TOWN T-A. LK. _I BY OUR LONDON CORRESPONDENT. Qw readers wilt understand that we do not hold oursoho&s responsible for our able correspondent's opinions. « WE really have some news from America at last; not stories of battles of those we have had enough and more than enough. The American war has shown that in a fight.. ing capacity the private soldiers yield to no European nations. Nothing has ever been seen like them since the day when Napoleon I. fought banded Europe, and, fighting, retreated back to France to surrender the whole fruits of more than twenty years' war. But the news for Europe, received less coolly than in America, is, that President Lincoln has played his last political card. The other day he an- nounced in precise terms that he was ready to reconstruct the Union by accepting slavery in the Southern States, as an inevitable fact; or if that would not do, to abolish slavery in part or wholly. Other threats having failed, he now pro- claims, in solemn form, slavery abolished No he does nothing of the kind. He strips his pro- clamation of the smallest particle of virtuous principle. He says, These States which do not yield and join the Union before January 1st, in another ninety days shall forfeit their slaves. Those who are good boys, submit, and kiss the rod, shall be permitted to have as many slaves as they can breed or buy.' This, therefore, may or may not be a trump card the results only will prove its value. We shall know soon whether the anti-slavery or the pro- slavery party is the more powerful in the Northern States. The Southerners have long sinceset their lives upon the die, determined to fight it. But a declaration so tardy, so evidently framed as a war weapon, not a philanthropic act-meant to create massacres like Delhi and Cawnpore in the heart of the Southern States-can scarcely be received with admiration here. To the border states, who have hitherto for the most part hung to the Union, President Lincoln says, "hold to us and you shall keep your slaves;" or, in the words of the old Joe Miller:—"Be a good boy, Tommy, and go to school, and when you come home you shall knock the cat about Nevertheless, however the fight turns out, this rebellion, or insurrection, or revolution has checked slavery's extension where it seemed strongest, for with the Union whole and strong, a few years must have seen Mexico and Haiti conquered, with perhaps Jamaica to follow. The papers won't leave Dundreary Cadogan alone. They will insist on knowing what he did to earn a contract for five thousand pounds. I found out the other day that the poor victim Veillard never was a cook, restaurateur, or hotel-keeper at all—at any rate, in London or Paris. He was one of the refugees of 1848, after Louis Napoleon's coup d'etat, and a friend set him up in a baker's shop; from the baker's shop he marched out to conquer a loss at the Exhibition. He had rich partners or backers, whom he purchased with his contract- Mons. Potel, who was himself a.candidate for the purveyorship, and Valentin, a mammoth wine merchant. But these he gained by his firm assurance that he should have the contract. Long before the day of award he offered, I happen to know, to bet a hundred to one that he got the contract. All this looks very fishy. But it is only talked about because the London world wants a subject just at present. There is a dearth of sensations-battles and murders produce no effect. I did not see the great battle between the Pope's Irish friends and the Garibaldians; but there is something very significant in the soldier Guardsmen fighting for the Garibaldians, and the French papers are likely to make much of it. They will put it to that imaginary thousand pounds carried by Professor Partridge—the last man in the world to trouble himself with money-to the wounded hero of Caprera. Our next sight will be the Underground Rail- way, which will open in time for the Christmas Cattle Show at the new great hall in the populous, not very fashionable parish of Islington. Will country folks find time and money to come to town this Christmas, after all the International dissipation ? The Queen still remains in Germany, and appears to be recovering fast her former health and spirits, while the West-end tradesmen are talking loudly of want of trade, consequent upon their being no Court. Those high in office have perhaps little idea how much this interferes with trade. The aristocrats, of course, follow the example of royalty, and there have been no fetes or dinner parties of any consequence all through the season every branch suffers thereby, not only those who trade in consumable matter, but tailors, carriage builders, lace makers, and a variety of other trades. The Exhibition season is already coming rapidly to an end the numbers of people who flock there are getting "small by degrees and beautifully less," but we suppose before the final day arrives we'shall have an influx from the country of those dilatory people who always leave things to the last. The Londoners, however, are not much better than our country friends, for we find plenty now who have never yet been to the great building, and are yet determined to go before it closes Z. Z.
