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OUTLINES OF THE WEEK. I HOWEVER the American war may end, or whatever Government may henceforth exist in that country, a great precedent has been established that will act as a stepping stone to the total abolition of slavery through- out that vast continent. Whether President Lincoln has acted from personal feelings of humanity, or whether he seeks the applause of Europe and the assistance of the negroes themselves, we know not, but "glad tidings" have been published for the persecuted and enslaved coloured race. "From and after the 1st of January, 1863," so runs President Lincoln's proclama- tion, "all slaves within a state, or part of a state, the people whereof shall then be in rebellion against the Federal Government, shall be then, thenceforward, and for ever free. The Federal Executive and naval and military authorities will recognise and maintain the freedom of such persons, and will do no acts to repress them in any eflorts they may make for their actual freedom." This is to us the most important event of the whole war, and one that we hope will bring it at no distant time to a successful issue. Of its importance to humanity-irrespective of clime, or race, or nation- not a word need be said in free England. THE Government debtor and creditor account for the last quarter has just been rendered. The total results show a decrease on the quarter of only £249. On the year the total deficiency is £ 120,620. Mr. Gladstone will take some credit for this the country will acknow- ledge that his financial scheme has succeeded, despite the American war and the new tariff; that, notwithstand- ing the distress in one part of the country, the exchequer is in a healthy state. He must, however, in some measure, he thankful to the International Exhibi- tion, which has put large sums to the credit of many items of returns-such as post-office, stamps, customs, and excise, which would not have been there had the Exhibition not have called millions to this country and increased the expenditure of the English nation. Next quarter's account will also be greatly benefited, and so we may safely Itope to carry on over dull times till there is a reaction in the regular business of the country. Mr. Gladstone will, we trust, encourage his Lancashire friends to renewed energies he must persuade them to employ means and opportunities in adapting their machinery to other material than that grown in America then will our nation again prosper, and distress and misery cease. THE week has been marked by the appearance amongst us of two Circassian chiefs, who have come from their far-off land to appeal to the sympathies of England, and ask their protection from the oppression of Russia. The address that they brought from the Circassian people has been freely published; they forcibly depict their miseries under a despotic rule, and appeal to us, as a great nation, for assistance. But, although we pity them, the Foreign-office cannot but turn a deaf ear to their appeal. Under the care of Major Roland, however, they are determined that the nation shall hear their cries for help; and thus have meetings been held both at Liverpool and Macclesfield to plead their cause, but without much effect at present. AGAIN we have Garibaldi coming prominently before us with a manifesto to the people of England, tender and grateful in the highest degree; he thanks them from the very bottom of his heart for their sympathy, and he expresses for them all the kindliness which they feel for him. But when he exhorts them, not to one, but to several crusades for the liberties of mankind, he would place us in the same position as we were in 1793, from which Europe is only recovering in our own day. Wei feel, however, the compliment, and heartily believe in his sincerity when the General tells us that England alone has given him heart to believe in the constant law of human progress. But he asks too much we are to -civilise all the nations of the earth, and by our means peace and freedom is to be established over the world. The world's congress are not to meet in Utopia, but in London, and all our iron cannon and war steamers are to be turned into the reaping hooks and plougbshares of peace and plenty. He dreams of a speedy. millennium congress, which is to dictate terms to France and other countries, and thus establish a permanent peace over the world. We shall have much difficulty in answering these Utopian ideas. We sympathise with Italy because she has shown won- derful firmness and self-restraint amidst the most powerful temptations to which any reviving nation can be subjected and we can'see that, with a steady deter- mination, Italy may again become .united and happy. Our idea of freedom is for nations to govern themselves, and, however great our sympathies may be for peoples who are struggling for freedom, we cannot afford to embroil ourselves in the affairs of other nations. Eng- land can, at the present moment, boast of being as free as any country in the world she endeavours to educate her people; to give every encouragement to commerce and to establish wise laws for the maintenance of peace and order. But she has yet much to do before she approaches to anything like perfection. She can, how- ever, look back upon past years and rejoice in her pro- gressive state and we trust that she will go on pro- gressing in every good work, and be enabled to say to the rest of the world, "Go and do thou likewise. IT was said by a learned member of the bar living in the last century, that he never saw an Act of Parliament that be could not drive a coach-and-four through, and it appears the new Poaching Act is no exception to this rule. This measure was smuggled through the House at the close of the last Session, and country aristocrats and wealthy squires delighted themselves in the anticipation of their full and free protection from the daring poacher. The rural police were empowered to take poachers into custody, and several cases have been brought before the country magistrates where these officials have been instrumental in causing fines and imprisonments to individuals, together with the sacrifice of any game-destroying property they may have in their possession. The policeman, meeting a suspicious person on the road, was allowed to search for game, and, if found upon his person, it was considered, unless he could reasonably account for it, sufficient evidence for conviction. But within the last week or two this has not been admitted; and a still farther discovery has been made—viz., that the policeman has no power, except on the highway; so that a wary poacher has only, on the approach of danger, to leap the fence, and he might grin through the hedge at his enemy. WHILE other ministers and M.P's have been starring here and there, some complimenting the farmers, others he trading community, Sir John Pakington has enter- tained the people of Birmingham on the subject of education; and this is so important a matter in the affairs of every nation that it cannot pass unheeded by us. The honourable gentleman reverts to the use of the dead languages, and how much the stud yof them expands the mind. It is very true that the study will expand the mind, but Sir J. Pakington appears to have con- fined himself too much to the higher-class education, and even here he does not go sufficiently into, the matter of our general system in schools, namely, to cram the poor unfortunate boy from the time he is seven or eight years old. In every conceivable way he is made to learn abstruse rules of grammar by heart, of the rationale of which he has not the remotest con- ception and with these tools and the dictionary, neither of which he knows how to handle, he has to construe the language of the best authors, Ccesar, Ovid Virgil, Homer, and perhaps Livy and Sallust. The difficulty makes him hate the very name, his study becomes a forced task, and it makes such an impression upon his mind, that all his life he hates the very idea of the classics. A great point in education that seems to be forgotten is, that the mind of a youth can be overburdened that his studies should be adapted to his strength and years. Objects of more immediate utility than the dead languages should be frequently brought before him, so as to communicate a knowledge of men and things, which may be turned to account in the common affairs of life. It is a great mistake to burden the mind too much in youth—it is a mistake to impress upon children a forced task emulation in the first place, and next a pleasing mode of conveying information, are the greatest incen- tives to a love of education. It is a great mistake for youths who are intended for the highest professions to study classics too young; a youth of ordinary capacity beginning Latin and Greek at fifteen, or even sixteen, would learn more in two years than is taught in the ordinary way in eight or ten, because at this age he would understand that the knowledge of it was neces- sary for him, and the subjects that he learned being new and interesting, the mind would gradually expand under it; he would be far different to the boy who had sickened over it from the age of eight or ten. However, classics are not necessary to the mass of the community, but sound] education is and we rejoice that in no period of our history can we look back to such oppor- tunities as are now given to the rising generation. Schools, both for the young and the adult, flourish. from one end of our isle to the other, and instructive works are published upon every subject, at a cheap and easy rate. We may, indeed, say that the people who will not flourish under such a syst)m must have themselves to blame for their ignorance.



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