle, and as she looked forward till Friday, she said, What mun I do? what mun I do P The only articles of furniture were two old beds, on the most miserable stocks.; one chair, a long stool, a fender, and a poker. I lingered a while, and tried to sooth her anxieties about the rent. I told her not to fear. She paid when fhe was able, and, now she was unfortunately distressed, that was her home. She should still remain until' times mended. My hand instinctively went into my pocket. I tried to keep her from starving till Friday. In another house I found a man and wife, and three children:; till the last fortnight the man had worked for the labour test at Is. 6d. per head a-week for himself and family, which, after paying rent, left 6s, only to keep five fellow creatures. No wonder, thought I, their starved appearance. The man's health was failing for want of food. He still got his 7s. 6d; from the parish, but nothing from, the relief committee, as it appears to be the invariable rule, that where the guardians relieve the relief committee should keep aloof, it being taken for granted that Is. 6d. per head a-week will maintain a family. I write, sir, first to show the distress as it is and secondly, to point out the manner in which the relief is administered. In good times nearly all classes of persons invested money in the co-operative mills, many of which are now being erected. Short time has suddenly come. The calculations of many have been overthrown, and they have not been able to pay their monthly calls. The share market is so low that no sale can be made. The scrip is at present wholly worthless, and yet the possessor of shares in any company, whether it has worked or not, is considered a property owner, and barred from receiv- ing relief.' The relief committee here act on the same prinsiple, and its effect is simply this—that all persons who, in full time and good work wasted their money, are considered fit and proper persons to receive relief; and all who were saving, and tried to better their condition by investing in co-operative companies, are property owners and unfit to be relieved! Tbe consequences are bad in the extreme. It appears to me to be setting a premium on vice, and leaving virtue below par. Again, the guardians will not relieve a person who has received from the relief committee two quarts of soup and four pounds of meal twice a-week, and therefore the relief given is inadequate to the existing: distress. I am glad to find that this view of the ease is now taken by a few members of the relief eommittee and guardians. In- the neighbouring town of Todmorden, a woman is reported to have died of congestion of the lungs," accelerated by starvation. I cannot praise the bearing qf the working classes too highly, dignified as it is and I appeal to the benevolent to help us through the coming winter. P. ———, Tf
A; Timely Visit.— Miss Burdett Coutts has arrived in Manchester, 'the object of her visit being to see for herself the state, of destitution existing, in that city, and in the other towns of Lancashire. On Friday morning she left Manchester for Blackburn and Burnley; and it is understood that Sir J. P. Key Shuttleworth and the Right Hon. Edward Cardwell will accompany her through some of the distressed districts of North Lan- cashire. The UniVersel," a weekly illustrated journal at Paris, says:—"The first of the Sansoms, the grandfather Qf that dynasty of executioners which has reigned for so many years in Paris, was really r; man of good birth; his name was Sanson de Longal, and he was an officer in the army. He one day fell in love ^ith a young girl, the daughter of the executioner at Houen, married her. and succeeded to his father-in-law. What a subject for a drama that incident would furnish with such a title as 'The Young Nobleman, or the Executioner from Love I'"
A SAD CASE. At the Thames Police-court, on Saturday, Henry Bowyer, aged 22 years, was brought before Mr. Wool- ryeb, charged with unlawfully decoying a girl named Caroline Julia Nunn from her home, she beiLg under the age of 16, for the purpose of seduction. Mr. Stoddart, solicitor, who conducted the prosecution, said the girl Nunn, the daughter of a respectable woman named Mary Stenson, who was married to a second husband, was dwelling at No. 29, Charlotte-street, New- road, Whitechapel. The prisoner was slaughterman to his brother, a butcher, in Charlotte-street, opposite, and he had plied the girl with drink, taken her to the Forest in his brother's cart, and after accompanyiag her to a notorious coffee and lodging-house called the Moon, in the Whitechapel-road, he effected her ruin. He also took her to Wilton's Music-hall, in Wellclose-aquare, and' after they had passed several nights together the girl returned to her mother's home, and the heartless villain her seducer boasted that he had broken her in nicely, and she would do for the pavement (sensation). Mrs. Stenson said her daughter was 14 years old on Wednesday last, and that three days after the prisoner took the girl to the Forest she tapped him on the shoulder and asked him what be meant by taking her girl to the Forest on a Sunday night? He said, I don't want you nor your daughter." She then forbade him. to take"her daughter away again; but in defiance of her expressed wishes he took the girl away. Mrs. Stenson, who was deeply affected and very ill, said this dreadful affair would be the death of her. The girl Nunn gave a long account of her intimacy with the prisoner. In cross-examination by Mr. Charles Young for the prisoner, the girll said she told the prisoner she should be 17 in October. Mr. Woolrych said the charge of abduction was clearly made out, and that he intended to commit the prisoner for trial. For the present he would be remanded-on bail.