« A Confederate Steamer run down in the Clyde.—The Iona, -v^ich had been sold to the Con- federate Government about three weeks ago was run down ani sunk on Thursday night off Gourock. On her return trial trip the Chanticleer met the Iona, which had been getting her compasses adjusted that day, steaming towards her anchorage ground in Gourock Bay, when a collision ensued, the Chanticleer running right into the starboard quarter of the other vessel, cutting her nearly in two aft the mainmast. The Chanticleer backed out, and the Iona sank six minutes afterwards. The crew, numbering 21, escaped into the boats of both veesels, and were taken on board the Chanticleer without delay. The Iona was built in 1855 for Messrs. David Hutcheson ( and Co., and since that time has been the favourite 1 passenger steamboat on the Clyde. She was 220 horse- t power, and her tonnage was 325 ton?. She had on board J a full cargo of coals and general stores, which together with the vessel were insured. z
OUTLINES OF THE WEEK. I HOWEVER the American war may end, or whatever Government may henceforth exist in that country, a great precedent has been established that will act as a stepping stone to the total abolition of slavery through- out that vast continent. Whether President Lincoln has acted from personal feelings of humanity, or whether he seeks the applause of Europe and the assistance of the negroes themselves, we know not, but "glad tidings" have been published for the persecuted and enslaved coloured race. "From and after the 1st of January, 1863," so runs President Lincoln's proclama- tion, "all slaves within a state, or part of a state, the people whereof shall then be in rebellion against the Federal Government, shall be then, thenceforward, and for ever free. The Federal Executive and naval and military authorities will recognise and maintain the freedom of such persons, and will do no acts to repress them in any eflorts they may make for their actual freedom." This is to us the most important event of the whole war, and one that we hope will bring it at no distant time to a successful issue. Of its importance to humanity-irrespective of clime, or race, or nation- not a word need be said in free England. THE Government debtor and creditor account for the last quarter has just been rendered. The total results show a decrease on the quarter of only £249. On the year the total deficiency is £ 120,620. Mr. Gladstone will take some credit for this the country will acknow- ledge that his financial scheme has succeeded, despite the American war and the new tariff; that, notwithstand- ing the distress in one part of the country, the exchequer is in a healthy state. He must, however, in some measure, he thankful to the International Exhibi- tion, which has put large sums to the credit of many items of returns-such as post-office, stamps, customs, and excise, which would not have been there had the Exhibition not have called millions to this country and increased the expenditure of the English nation. Next quarter's account will also be greatly benefited, and so we may safely Itope to carry on over dull times till there is a reaction in the regular business of the country. Mr. Gladstone will, we trust, encourage his Lancashire friends to renewed energies he must persuade them to employ means and opportunities in adapting their machinery to other material than that grown in America then will our nation again prosper, and distress and misery cease. THE week has been marked by the appearance amongst us of two Circassian chiefs, who have come from their far-off land to appeal to the sympathies of England, and ask their protection from the oppression of Russia. The address that they brought from the Circassian people has been freely published; they forcibly depict their miseries under a despotic rule, and appeal to us, as a great nation, for assistance. But, although we pity them, the Foreign-office cannot but turn a deaf ear to their appeal. Under the care of Major Roland, however, they are determined that the nation shall hear their cries for help; and thus have meetings been held both at Liverpool and Macclesfield to plead their cause, but without much effect at present. AGAIN we have Garibaldi coming prominently before us with a manifesto to the people of England, tender and grateful in the highest degree; he thanks them from the very bottom of his heart for their sympathy, and he expresses for them all the kindliness which they feel for him. But when he exhorts them, not to one, but to several crusades for the liberties of mankind, he would place us in the same position as we were in 1793, from which Europe is only recovering in our own day. Wei feel, however, the compliment, and heartily believe in his sincerity when the General tells us that England alone has given him heart to believe in the constant law of human progress. But he asks too much we are to -civilise all the nations of the earth, and by our means peace and freedom is to be established over the world. The world's congress are not to meet in Utopia, but in London, and all our iron cannon and war steamers are to be turned into the reaping hooks and plougbshares of peace and plenty. He dreams of a speedy. millennium congress, which is to dictate terms to France and other countries, and thus establish a permanent peace over