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TOPICS OF THE DAY. -
TOPICS OF THE DAY. REFORMATORIES.—Even without making allowances for partiality, Mr. Sydney Turner's Report on Reforma- tories is far from encouraging. The number of young offenders committed in 1861 exceeded by nine per cent. the number of the previous year. Various reasons are assigned for this increase, but none satisfactory, as the most probable are likely to be of permanent operation for example, the number of discharged criminals who become the .trainers of crime, and the over-use (as it is termed) of Reformatories. Now we see no hope of any considerable diminution of the number of discharged prisoners, for whom there is not the outlet of transporta- tion, and as for the over-use "of Reformatories, it seems to us to be a consequence of the system hardly preventi- ble. The more successful indeed the Reformatories are. the greater will be the temptation to seek their advan- tages by means counter to the object. If they get to be considered gratuitous schools of religious, moral, and rudimental instruction, it is to be supposed that parents will not put their children in the way of obtaining so excellent an education at the public cost? But will they do evil that good may come of it ? This is a ques- tion which people of the class concerned are not very wont to raise, and which, if raised, they generally answer in the direction of their wishes, by underrating the present evil and exaggerating the future good. Let the boy break the law now, and he will be made what he ought to be for life afterwards, well kept and cared for in religion, morals, health, and what not, and all for little or nothing." Such is too apt to be the fond parent's reason- ing, offence being the eligibility for these places of training. Saeing that more than half the inmates of Reformatories are committed for first' and very petty offences, Mr. Turner proposes to refuse admission to children on the first commitment. The words he uses are of vast significance, and convey an argument in themselves—" to refuse admission! But will they be refused admission if admission, as implied, be so desirable? If a first committtal will not qualfy will ther-t be any difficulty in obtaining a second committal with its ad- Vantages ? The door turns compliantly on the hinge of crime. There is soine contradiction between Mr. Turner's statement that the majority of offences are very petty, and that the sentences are pass,d more in reference to the child's circumstances and temptations than to the degree of guilt, for this very explanation would show that the sentences are mitigated by considerations that do not enter into the view of justice. But, however that may be, make heavier offences or a second, com- mittal the condition of admission to the Reformatory, and the heavier offences or second committal will full surely be forthcoming if the cheap school of virtuous training be deemed desirable.-Examiner. COTTOJT PROSPECTS —The public speculations OR "substitutes for cotton" are in great measure vitiated by one universalerror; they omit to take into account that the American cotton supply is not annihilated, but only suspended, and may at any moment rush in upon the market, and, therefore, they fail to recognise the first and most essential requisite of any really adequate substitute, that it should be able to maintain its ground fairly. both in quality and price against the American cotton, if that should suddenly be restored to us.' Now the importance of this condition cannot be ever-estimated, for it limits necessarily the use of substitutes even while the bleckade lasts. No man can afford to buy, in large quantities, a supply of material which may at any moment be rendered nearly unsaleable, ot, at all events, unsaleable at any remunerative prices, by the return of the old material into our markets, We should all be, for the time, in a far better position if the supply of American corton were not mereiv suspended but destroy ed. Cotton is ll) neces- sary of life; and if we colld not get all we want, we should put up very quietly with costlier or harsher mate- rials. Linen would always cost mere, no doubt.; and jute, if it can be used, would no- be,- so pleasant to wear; but still mankind would be either a little more frugal or a little less comfortable; cotton would rise somewhat in price; coarser and finer materials would to some extent Superseded; and all would soon go on very comfortably if this ambuscade, as we may call it, of the American cotton did not threaten with immediate and heavy loss all who chose to ignore its possible return to life, by buying materials Which could only be manufactured at a profit so long as this cotton remains in suspended animation and beyond the reach of commercial activity. Hence the one great Requisite of any efficient substitute for the American cotton—so long as the American cotton culture itself is not finalty annihilated-ic, that it shall be as good in quality, as cheap in price, and as unlimited in ¿quauchy,- as the yield of the American cotton fields themselves. 