THE COURT. THE QUEEN and other members of the Royal Family continue to make excursions around Rheinhardtsbrunn. The Prince of Wales and Prince Arthur visited on Thurs- day the Wartburg and the neighbouring rocky valleys. A great meeting of deputies from various German choral societies is now being held at Coburg. On Monday last, during the stay of one of them at Rosenaa, they sent the following telegram to her Majesty at Rheinhardts- brunn :— The deputies of the German choral societies were assembled on Friday in the birthplace of his Royal Highness the revered Prince Consort, Duke Albert. In Melancholy remembrance, and with the deepest respect, we have certified this event by a unanimous solemn cheer (feicrlicken Hock) for the welfare of your Majesty. That this announcement may be graciously received prays the president of the -congress. Dr. EijBEsr, of Stuttgardt. (Countersigned) Dr. O. Mu'FFLIER." As the deputies were assembled in the afternoon, the telegraph brought them. the following reply:— "Her Majesty the 'Queen returns her deeply-felt thanks to the deputies of the German choral societies now assembled at Coburg for the friendly telegram just received from them. C. RULANB." ON Thursday week the Queen received the melancholy intelligence of the death of her Majesty's aunt, the Duchess Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg and G'otha, mother to King Ferdinand of Portugal, the late Duchess of Nemours, and the Princes Augastus and Leopold of Saxe- Coburg. On Friday week his Royal HighhfSB the Prince of Wales, attended hv Lieutenant-General Knollys and Lieutenant-Colonel Keppel, left Sheinharcltsbrurm for Dresden. His 'lEoval Highness then paid a private visit to tbe King of-Baxony atPilinti. His Royal Highness returned to Rheinhardtsbrunn on Monday. Her Majesty has taken her usu«S drives and walks in the neighbour- hood of the Castle with the different members of the Royal Family.—Bivine service was performed at Rhein- hardfcabrunn on Sunday week by Ober-Hof-Prediger, Dr. Schwartz. The service was attended by her Majesty the Qaeen, their Roval Highnesses the Crown Prince and Princess of Prussia, the Duchess of Saxe-Coburg and Go the, Princess ILouis of Hesse, Princess Helena, and Princess Louisa.. The ladies and gentlemen of the house- hold were also present.—Earl Granville has succeeded Earl Russell as Minister in attendance upon her Majesty. Court. Journal. PBS-HOE". CIIKISBEAN' of DFINMATT, TSRITH the -.PRINOAAC and their daughter the Princess Alexandra, have re- turned from Belgium and Germany, and are now,passing some days at Paaker, in the Duchy of Altona, one of the sesits of the Landgrave William of Hesse, who is tbeirinear relative,; but it is expected they will-shortly proceed to Copenhagen, where the people are most anxious to have an opportunity of expressing their satis- faction at the high destiny which awaits their favourite Princess. THE Duke of Cambridge, it is said, will be the future Ranger of Greenwich Park, vacant by the death of Earl Canning. Prince Arthur is to reside at the Ranger's house, which is being fitted up for his Royal Highness.