the world. We shall have much difficulty in answering these Utopian ideas. We sympathise with Italy because she has shown won- derful firmness and self-restraint amidst the most powerful temptations to which any reviving nation can be subjected and we can'see that, with a steady deter- mination, Italy may again become .united and happy. Our idea of freedom is for nations to govern themselves, and, however great our sympathies may be for peoples who are struggling for freedom, we cannot afford to embroil ourselves in the affairs of other nations. Eng- land can, at the present moment, boast of being as free as any country in the world she endeavours to educate her people; to give every encouragement to commerce and to establish wise laws for the maintenance of peace and order. But she has yet much to do before she approaches to anything like perfection. She can, how- ever, look back upon past years and rejoice in her pro- gressive state and we trust that she will go on pro- gressing in every good work, and be enabled to say to the rest of the world, "Go and do thou likewise. IT was said by a learned member of the bar living in the last century, that he never saw an Act of Parliament that be could not drive a coach-and-four through, and it appears the new Poaching Act is no exception to this rule. This measure was smuggled through the House at the close of the last Session, and country aristocrats and wealthy squires delighted themselves in the anticipation of their full and free protection from the daring poacher. The rural police were empowered to take poachers into custody, and several cases have been brought before the country magistrates where these officials have been instrumental in causing fines and imprisonments to individuals, together with the sacrifice of any game-destroying property they may have in their possession. The policeman, meeting a suspicious person on the road, was allowed to search for game, and, if found upon his person, it was considered, unless he could reasonably account for it, sufficient evidence for conviction. But within the last week or two this has not been admitted; and a still farther discovery has been made—viz., that the policeman has no power, except on the highway; so that a wary poacher has only, on the approach of danger, to leap the fence, and he might grin through the hedge at his enemy. WHILE other ministers and M.P's have been starring here and there, some complimenting the farmers, others he trading community, Sir John Pakington has enter- tained the people of Birmingham on the subject of education; and this is so important a matter in the affairs of every nation that it cannot pass unheeded by us. The honourable gentleman reverts to the use of the dead languages, and how much the stud yof them expands the mind. It is very true that the study will expand the mind, but Sir J. Pakington appears to have con- fined himself too much to the higher-class education, and even here he does not go sufficiently into, the matter of our general system in schools, namely, to cram the poor unfortunate boy from the time he is seven or eight years old. In every conceivable way he is made to learn abstruse rules of grammar by heart, of the rationale of which he has not the remotest con- ception and with these tools and the dictionary, neither of which he knows how to handle, he has to construe the language of the best authors, Ccesar, Ovid Virgil, Homer, and perhaps Livy and Sallust. The difficulty makes him hate the very name, his study becomes a forced task, and it makes such an impression upon his mind, that all his life he hates the very idea of the classics. A great point in education that seems to be forgotten is, that the mind of a youth can be overburdened that his studies should be adapted to his strength and years. Objects of more immediate utility than the dead languages should be frequently brought before him, so as to communicate a knowledge of men and things, which may be turned to account in the common affairs of life. It is a great mistake to burden the mind too much in youth—it is a mistake to impress upon children a forced task emulation in the first place, and next a pleasing mode of conveying information, are the greatest incen- tives to a love of education. It is a great mistake for youths who are intended for the highest professions to study classics too young; a youth of ordinary capacity beginning Latin and Greek at fifteen, or even sixteen, would learn more in two years than is taught in the ordinary way in eight or ten, because at this age he would understand that the knowledge of it was neces- sary for him, and the subjects that he learned being new and interesting, the mind would gradually expand under it; he would be far different to the boy who had sickened over it from the age of eight or ten. However, classics are not necessary to the mass of the community, but sound] education is and we rejoice that in no period of our history can we look back to such oppor- tunities as are now given to the rising generation. Schools, both for the young and the adult, flourish. from one end of our isle to the other, and instructive works are published upon every subject, at a cheap and easy rate. We may, indeed, say that the people who will not flourish under such a syst)m must have themselves to blame for their ignorance.