60 long as this is not the case, so long as any substantial disadvantage, relatively to the American cotton, remains, SO long manufacturers will buy and manufacture only at a great risk of sudden Joss and that they cannot buy largely and employ their*workmen fearlessly under such a permanent risk, is obvious enough. Now, bearing this .first principle in mind, let us ask whether any of the Suggested substitutes for cotton have any chance ef real success ? We fear, as yet, no chance. They may, some of them, alleviate the pressure of the moment, and supply a few hours' occupation per week for the Lancashire mills over and above what the Indian and other Eastern cotton supplies; but we fear they are not likely to be Used, except very sparingly, and very cautiously, simply because the fabrics woven sfrom them are likely to prove a heavy loss whenever the American reserve comes into action. In the first place, as to Mr. Harben's zostera anarina, we fear that all the practical conditions of the problem are entirely unexplored. That the fibre is good enough is very likely; there are, probably, few vegetable substances in nature which do not yield some more or less Useful fibre of this kind and tbia doubtless yields a more than usual supply of better than usual quality, though China grass seems to be its equal or superior in every way. But this granted, we have got little if any nearer to the practical solution of the question! Cotton once picked merely wants cleaning to be ready for use. The fibre of the zostera marina is enveleped in a sheath, which has to be stripped off-apparently by chemical means,—before it is in any state for manu- facture. How is this process to be done on a large scale ? At what cost can it be done? Will it leave the fibre uninjured? Will the fibre e@ produced be either as good as cotton, or, if not as good, yet so much cheaper that the difference in price would compensate the difference in quality.? What would be the length of the fabre ? Would it need cutting to fit it for the cotton machinery, and if so, could the additional process be performed without unduly increasing the cost ? All these are questions which Mr. Harben had absolutely left uncon- sidered, yet they are of the very essence of the problem. There are plenty of substitutes for cotton at a somewhat greater cost- -and the cost depends on the cost of pre- paration quite as much, of course, as the cost of pro- duction. If the zostera marina, be ever eo plentiful, and could really yjeld some 5,000 or 3,000 tons per week throughout the year-for that is, in fact, about our con- sumption of American cotton—and of this no proof at all has been adduced-could it be prepared so as to be fit for use at 3d. or even 4d. per lb., and would it then be as good as cotton at that price ? If not-and positively no presumption even has been afforded that it weuld fulfil any of these conditions— it will not solve the Lancashire problem.—Spectator. THE CONVICTED FORGER,- William Roupell has at length assumed the garb of a convict. The one continued mistake of his life- his desperate resolve to stop at no half measures of gui -It-his unprecedented forgeiies, have relentlessly reduced him from a high and envied position to a level with the lowest criminals who ever appeared in the dock of the Old Bailey. The reputed millionaire and ex-member for Lambeth may now, at his leisure, contemplate the slippery path by which his rapid descent Was made from the world of fashion to the convict gaol. It is quite possible, however, that the skilful forger of his father's will may find employment suitable to his peculiar talents in the new antipodean world to which he Will shortly be transported. Redpath has already dis- tinguished himself by a proposal to establish a savings bank, of which, of course, he himself was to be the cashier. There are some hopes yet remaining for the man who with words of philanthropy on his lips could, onblushingty, and with a hypocritical regard for others' welfare, make a suggestion so strongly calculated to re- call the series of gigantic embezzlements for which he became a d nizen in the Southern Hemisphere. Robson, too, has been displaying his well-known predilection for horseflesh and the appropriation of other people's property. When at the Crystal Palace it was his boast that in his own carriage, drawn by two splendid animals, he could beat the tram from London to Sydenham by a minute. Somehow or other, although a convict, he was enabled to hire horses even in Australia to indulge in the luxury of fast driving or furious riding but having one day forgoiten to return the horse, or having workel himself into the delusion that the animal was his own Property, he sold it, and thereby incurred the withdrawal of his ticket of leave. In a few years, or perhaps even in less time, the convict, who on Wednesday