POLTTICAT, GOSSIP. --+- IT has been said that the English Government has some idea of interfering in the American war at last. La Patrie says so but it has had quite a weakness in the canard line of late, and one of them, which concerned our Queen, was insolent in the extreme. We (says the Court Journal) think this paper gave to the. world the famous Jessie of Lucknow, who has done romantic service in her turn in song, tale, and drama; but it is quite a romance to talk of our interfering in the war. At the present mosamt the lusty warriors have clearly neither of them had enough of strife, tfnd are, as to warlike mejifs, six to half-a-dozen. The Confederates made a razzia and invasion like the Federals have done South- have endeavoured to ennoble themselves, and have had the cold shoulder shown them. THE QUEEN has bsen pleased to appoint Col. Edward Stopford Claremont, C.B., to be one of the Grooms of the Privy Chamber in Ordinary to her Majesty, in the room of Samuel Randall, Esq., deceased. MAJOR MYLES O'REILLY, the "heroic" member for Longford, has addressed a letter to the Dublin Morning Nevis from Brussels, in which he states that a number of leading Roman catholics have resolved to call a meeting of their co-religionists in Louvain during the present month. This meeting, which will be similar in its object to the German and Swiss "Pius Verein," will "take council ca catholic interests throughout the world." Its first effort, as regards Belgium, will be the establishment there of. a Pius Verein Association; but as it is hoped that the meeting will be attended by representative Roman catholics from all countries, its deliberations and its sympathies are to extend to all "catholfc interests." Mr. O'Reilly promises to keep his' Roman catholic countrymen informed of every step taken by this con- gress, which has originated with the well-known M. Dupetiaux, aid m n whose names will command the con- fidence of catholic Europe." IT has been doubted whether Count Bernstorff would return to England. But it is now stated upon good authority that the Count has accepted a mission to our Court, and, after the lapse of a year, will take up the diplomatic thread of things where it broke off, and will also, we feel assured, continue the friendly relations with the aristocracy that were never broken off. THE Austrian Government is about to realise a measure of high importance and benefit to the interests of Hungary—namely, the reform of the civil law in that country, which is an absolute necessity; for there is, perhaps, no country in the whole of Europe wherein a greater confusion takes place in such a capital point for the existence and welfare of a State as in Hungary. Therefore it may be hoped, for the benefit of that land, that the well-intentioned measure of the'Austrian Go- vernment will not, as is usually the case, meet with a systematic and blind opposition." REPRESENTATION OF GLASGOW.—The Advertiser un- derstands that a vacancy is likely to occur immediately in the representation of Glasgow. Mr. Laing, lately re- turned from India, will, in all probability, be the new member. THE carte di visile of Victor Hugo is at this moment to be found in almost every printshop window, but those who were privileged to know the famous romancist fifteen years since-those who have seen him in his crowded salon in the Place Royale, at Paris, will be astonished and saddened to find the brisk-looking, black-haired, Spanish looking man, with his flashing eye and mobile lip, trans- formed into a tranquil, venerable person, with flowing white locks and a long, grizzled beard. Quautv/m mu- tatus. ab illo Victor, in his photograph at least, looks Anglicised, as though his long sojourn in the Channel Islands had infused a modified degree of the John Bull element into him; but one feature remains to remind one of the Victor Hugo of the past. The colossal, towering, massive forehead still strikes all beholders of the pictured semblance of Hugo, just as it was wont to astonish and awe those who gazed upon the great man in the flesh. J; SIR JOHN INGLIS, whose name is so honourably con- nected with the defence of Lucknow, died on the 27th uit, at Homburg. For his services in India he was made a Knight Commander of the Bath, and appointed to the command of the troops in the Ionian Islands. His con- constitution had been, however, severely shaken by his residence in India, and he was recommended to try the waters at Homburg. The remedy was unavailing. He gradually sank, and died on the 27th ult. His death will cause no army promotions, inasmuch as the gallant officer was on the supernumerary list of general officers promoted for distinguished service. The Colonelcy of the 32nd Light Infantry and the Ionian Islands com- mand are, however, rendered vacant.-Anny and Navy Gazette. IT is rumoured in military circles that a certain officer, whose ill-treatment by his colonel was lately established before a court-martial in Ireland, is likely to get into trouble from overstaying his leave of absence.—Court Journal. Two of the 100-pounder Armstrong guns for the naval service were on Friday subjected to proof at the Royal Arsenal practice range, and both guns burst with a charge of 271 lbs. of powder, the inner tubes being completely rent directly behind the trunnions. Another ICO-pounder tested also burst in the centre of the chase transversely, immediately across the barrel. These disasters are said by some practical men to be connected with the system of piece-work adopted in the gun factories, as it is stated that the work is in consequence hurried over. Two 200-pounder muzzle-loading guns, manufactured at Sir W. Armstrong's factory, Elswick, have arrived at the Royal Arsenal, to be tested at the practice range, and a 300-pounder on the same principle.