ANOTHER MARSHLAND SLUICE DESTROYED. The series of misfortunes in the train of the Middle Level catastrophe seems almost endless. At about six o'clock on Saturday evening the outfall sluice of the Marshland, Smeeth, and Fen Drain-an important arterial drain running into the Ouze about 200 or 300 yards northward of the ruined Middle Level sluice— became the subject of an accident precisely similar to that which destroyed the last-named work on the 4th of May last. The result has been again to flood a portion of the fen country, and thp. extent of the inundation will very probably be in a day or two as great as that of the celebrated Middle Level Deluge." In consequence of the former accident, a great quantity of water had to be discharged off the drowned lands through the Marshland, Smeeth, and Fen drain, and the adjoining Marshland sewer, both of which run parallel for a considerable dis- tance to their outfall sluices-the one draining the Fens, and the other the higher lands of Marshland proper. This unusal test of the two sluices caused some apprehension as to their safety, and in consequence, shortly after the Middle Level inundation, both sluices were strengthened by an apron of clunch, held up by piles being laid against the outer face, and the adjoining banks faggoted and further secured by walls of sheet piling. In the case of the Smeeth and Fen drain these precautions have proved unavailing. Nothing peculiar was noticed about the work until about ten minutes before the injury was fully developed. At that time the sluice-keeper Smith casually observed what he thought was a log of wood across the roadway over the sluice- bridge, and going to the spot found it wasadeenand extensive nssure. He hsd scarcely time to examine it when the bank against the southern side of the sluice fell in with a crash, leaving a gap of 40 feet width in the roadway. The cause of this evidently was that the water rushing down the drain had under- mined and scoured awav the earth behind the southern flank walls of the sluice, exactly as in the case of the Middle Level sluice, but with this difference that the sluice itself (which consists of one arch only) is at present left standing. It is, however, very much injured; the bank on the north side is cracking and crumbling in and in a tide or two the sluice must inevitably fall into ruins. In the meantime the water runs through the gap it has made for itself, and such is the force of the stream out and the tide inward that the bed of the drain is partly filled for a hundred yards upward with bricks, stone, earth, and other debris washed away from the sluice. The oc- currence took place about an hour and a half after high water, and of course on the return of the tide the sea water flowed up the drain, and though the springs have only just began to "put in," the top of the tide was sufficiently high for the water to pour over the banks for a space of some 300 yards above the sluice into the adjoining Marshland drain, running up into the Marshland internal drains and cafising great appre- hension. It also, at a distance of a mile or two up the drain, overflowed the opposite bank, and again flooded some of the identical lands, in the occupation of Mr. Little, Mr. Robert Coe, and others, in Marshland fen, which were drowned by the bursting of the Middle Level banks, and had only yithin the last few weeks been reclaimed and brought into cultivation. The flood has also run through the culverts under the Middle Level drain, and again drowned some of the land in Broad and Short fens, and threatens Bardolph and Stow fens. Immediately the misfortune became known, the Marsh- land, Smeeth, and Fen Commissioners took steps to prevent, as far as possible, its further extension. Mr. William Wright, Mr. James Walker, Mr. Harry Little, and others consulted as to the steps to be taken, and it was at first attempted to make a dam, for the exclusion of the sea water at Thorntou's-bridge, two miles above the sluice, but this was soon abandoned, and, under the direction of Mr. W. D. Harding, C.E., about 200 navvies were set to work to form a dam, with sacks of earth, close to the first bridge above the sluice, near St. Mary's Church, the parapet of the bridge, being