last so gracefully completed the absorbing criminal drama in ^hich he has been so long engaged, may also be at uberty with a local ticket of leave, and in a letter to the governor of the colony may probably pro-' pose some ingenious plan for the detection _of forged documents, and the better security "of intending puchasers of landed estates. The convict's doom is deemed not only a disgraceful but a horrible one. Tied to a chain, and working laboriously like a galley- slave, is the popular idea of such a destiny. Different, however, is the result. Like Robson and Redpath, the ex-member for Lambeth will doubtless soon approve himself a useful member of Convictdom, and find him- self comfortably ensconced in an office where the work is the reverse of galling, and anxiety of mind and care are unknown. Passive remorse may possibly still find a place in the mind of a man who bai given himself up to repentance. The very desire so obtrusively displayed in his extraordinary speech at the Central Criminal Conrt, that the public may be induced to believe that he has deli- berately and absolutely sacrificed himself to atone for his guilt will no doubt assist him greatly among the charita- bly disposed in bis new sphere oflabour, in obtaining that relief which will be so congenial to a man of education and refinement. We have no wish to refuse him all the credit that can be properly his due for the efforts which he declares he has made to satisfy injured justice. But after a full consideration of his speech, wha.t does it amount to ? Simply, that he submits ta his fate unmur- muringly, and that no one can understand him. He claims all the guilt as his own—though he is full of I apologies for having given way to temptation—and declines to appeal for mercy. If, however, the repent- ance of William Rouped be sincere, there is still a paradox which it remains in his power to explain. He declares that he was never personally extravagant, that he never gambled, and that he was not a libertine. The vast sums which he continued to get rid of did not go in any of those easy and disreputable ways in which fast men manage to make ducks and drakes of large fortunes. There were no race-horses and expensive stable; to keep up-no private establishments of a most recherche and elegant description to maintain—no faultless and un- surpassed dinners were habitually given. Then, how did tne hundreds of thousands of money go? To whom, and what for? A friend is spoken of. Is it possible that the individual for whom the convict sold liis soul, to be so ill-requited afterwards, is yet in the background gorged with plunder? Would the memoirs clear up that question ?—The Press.
GARIBALDI MEETING IN HYDE-PARK.…
GARIBALDI MEETING IN HYDE-PARK. GREA T RIOT. Three o'clock on Sunday afternoon having been the time fixed by the Working Men's Garibaldian Fund Committee for holding an open-air dpmonstration in Hyde-park, to express sympathy with Garibaldi, and to adopt a protest &gainst the French occupation of Rome, at that hour about 20,000 people had assembled, principally consisting of well-dressed artisans, with a good sprinkling :1 of the middle and other classes. A mound of earth, capable of accommodating about 200 persons, situate midway between Grosveiior gate and the Marble-arch, had been fixed upon as the platform from whence the speeches were to be made. A few minutes after S the committee made their appearance on the graand; bmt j'ist before their arrival the mound had been taken pos- session of by a mob of Iris'hmen and roughs, evidently bent on mischief. Immediately surrounding the mound was a mob of at least 500 Irish labourers, who protested vehemently they would not allow the meeting to be addressed from that spot, accompanied by three- cheers for the Pope. This cry was responded to by the great bulk of the meeting, with three cheers for Gari- baldi. The committee determined not to be thwarted, and, backed up by a large portion of the crowd, suc- ceeded, after a severe struggle, in obtaining a footing on the mound, amidst great cheering and considerable con- fusion. Mr. Wade Murray was called on to preside, and amidst the greatest uproar called upon Mr. Brad- laugh to move the first resolution. Oa Mr. Sradlaugh coming forward a deprrate rush was made by the Irish party, many of whom were armed with bludgeons, and the chairman, the speaker, and several members of the committee were thrown violently off the mound. The Garibaidians hereupon again lushed forward, and after some hard fighting again succeeded in r-instating the chairman in his position. The scene sow became alarming, it being evident that the partisan's sf the Pope were determined to stick at nothing to prevent the meet- j ing being held. Mr. Bradlaugh again essayed to speak, j but the continual f trcggle between the contending parties 1 to obt m possession of the mound rendered it a hopeless task, and be concluded by moving a resolution in accord- 1 ance with the objects of the meeting. — Mr. Glegg-camfiJjorj»cai:d.