THE RUSSIAN ARMY. A correspondent from St. Petersburg supplies the fol- lowing details respecting the changes about to be carried out in the organisation of the forces of the Empire:- II A plan is now about to be put into execution, in order to decentralise the military administration, which has hitherto, even to the slightest details, rested in the hands of the Ministry of War, and to divide the army ac- cording to military districts, with independent adminis- trations, under the territorial system as adopted by France, so that thus the Ministry of War will only have to undertake the supervision of the whole, and to he responsible for the maintenance of general unity. In Poland a commencement has already been made with the introduction of the new system, as the hitberto so- called first army, consisting of the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd army corps, is dissolved, and distributed among the three military districts of Warsaw, Wilna, and Kief. To the first belong all the. troops in the kingdom of Poland proper, which will be commanded by a particular general, who will be subordinate to the governor of the kingdom. In the Wihsa military district are included the troops in the Governments of Wilna, Kovno, Pndno, and Minsk, and they are under the command of the Governor General of Wilna, Prodno, and Kovno. In the Kief military district all troops are included which are sta- tioned in the Governments of Kief, Volhynia, and Podolia, and the Governor-General of this government undertakes the command in chief. It was quite time that this change took place, for the business of the Ministry of War has become so extensive that no one man could control it. In the year 1858, 746,000 papers were received or dispatched, giving an average of 2,000 a-day. The other r'eforms partly intended, and partly carried out, have for object the diminution of the militarv expendi- ture by the State. Accordingly, by an order of the 15th August,, some very important reductions of the army will be made, and each battalion of the Guards has been reduced by 60 m-en each infantry and rifle battalion of the first nine divisions of the 5th army corps, and of the reserve battalions of the Causasian army on a war footing, by 20 men; the rifle battalions on a peace footing by 120 men and each of the six reserve rifle battalions by <60 under officers and 200 men. By an order of the 21st August, the costly and superfluous pioneers on foot (one squadron of the Guard, and two squadrons of the army) are dissolved.
THE PRINCESS MARIA PIA. The Turin correspondent of the Times describes the .presents and good wishes pouring in from all sides upon th« bride elect of the King of Portugal, the civil con- 0' tract of whose marriage was. to be signed on the 27th. It is the first instance on record, he says, of a daughter of Italy being given in marriage. "Mc»io Pi a hao not to. fifUontl. -she only gave up her doll ■-& few days ago, precise^' on the day they told her she was engaged to be married. Her youthfui feminine imagination has been, we are told, greatly -startled at the idea of coming at so early an age into the possession of a man on whom she never -set her eyes,-and the crying of the poor Jthing in her private circles is, as one may believe, endless. Those tears will dry up, no doubt, and, her position at Lisbon will be most enviable. Still one feels inclined to ask, Would the,world have fallen, or either the Italian or Lusitanian monarchy have gone to ruin if the wedding had been put off a few months, and the youthful couple had had a chance of seeing and knowing a little of each other before they were indissolubly bound to one another and booked for life, for better for worse?' Surely so high a penalty should not be heedlessly paid in return for the barren honours and empty pageantry of a third-rate royalty like that of the western division of the Iberian Peninsula. The Princess Maria Pia was frequently to be met in public of late years at Moncalieri, on the platform of the railway station, at the promenade in Turin, the Place d'Armes, at the royal chapel, at the theatre, and elsewhere. So far as a cursory view could enable the public to judge of her personal appearance, she had won golden opinions. She has a very lair com- plexion, rather tall and very stately figure, full-grown and wek-rounded, as one would think, beyond her years Judging by the English standard, the Princess would be taken to be at least 18 years old, and unquestionably her personal appearance fully entitles her to ascend a throne which the easy majesty of her bearing, her gait, and at least outward manners, qualify her to grace. Her features are not regular; she has some of the least pleasing pecu- liarities of both her parents-the father, a somewhat rough specimen of his soldiery race; the mother, a fair and gentle but not a lovely scion of that Hapsburg- Lorraine dynasty, whose eyes and lips are a charm or a blemish, according to the peculiar taste and humour of partial or unfriendly critics. The princess's forehead is somewhat massive and prominent, the eyes small and twinkling, the nose retrousse, the hair a too vivid auburn; her features unremarkable for either symmetry or elegance. The expression of the countenance is sufficiently sprightly and intelligent. There is humour and piquancy in the face, though it certainly does not seem to nJatch or to harmonise with the graceful dignity with which the sight of her white-robed figure generally strikes the beholder."