thrown down to facilitate the tipping of the sacks. Tho work was continued all Saturday night and Sunday, and considerable progress was made; but there was no reason to hope for its success that day, and the conse- quences of the afternoon's tide, it is feared, must be very serious. Some men have been set to work cradging (i.e., making a small ridge of clay) along the banks of both the Smeeth and Fen drain and the Marshland sewer; but the banks of both are so low in many places, that the lands on both sides are in the greatest danger; and, besides, great apprehensions a.re entertained that the Marshland Sewer Sluice will ere long succumb to the unusual pressure upon it and follow the example of its neighbour. The opinion of all competent judges, and of the residents themselves, is that a very large breadth of country must inevitably be drowned by the approaching spring tides unless the success of the works in progress for excluding the sea water should be all but miraculous. MONDAY AFTERNOON. 1 The second Marshland deluge has set in in earnest. The lands flooded by last night's and this morning's tide already amount to fully 1,000 or 1,100 acres, of which some 50 acres are in Marshland proper, the so-called high-land," which had fortunately escaped the former inundation, and has rarely, for centuries past, been subject to such misfortunes. At present the sluice still stands, but its walls are very seriously cracked from top to bottom, and large portions of the foundation are washed fl.way. The gap which the water has made for itself in the southern bank is now 50 yards in length and half as much in depth, and the precipitous sides of this gulf fall away at intervals in large masses. The northern bank is also extensively fissured, and behind the outer wing wall on this side is a large conical hollow, like the vortex of a whirpool, in which the earth continually sinks, proving that the water ha? under- mined the foundations beneath, and that if the sluice does not shortly fall, it will become quite detached, standing between two chasms, or rather forming a soli- tary mass in the centre of a wide and powerful torrent. The prospect for the occupants of the whole district is indeed terrible, and many of them (not an hour too soon) are making preparations for flight by removing furniture, ] thrashing out corn, &c. Several houses, mostly cottages, < ¡ are already invaded by the flood-those of Mr. Robert Coe's tenants, for instance, being two feet under water. The banks of both the Fen drain and the great sewer are already much injured by the scour through them, and are caving in in several places. In two or three instances near the sluices, portions of cottage gardens, with their crops of vegetables, have slid down into the rushing I stream, and the poor people are hastily digging up their potato and other crops, to realise what they can before they are wholly drowned out or deprived of a home by the impending destruction of their humble dwellings. It may not be uninteresting to mention that the Smeeth and Fen sluice (the subject of the accident) was built and the drain itself excavated in 1832, under the direction of Sir John Rennie, Mr. Dyson being, we be- lieve, the builder. The still erect position of the sluice, under the circumstances described, is a proof that its foundations and brickwork are of very great strength. Its weak point is that jf every such work—the junction of the masonry with the earthwork, where the stream continually seeks an entrance, and often effects one in a place beneath the surface, and thus quite out of view. The damage is only discovered by very careful investi- gation, and then, as has been seen, sometimes too late for any remedy. A fact which ought not to be forgotten in connection with the flooding of the Marshland proper is, that this would probably not have occurred but that the defensive bank between the two drains was some years ago largely excavated and the clay used in making bricks, thus leaving holes and low places over which the water has found immediate vent. Such a piece of short-sighted folly would be incredible, but that the evidence of its commission is still plainly visible, and the fact itself is well-remembered in the neighbourhood.