±o.seciiiul the resolution, but he had not uttered two words before tha 'Irishmen, re-ir- forced'fey several hundreds of the most desperate-looking ruffi ins, again succeeded in clearing tlia mound of the Garibaldian party. A fearful riot now ensued, each party -e-ucceeuing in turn in gaining possession of the mound. During the struggle sticks, umbrellas, and stones were freely used, and several persons were severel-v injured. The crowd bad doubled in numbers by this time, feat although the partisans of 'Garibaldi out- numbered by thousands their opponents, \hey were implored by the committee to remain "gu.ret, and let.! the onus of these disgraceful proceedings rest upon the Irish party. Some ,&1 the more ardent spirits, however, disregarded this advice, and the struggle was again re- i sumed with increased violence. At last the Irishmen, by the free use of the bludgeons, obtained full possession of the mound,; but not content with this victory, they com- menced throwing stones indiscriminately amongst the crowd, seriously injupjaig several persons. At this time j there were about 500 ef the lowest class of ilrish labourers on or about the mound; when a stone, thrown from amongst; them by,a big ruffianly-looking man in a (flannel jacket, struck a soldier of the guards violently on the breast.' The soldier, without a moment's hesitation, rushe d up tne ? mound, and darting into the midst of the Irishmen, singled out the man who had thrown the stone, and by a well- directed blow, felled him to the ground amidst the tre- menliouscheering of the crowd below. The-eoldier, in his turn, was set upon by aSozen of the ruffians, and was being severely handled when several of his cosM-ades in the crowd, followed by about twenty civilians, dashed up the mound, and after a severe fighting -of about five minutes dre ve the Irish off the mound and pursued them some distance across the park. There they were met by a body of police, who had been sent for, and several of the ringleaders having been pointed out they were taken into custody, and conveyed to the station-house, the soldiers being borne back in triumph on the shoulders of the crowd to the top of the mound, which was now again in .possession of the Garibaldi party. The secretary of the committee now stood forward, and announced that owing to the disgrace- ful riot which had been created .by the Irish party, the meeting would be adjourned until Sunday next, when the committee would be prepared to meet any similar attempt. This announcement was received with loud cheers, amidst which the committee declared the meeting dissolved. The excitement amongst the crowd oc- casioned by the conduct of the Irishmen had 'become by this time considerably increased, and under the leader- ship of the soldiers a large force was being organised by the Garibaldians, with the object of inflicting sum- mary chastisement upon the Irishmen, and a tremendous onslaught was on the eve of taking place, wiiih in all probability would have ended in serious injury, if not loss of life, when fortunately the rain, which had been some time threatening, came down in a complete deluge, speedily damping the ardour of both parties, and causing them to make their way out of the park as speedily as possible to any shelter obtainable. A large body of police came upon the ground at this time, but the rain had done the work even more effectually and with much less trouble than they could have accomplished it. It is due to the com- mittee convening the meeting to say that they took no part in the riot beyond the necessary struggling to main- tain their ground at the commencement of the business, and that had it not been for the conduct of the Irishmen the whole of the proceedings would have passed off in a quiet and orderly manner. There were a great many foreign and Catholic gentlemen present who loudly protested against the conduct of their misguided co- religionists. Five Irishmen were charged before Mr. Tyrwhitt at Marlborough-street Police-court, on Monday, in con- nection with the above riot, and the charges being proved, were mulcted in fines varying from 10s. to £5, or imprisonment from fourteen days to two months. —♦>
A Tapeworm in the Eye.-A letter from Berlin relates the following singular fact :—The son of a shop- keeper, residing in Berlin, having complained that he could not see so well as usual with one of his eyes, was conducted to the establishment of Dr. Greafe. On ex- amining the patient, the doctor said it was lucky the child had been promptly brought to him, for he declared that immediately behind the iris of the affected eye there was a tapeworm! This parasite, he added, would un- doubtedly have soon completely destroyed the organ of vision, in which it had taken up its quarters. The doctor said it was a wonder that such cases were not more fre- quent. Theg arose, he observed, from eating underdone or uncooked meat, aud most generally pork.