THE LAST ARCTIC EXPEDITION. The Newfoundland papers furnish some information respecting Mr. Hall's Arctic expedition supplied by him on his arrival at St. John's, being unable to further pro- secute his mission in consequence of the loss of some of his craft. It appears that he has secured a large quantity of relics of Frobisher's expedition gathered at various parts of his debarcation. Among them are pieces of coal, brick, and wood, and a portion of an iron cannon- ball, probably used as ballast. The coal has bean over- grown with moss and a dark vegetable growth the brick looks quite as bright as when it was turned out of "one talle ship of her Majesties, named the Aude, of nine scora tunnes or thereabouts "-the vessel in which Frobisher departed on his second voyage, after having kissed her Majestie's hand, and been dismissed with gracious countenance and comfort- able words." The pieces of wood are merely oak chips which have been well preserved, having been embedded in coal dust for nearly 300 years. The piece of iron ballast is much decomposed and rusted. Mr. Hall found upon one of the islands a trench 20 feet deep and 100 feet long, leading to the water, in which a party of Frobisher's men who had been captured by the Esquimaux, with the assistance of their captors had built a small vessel, intending therein to set sail for England. After putting to sea they experienced such severe weather that they were obliged to return, all of them being frost-bitten. They lived many years among the Esquimaux, who treated them very kindly, and all of them eventually died there. These facts are related by the Esquimaux as a matter of tradition. Mr. Hall learned that a few years since a party of Innuits had seen two Codluna (white men's) boats, and found on one of the Lower Savage Islands (which commence near the mainland on the north side of Hudson's Straits) what they termed "soft stones." One of the Innuits, who had become possessed of a gun and ammunition from the Hudson's Bay Company, recognised them as bullets. Sir John Franklin, rot knowing how long he might be detained in the Arctic seas, carried out a large quantity of ammunition, and Mr. Hall has not a particle of doubt that the crews of these two boats, in their endeavour to get down through Hudson's Straits and on to Labrador, had thrown out these bullets so that their progress might not be impeded. Mr. Hall has with him an Esquimaux family, consisting of father, mother, and son; the father and mother were taken to England some years ago, and presented to her Majesty. He has many interesting memorials of the social lif" of the Innuits, little articles very neatly cut from bone or ivory, representing the polar bears, seals, walrus, and ducks, &c. These show a great deal of patient perseverance with the rude tools with which they must have been worked. Mr. Hall says life in these high latitudes is not so difficult of preservation as is generally supposed—the snow and ice houses of the Innuits being exceedingly tight and comfortable, and their coarse animal food rendered palatable by the sharp- ness of appetite engendered by the been atmosphere of all extreme northern climate.—Montreal Gazette, Sept. 12.
THE ITALIAN CRISIS AND THE FRENCH PRESS. The documents relative to Rome published in the French official journal are again remarked on at consider- able length by the Paris papers, but not so much for the purpose of the various organs of public opinion, adding something to strengthen their first appreciations as to sneer, each at the language of its neighbour. We do not consider those personal disputes of much importance to our readers, and we therefore refrain from giving extracts. The following observations of the Gazette de France, however, touch on a point which has attracted general notice. It says:- "The Paris press presents a singular spectacle; the journals which defend the most contrary solutions are completely in accord in congratulating themselves on the letter of the Emperor and on the dispatches of M. Thou- venel and the Marquis de Lavalette. The Presse sees clearly in the words of the Emperor the assurance that the Papacy will be overthrown and Piedmontism consoli- dated the France unhesitatingly reads in them the triumph and independence of the Head of the Church, and an engagement to conserve to the Holy See its ter- ritorial. sovereignty; the Constitutionnel keeps within the obscurity of compliments; the Patrie, which shows more boldness, asserts with the Presse, that a solution favourable to radicalism must soon follow the publication of these documents; and the Siccle. without yet clearly declaring itself, insists on the refusal of the Court of Rome, thrown so particularly in relief by the diplomatic dispatches; and after having connected the letter to Edgar Ney with that to Mr. Thouvenel, concludes for the overthrow of the Holy See. In presence of such a situation, it may be asked if the communication of the Moniteur has caused a single step to be made in the Roman Question, and if the public is more enlightened now than it was two days ago." A Naples letter of the 20th, in the DSbats, says More than a hundred of the volunteers disbanded at Aspromonte have been taken by the military authorities of the Drovince of Reggio within the last fortnight, sent to Pizzo and Reggio, and there embarked yesterday for the fortress of La Spezzia. All traces of agita ion in the Neapolitan provinces have disappeared. The same result has taken place in Sicily, excepting that between Girgenti and CsJtanisetta, three or four hundred bandits were lately wandering about, some of whom had intro- duced themselves into the suite of Garibaldi. Columns of troops are maintaining an active pursuit, and the majority have been arrested. Two days back General Brignone reviewed 10,000 soldiers at Palfei^j, the popu- lation repeatedly cheering the troops. The journals of Palermo, of which the publication had been forbidden at the commencement of the state of siege, have been authorised to reappear. Naples is enjoying a pro- found calm; and, in consequence, thE nocturnal patrols of troops and the national guard which were made during the first days of the state of siege have been definitely suspended. There are no traces of Mazzinian or Bourbo- nian agitation, unless the clandestine publication of three numbers of Rome or Death! and the failure of an attempt to distribute a proclamation in favour of the restoration of Francis II. can be dignified with such titles. It is needless to add that those publications were seized immediately. Yesterday the festival of the miracle of St. Januarius was celebrated in the cathedral of Naples with the accustomed solemnity; .the liquefac- tion of the blood took place early in the morning to the great joy of the faithful. Notwithstanding the state of siege salvos of artillery were fired, and the usual rejoic- ings took place."