ADDRESS OF GARIBALDI TO THE ENGLISH NATION. The subjoined address has been forwarded from Varignano by the writer. To the English Nation. Suffering under repeated blows, both moral and phy- sical, a man can more exquisitely feel both good and ill. hurl a malediction at the authors of evil, and consecrate to his benefactors unlimited gratitude and affection. And I owe you gratitude, O! English nation, and I feel it as much as my soul is capable of feeling it. You were my friends in my good fortune, and you will continue your precious friendship to me in my adversity. May God bless you. My gratitude is all the more intense, 0 1 kind nation, that it rises high above all individual feeling, and becomes sublime in the universal sentiment towards nations of which you represent the progress. Yes, you deserve the gratitude of the world, because you offer a safe shelter to the unfortunate from whatever side they may come, and you identify yourself with the misfortune of others you pity and help. The French or Neapolitan exile finds refuge in your bosom against tyranny. He finds sympathy and aid because he is an exile-because he is unfortunate. The Haynaus, the iron executioners of autocrats, will not be supported by the soil of thy free country; thev will fly from the tyran. nicidal anger of thy generous sons. And what should we be in Europe without thy digni- fied behaviour ? Autocracy can strike her exiled ones in other countries where only a bastard freedom is enjoyed -where freedom is but a lie. But let one seek for it on the sacred ground of Albion. I, like so many others, seeing the cause of justice oppressed in so many parts of the world, despair of all human progress. But when I turn my thoughts to you, I find tranquillity from your steady and fearless advancement towards that end to which the human race seems to be called by Pro- vidence. Follow your path undisturbed, O! unconquered na- tion, and be not backward in calling sister nations on the road of human progress. Call the French nation to co-operate with you. You are both worthy to walk hand in hand in the front rank of human improvement. But call her! In all your meetings let the words of concord of the two great sisters resound! Call her! Call hei in every way with your own voice, and with that of her great exiles—with that of her Victor Hugo, the hierophant of sacred brotherhood. Tell her that conquests are to-day an aberration, the emanation of insane minds. And why should we conquer foreign lands when we must all be brothers ? Call her, and do not care if she is for the moment under the dominion of the Spirit of Evil. She will answer in due time, if not to-day, to-morrow; and if not to- morrow, will later answer to the sound of thy generous and regenerating words. Call, and at once, Helvetia's strong sons, and clasp them for ever to thy heart. The warrior sons of the Alps—the Vestals of the aaoroA £ « of freedom m ito xiurvjjGaii cumment. They will be yours! And what allies Call the great American Republic. She is, after all, thy daughter, risen from thy lap; and, however she may go to work, she is struggling to-day for the abolition of slavery so generously pro- claimed by you. Aid her to come from the terrible struggle in which she is involved by the traffickers in human flesh. Help her, and then make her sit by your side in the great assembly of nations, the final work of human reason. Call unto thee such nations as possess free will; and do not delay a day. The initiative that to-day belongs to you might not be yours to-morrow. May God avert this! Who more bravely took the initia- tive than France in '89 ? She, who in that solemn moment gave reason to the world, levelled tyranny to the dust, and consecrated free brotherhood between nations. After almost a century she is reduced to combat the liberty of nations, to protect tyranny, and to direct her efforts to steady, on the ruins of reason, that hideous immoral monstrosity -papacy. Rise, therefore, O! Britannia, and lose no time. Rise with uplifted brow, and point out to other nations the road to follow. War would no longer be possible when a world's congress could judge of the differences between nations. No more standing armies, with which freedom is incompatible! Away with shells and iron plating! Let spades and reaping machines come forth-let the milliards spent in destructive implements be employed to encourage industry, and to diminish the sum of human misery. Begin, O! English people, for the love of God, begin the great era of the human compact, and benefit present generations with so great a gift. Besides Switzerland, Belgium, and others that will rise at your call, you will see other nations urged on by the good sense of populations, rush to the embrace and unite in one. Let London be at the present time the seat of the congress in due course to be chosen by mutual under- standing and general consent. I repeat to you, may God bless you, and may He amply repay you for the benefits you have showered upon me.-With gratitude and affec- tion, thine, G. GARIBALDI. Yarignano, Sept. 28, 1862.