I MYSTERIOUS DEATH OF A GENTLE-…
MYSTERIOUS DEATH OF A GENTLE- MAN. On Friday morning Mr. H. Raffles Walthew, the deputy coroner for East. Middlesex, held an inquiry at theglack Horse Tavern, Kingsland-road, respecting the death of a gentleman unknown, apparently 40 years of age, who expired on Wednesday morning under the following singular circumstances:— Police-constable Tleaton, 407 N, said that he was on duty in East.road, New North-road, and upon coming to Mount-terrace he saw a respectable-looking person, apparently a gentlem&n, standing talking to a young woman. As witness was parsing them the gentleman said that the woman had robbed him. Witness asked him whit she had robbed him of, when be replied, Of a sovereign, a half.crown, and a railway ticket." He bad no sooner uttered the words than he dropped on the pave- ment and never stirred again. He appeared to be dead when he reiched the ground. Witness stopped to see if be could assist him, or whether he was drunk, and the woman ran away. Po>iee-sergeant Collett brought her back, and sent witness for a doctor. Dr. Griffiths pronounced deceased dead. The woman was searched, and nothing found on her. In deceased's pocket was found a long biue purse, but there was no money in it. He had a h ilf-pound of tea in his hand when witness saw him first. Sergeant Collett said that as he was coming up New North-road be met a female running away, and upon asking her what, was the matter, she said, "I am running for a drink of water." Witness caused her to go back with him, and they came to deceased on the ground. Upon bearing the circumstances, he took the woman into custody. Deceased was dressed in a well-made cut-away coat, a new clotb waist- coat, and a pair of speckled trousers. In his pocket was a Crystal' Palace guide-book and a Birming- ham newspaper. The only mark was the name Stour- bridge" in the hat, which was evidt-ntly country made. In the coat pocket was half a pound of black, and the same quantity of green tea, purchased at Ridg- way's. He was a very well-bail: and gentlemanly- looking man. The police ha.d not instituted inquiries about him at Stourbridge. One of the jury, Mr. Pearse, said that he would cause a ghotogr<>pb to be taken forthwith of deceased, and send it down to Stourhridge, so as to give the deceased's family a chance of identifying the body. Dr. Owen Griffiths, the divisional surgeon to the police. said that, he found on the cheek, nose, and lip of deceased an extensive mark as if from a blow or fall, but he con- sidered il, might have been caused bv gravitation after death. There was an extensive effu-doii of blood on to thte brain, which was no doubt the cause of death. The Coroner said he should adjourn the court to give timt- to further inquiries to be instituted by the police.
THE BISHOP OF OXFORD AS A…
THE BISHOP OF OXFORD AS A SUSSEX SQUIRE. On Tuesday last the annual harvest home for the parishes of Laviagton and Griffham, Sussex, in which the Bishop of Oxford is the principal land- owner, was celebrated with great rejoicing. The day was ushered in by morning prayers in Griffham Church, and, as there was no sermon, the lawn and rectory grounds, by half-past' twelve, were crowded with the parishioners of all grades, and a large gathering of the clergy and laity of the county, and of visitors from a distance staying at the different houses in the Neighbourhood. Dinner for rich and poor was served in a tent ■en the lawn, and full justice was done to the viands. Very judiciously long speech-making was excluded, and the Rector, the Rev.. W. Randall, in a very happy speech lumped together every conceivable toast from the Queen 1:0 the cook who made the puddings. The Bishop of Oxford, of course, had to ceply for the wh@le, and it is seedless to say, proved him- -self equal to the occasion. He firs& personated the rector himself, who had concluded his speech by 'expressing a hope, as no one could propose his health, that they would drink it with all the ethers, (by remarking on the extreme affection the proposer of the toast bad for the rector. In replying for The '.Queen, his lordship said that the first wish of her Majesty's heart in her own deep sorrow was for the happiness of all her subjects. In reference to the Prince of Wales he confessed that he felt a difficulty, as he must imagine .also that beautiful princess of whom they had heard so much but they would all join him in wishing <every happiness to his Royal Highness, and in the expression of a hope that his marriage might be ;blessed as bad been his mother's. ;la responding for the bishop of the iiocese and himself, and for his -son, Mr. Reginald Wilborforce, the future owner of the property, the task was easier, but in replying for all the-visitors—Churchmen, 'Church- women, -Church children, and Church sucklings, he confessed that he broke down utterly. Why the weight,ef responding for the London clergy, repre- sented by his friend Air. Lawrell, was in itself suffi- cient'to break the back of a country bishop, to say nothing-of the other visitors of .all classes .present. Having made a few observations on the benefit of har-vest-ikomes, and. called for three cheers for the rector, the rector's lady, and the cook who made the puddings, he advised them to go out and enjoy the games, -and not mind,a little rain, which never hurt "us Sussex folk, who are not made of salt or sugar." In the games which followed the bishop was the life and soul of the proceedings, and it was most interesting to observe how he entered into .&1I the fun, throwing sacks before blindfolded boys to throw them down, scoring himself at the women's cricket, looking on at the merry dance, and having a. word for each poor person and child on the ground. He was well desci-ibedas "our own bishop, living among bis own people," and the only regret was that, kis many duties enabled him to spend so little time on his Sussex property. A harvest home could not have been held under happier auspices, the beautifully-wooded bills forming a pleasing background to the scene of rich and poor in variegated costumes and every conoeivable toilet, from the London belle's extensive get-up to the simple ad@rnments -o £ the humblest rustics, enjoying them- selves innocently on thegreeu sward. Evening- prayer in the parish church, which was densely crowded, closed a happy day. The bishop, who wore a sim- ple smrplice, pronounced the absolution and read the second lesson, after which the rector made a short but very appropriate address xm the religious use to be made of the festival. It is right to say that the success of the day was mainly owing, not only o the incessant exertions of the rector and his wife and the curate (the Rev. J. Wilkinson), but to the assistance rendered by Mr. T. Maberly, the son of the vicar of Cuckfield, whose harvest home (which took place last Thursday) is quite a model one.