Ir T.T P A morning contemporary, in discussing the present aspects of the slave question, gives the following extracts from recent Southern publications and authorities:— The Southern Literary Messenger, published at Rich- mond, in discussing the question, What is an Aboli- tionist?" says: "An abolitionist is any man who does not love slavery for its own sake, as a divine institution; who does not worship it as a corner-stone of civil liberty; who does not adore it as the only possible social condition on which a permanent republican government can be created; and who does not in his inmost soul desire to see it extended and perpetuated over the whole earth, as a means of human reformation second in dignity, importance, and sacredness to the Christian religion!. He who does not love African slavery with this love is an abolitionist." That great authority, De Bow's Review, asserts the Southern privilege and dignity in this way I I The real civilisation of a country is in its aristocracy. The masses are moulded into soldiers and artisans by intellect just as matter and the elements of nature are made into telegraphs and steam-engines. The poor, who labour all day, are too tired at night to study books. If you make them learned, they soon forget all that is necessary in the common transactions of life. To make an aristocrat in the future we must sacrifice a thousand paupers. Yet we would by all means make them—make them pro- minent, too, by laws of entail and primogeniture. The right to govern resides in a very small minority; the duty to obey is inherent in the great mass of mankind. There is nothing to which the South entertains so great a dislike as universal suffrage. Wherever foreigners settle together in large numbers there universal suffrage will exist. AB aristocracy is patriarchal, parental, and re- presentative. The feudal barons of England were next to the fathers the most perfect representative govern- ment. The kings and barons represented everybody because everybody belonged to them. The real contest of to-day is not simply between the North and South, but to determine whether, for ages to come, our government will partake more of the form of monarchies or of more liberal governments. All government begins with usur- pation and is continued by force." The Vice-President of the Confederacy, in a recent manifesto, makes the following declaration:—" The new Constitution has put at rest for ever all agitating ques- tions relating to our peculiar institution — African slavery as it exists among us, the proper status of the negro in our form of civilisation. This was the immediate cause of the late rupture, and of the present revolution. The foundations of our new government are laid, its cor- ner-stone rests on the great truth, that the negro is not equal to the white man; that slavery, subordination to the superior race, is his natural and normal condition. This, our new government, is the first in the history of the world based upon this great physical, philosophical, and moral truth. This stone, which was rejected by the builders, is become the chief stone of the corner of our new edifice." So much for the political aspect of the institution; as for the social, we may learn it from the Richmond Examiner, which speaks for the intellect and taste of Southern society:—" We have got to hating everything with the prefix free;' from free negroes down and up through the whole catalogue. Free farms, free labour, free society, free will, free thinking, free children, and free schools, all belong to the same brood of damnable isms. But the worst of all these abominations is the modern system of free schools. The New England system of free schools has been the cause and prolific source of the infidelities and treasons that have turned her schools into Sodoms and Gomorrahs, and her land into the common nestling-places of howling bed- lamites. We abominate the system, because the schools are free."
A Smgular and Fatal Accident.-On Sunday last a woman of the name of Gregory, living at West Appledore, Devon, was playing with her child 10 months old, and daEcing it on the table, holding it rather loosely, and it appears to have been standing rather near the edge, when the child laughingly bounded backwards, and fell over the table to the floor, the little creature pitching on its head, and being killed on the spot. A project for a railway ferry boat from and to Dover and Calais will be shortly before the public. The ferry boat is to be 3,000 feet in length, 100 feet beam, and draw but five feet of water.. In the centre of the deck will be a covered iron tunnel, into which the carriages will steam, with goods and passengers, to be conveyed across the Channel with considerable rapidity. The speed is to be 40 miles per hour. She will have rudders at both ends, and will never require to turn. Her build is to be that of a series of unsinkable tubes.