Mission to the Sandwich Islands.-By the last mail we have news of the safe arrival at Colon of the bishop and two clergymen, who, with their families, compose the interesting mission to the Hawaiian king- dom. They had a safe and pleasant passage by the Royal West India Mail steamer Tasmanial1, and speak highly of the kindness which was shown to them on board. They arrived at Colon, the Atlantic port of the Panama Railway, on the 6th ult., and, though the heat was oppressive, none of the party were suffering in health. The bishop was to hold a confirmation at Colon on the 7th, and the party was to cross the Isthmus the next day, the Panama Railway Company generously conveying their baggage free of charge. The Topaze frigate is expected daily at Panama, by which it is hoped the whole party will be conveyed direct to their destination. Confession of the Kirkham Murderer.- Patrick Cain, in custody on the charge of murdering Mr. Henry Rawcliffe, at Kirkham, has confessed his crime. On Friday night he called Police-constable Fletcher to him, and said he must tell the truth-he threw the poker at the deceased, but did not intend to kill him. He expressed regret for the occurrence, and added, If they only spare my life, and don't hang me, I shan't care." He said he got the poker out of Jemmy Cain's house; that he had seen it there three years. Mrs. Cain, wife of Jemmy (who is in custody for resisting the police), denies that the poker is hers, and protests that she has no knowledge of it. Michael Kilburn who was in custody as an accessory, has been released' there being no evidence against him. The condemned murderess, Catherine Wilson, who is ordered for execution on Monday, the 20th, still continues, in Newgate, the same callous indifference which has characterised her ever since she has been in custody.- She has only been visited once by a person, a female", who described herself as a friend. She appears to have no relations, as no one has visited her in that capacity. She still professes not to have heard a single word of what the gentleman (as she calls the judge) said to her in passing sentence, and appears to have no alarm at the prospect of death which awaits her. Mr. Neale, the solicitor who defended her, has sent a memorial on her behalf to the Home Secretary, but beyond that no section of the public has made a move- ment, by petition or otherwise, to obtain a commutation of the sentence.
ITALY The DiscAissione of Turin, Oct. 2, savs # "The King's daughters, before quitting their country, implored pardon and favour for the persons guilty of participation in the late events..< "The day on which their prayer will be heard is near. On Sunday a royal decree will proclaim an amnesty for Garibaldi and his followers, from which, however the deserters from the royal army will be excluded." The rumours of a ministerial crisis are no longer cur- rent. rp, „ TURIN, OCT. 5. ihe Komans, having raised a subscription of 20,000- francs, have presented a rich wedding gift to the Queen of Portugal. This morning the King signed a decree granting am amnesty to all persons concerned in the acts and attempts which took place lately in the.Southern provinces, with the exception of those who deserted from the royal army. J EhsDiritto, of Turin, October 7, publishes a telegram from Naples, announcing that Deputies Mordini, Fabriz;T and Calvino have been set at liberty The Discussione states that the visit of Prince Napo- leon to Naples has been undertaken with the object of, inquiring into the political condition of the country, and of reporting it to the Emperor. The same paper says that the institution of a great military command in Sicily was intended immediately to precede the raising of the state of siege, but that this measure has been postponed on account of the recent outrages. The disarmament of Palermo is being promptly carried out. j The number of those excepted from the amnesty does not exceed 100-two of whom are commissioned officers, ana, ten non-commissioned officers. The Decree of Amnesty. The Official Gazette of Turin, Oct. 6, publishes the Royal Decree of Amnesty, countersigned bv Signor Rattazzi. The decree is preceded by a report of the Minister to the King. The Minister in this report says:— r motives which had compelled your Majesty to withstand the generous intentions of your heart no longer exist. The rule of the law is again con- solidated. Confidence in your frank but at the same time prudent policy has moderated the impa- tience which had pushed Garibaldi on the path of rebellion. By the catastrophe of Aspromonte we could perceive that if, while fighting in your name, he would still achieve prodigious results, this could not con- tinue to be the case when, having forgotten his duty, he took up arms against your rights, whatever might have been his ultimate intentions. At present Italy is reassured; recalls the services rendered by Garibaldi, and wishes to forget his errors. This desire of the country is echoed by all the friends of the liberty and unity of Italy. "When it was necessary to combat rebellion, the Go- vernment proposed the most energetic measures. But all danger has now ceased. The ministry therefore be- comes the interpreter of these generous wishes, and aaks clemency of your Majesty. We should have wished to extend this amnesty to all who have participated in the insurrection, but the necessity of upholding the senti- ment of military duty in the army prevents us from in- cluding soldiers who have deserted amongst those to whom pardon is granted. The honour of our flag forbids our taking ex- tenuating circumstances into consideration in their favour."