MR. PARTRIDGE'S REPORT TO…
MR. PARTRIDGE'S REPORT TO THE GARIBALDI ITALIAN UNITY COM- MITTEE. SPEZZIA, SEPT. 20.- The reports received in England of General Garibaldis health, and of the state of his wounds, were so various, contradictory, and alarming, that I was commissioned by some of the General's friends to visit him professionally, and to ascertain from actual observation his real condition. I arrived at Spezzia on the 16th of September, and I have since that time daily visited the General at Varig- nano, in company with Dr. Prandina and his other medical attendants, and I have been constantly present at the morning dressings of the wound. I have been further permitted, through the courtesy of the surgeons, to make a personal examination into the nature and ex- tent of the injury. The accident may be described shortly as a transverse compound fracture of the right internal malleolus (ankle bone), produced by a rifle shot, which, though it opened the joint by a small aperture, did not enter it, nor lodge itself in any other part of the limb. The other ankle bone remains uninjured, nor does the astragalus (the great pulley-like bone of the foot which sustains the leg) appear to have been injured the most careful examina- tions made immediately after the accident, and since have kd to the conclusion that no other bone except the tibia (or greater bone of the leg) was implicated in the injury. At first, severe inflammation, swelling, and excessive pain, followed upon the infliction of the wound. But L these were subdued by cold applications, cataplasms, leeches, and rest, so th:1t now the ankle and surrounding parts present nearly their natural size and form, the f"Jot being almost at a right angle with the leg, and other wise in excellent position. The wound, the circumference of which (on its super- ficial aspect) is rather larger than that of half a franc, looks well, and discharges healthy matter mingled with molecular fragments of exfoliating bone, which are rarely larger than ersins of sand. The present unswollen state of the ankle and of tha parts around it permits of an examination which has confirmed the assurance, given by other circumstances, that the bullet did not enter the joint Lor effect a lodgment elsewaere. Theiojured parts are now free from inflammation, and, unless moved, are no longer painful. The wound is simply dressed with charpie, spread with cerate, and covered by a light poultice, the foot being maintained at rest and in position hy a suitable apparatus of smail pads, pillow, and ban- daged. The wound of the left thigh, which wa.s slight and superficial, is well. The General's manner is very patient and tranquil; his health is fairly good, though he is much emaciated his appetite is tolerabLe, his pulse is quiet, his tongue is clean and moist, and, upon the whole, tie sleeps well. He has within the last two days been removed iuto & larger, more airy, and quieter chamber than that which he at first occupied. Everyone about the General seems attentive to his wants and wishes; and his friends have supplied him (and I hope will continue to do so) with those neces- saries and comforts which his situation demands. My opinion is that (bearing in mind bis habitually abstemious habirs), if mental as well as bodily repose are steadily en- forced, if the injured limb be kept at perfect rest, if the general health and strength be sustainel by suitable nourishments (and if need be, by stimulants), by well- aired, well-kept, and quiet rooms, and, lastly by a con- tinued supply of those comforts necessary to his present condition, the General will, with time (certainly some months) and care, have a good useful foot, though the ankle joint may become stiff, or, at the best, ba only partially moveable. I beg to express my entire concurrence in the treatment pursued by the surgeons who attend General Garibaldi, aud who dress his wound with solicit- ous care and skill. Upon one occasion I had the good fortune to see General Garibaldi in company with Professor Zanetti, of Florence, and I was gratified to find that my view of the past and of the prospective treatment (under certain con- tingencies) of this anxious case coincided with those of that eminent surgeon, I cannot conclude this report without expressing my grateful sense of the prompt aid afforded me by the authorities here in furtherance of the objects of my visit; and I would also especially acknowledge the frank reception and kindness of General Garibaldi's medical attendants, Drs. Ripari, Prandina, Albanese, lLsile, and otters, with whom, for the time being, I have had the pleasure of being thrown into daily association. KIOHAKD PARTRIDGE, F.R.S., Surgeon to King's College Hospital, Professor of Anatomy in King's College, London, and Member of the Council of the Royal College of Surgeons of England.