POLAND. At the sitting of the Council of State, which took place at Warsaw, October 2, the Grand Duke Constantine addressed a speech in Polish to the councillors. His Imperial Highness stated that the recent lament- able occurrences had not shaken the good intentions of the Government. He regretted deeply that respect for the law had prevented him from exercising the preroga- tive of pardon. He stated that not more than 69 Polish, political prisoners out of 499 were still expiating their offences. His Imperial Highness directed attention finally to the promised reforms which had already been introduced.
GARIBALDI. The Pa trie, of October 3, publishes a letter from itGJ correspondent at Spezzia. ip WWJ- Lg maintains the tamo* iiio fjieviuus assertion that 125,000f. had beei> sent to Garibaldi by Englismen for the General's com- panions. The same correspondent says" I have reason to believe that a conference has taken place be- tween King Victor Emmanuel and Garibaldi." It is also stated that a kind of understanding exists between Garibaldi and some English agents, with a view to the occupation of Sicily by England until the evacuation of Rome by the French takes place.
COUNT ZAMOYSKI. The Paris journals of Oct. 3 announce that the Emperor of Russia has requested Count Zamo3rski to travel for some time, and assert that the count will go to London. The following details connected with the arrival of the count in St. Petersburg have been received. The escort which acompanied him re- tired at the last station of the railway, and two court carriages were waiting at the terminus, as though he was about to enter the metropolis of the czars as a guest, and not as a prisoner. He was offered apartments in one of the imperial palaces, but he refused both the court carriages and palace, and took up his abode in one of the hotels. A deputation of Poles waited upon him, but he deemed it prudent not to receive them, and has determined not to see anyone at present. The arrival of the Emperor is awaited with some impa- tience, in order to know what is to be the issue of this incident, which has been created by the clumsy proceed- ings of the authorities.
AMERICA. Meeting of the Governors of Union States. NEW YORK, SEPT. 20. THE governors of Pennsylvania and Ohio have issued a call to the governors of all the Union States, to meet on the 24th at Altoona, Pennsylvania. The New York press strongly condemn the Federal officers for surrendering Harper's Ferry, and urge a military tribunal of inquiry. NEW YORK, SEPT. 23. It is rumoured that the Confederates have crossed Blackwater River in force and are threatening Norfolk and Suffolk. An engagement occurred on the 19th inst.' south of Juka, Mississippi, between General Rosencrauz and General Price. The Confederates retreated south during the night. The Federals captured 250 prisoners. The Federal army is reported to be. rapidly crossing the Potomac at Williamsport under the superintendence of General M'Clellan. It is rumoured that Generals Heintzelman and Sigel are in Virginia to stop the Con- federate retreat. General Bragg is rapidly marching on Louisville. He has summoned the Federal commander to surrender, but this the latter has refused to do. Women and children have been ordered away. General Bragg is close to the city. An attack is expected immediately, but the Federal commander is confident he will be able to repel it. General Kirby Smith is to hold General Buell in check during Bragg's attack. „ NEW YORK, SEPT. 25. President Lincoln has suspended the writ of habeas corpus, and declared martial law throughout the United States, with respect to all persons arrested for aiding the rebellion, or hindering the draft. NEW YORK, SEPT. 26. No Federals have yet crossed into Virginia. It is sup- posed that if M'Clellan should attempt crossing a battle will ensue. The Confederates remain on the line of the Upper Potomac, and are destroying the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad between Harper's Ferry and Cumberland. A portion of General Buell's forces has arrived at Louisville. The city is considered safe from attach. The Confederates have seized Salt River whisky distil- lery, thirty miles from Louisville, and are advancing on the city. ♦
Emigration from Liverpool.—From the Liver- pool emigration tables we learn that in the last quarter ending September, emigration has slightly revived. The total number of persons, supposed emigrants, who left Liverpool during the last quarter was 16,778, or 5,536 more than in the corresponding quarter of 1861. Ame. rica still takes the lead, as out of the whole 16,000 and odd upwards of 10,000 went to the United States. Canada and Australia have, however, become much mor popular than formerly in the estimation of emigrants and it is not all improbable that many who take passage to New York may work their way into Canada.