ATTEMPTED ESCAPE FROJf GAOL.
ATTEMPTED ESCAPE FROJf GAOL. On Wednesday and Thursday considerable excitement prevailed at the Sussex County Gaol, in consequence of a prisoner attempting to make his escape from the budd- ing. His name is Dimollard Francois, a Frenchman, about 32 years of age. He was committed for trial from Eastbourne, on the charge of stealing some silver spoons and wearing apparel at Hailsnrom. It is the custom at the gaol to allow prisoners awaiting their trial to take two hours' open air exercise each day-one h->ur in the forenoon and another between 2 and 3 o" clack. On Wed- nesday, Francois and twelve other prisoners took their afternoon's airing together, being, as usual, guarded by turnkeys. At the termination of the exercise they were marched again into the prison and replaced in their cells. Francois, however, stopped back, for the purpose, it was thought at the time, cf proceeding to the governor to get a. letter written. At half- past 4 o'clock, after an hour and a half had elapsed,, the turnkey in whose ward Francois was placed, finding the iman had not returned, inquired for him, but tbe governor had not seen him, and suspicions were at once aroused that he had effected his escape. Wednesday is a day on which visitors are allowed to see their friends in prison, and the inference was that the prisoner, who was in plain clothes, and not in the prison garb, this being the rule with those awaiting their trial, h&d passed through the gate with other persons. The gatekeeper, who has a register of all persons admitted, was positive that no such man as the prisoner was Ascribed had gone out, so that the first conclusion seemed to be itnfcunded. The building was then searched over and over again. Every crack and corner where it was thought possible a human being might secrete himself was closely inspected, and tlr-e place in fact literally turned inside out. No 'Francois, howevsr, could be found, and the first conclusion—namely, that he had gone out at the gate- was attain adhered to. To guard against any nossibility •cf his being secreted about the premises, however, double watch WdS put on inside and outside of the building all Mght, and a body of police likewise patrolled the outer w.alJ. Thursday morning came, but no signs of Francois, and all hope of ".preventing his escape was abandoned. iEvery one concluded he was gone. About a quarter past one in the afternoon Mr. William Sanders (son of the .governor, Mr. John Sanders), who had but shortly before returned from London, saw a man run from the direction of the coal-hole to the outer wall, taking with him a short ladder which was being used by men ■eKgaged in painting thE building. He immediately geve chase, and rushing up -the ladder after him, caught the runaway as he was in the act of attempting to scale the wall. This man was the missing pri- soner Francois. He made no resistance, and was spsedily marched ef to his cell. Upon examination it was found that he had secreted himself in a small place near the englue-bouse filled with coke. The coke had be-en piled nearly,up to the ceiling, and Francois, during the time that elapsed between his leaving the other pri- soners and the alarm being given, had cradled up to the top of the heap and completely buried himself under the coke. Upon this hard bed he lay and fasted for 24 hours. Francois, although a young man, is stated to be an old offender, and was evidently fully acquainted with the habits of the prison, as the hour when he attempted to scale the wall was at a time when the prisoners were at dinner and the turnkeJ s were all engaged in the building. Had not Mr. Sanders, jun., accidentally been iu that particular part of the premises, the probability is he would have got over the wall, if not clean away, It is perhaps only due to Mr. Sanders, the governor, to state, th'at during the 33 years that he has had the ap- pointmesit of chief officer of the gaol, not a single pri- soner has effected his escape.
POLITICAL GOSSIP. -
POLITICAL GOSSIP. j A NEWSPAPER is published clandestinely at Naples, ander the title of Rome or Death.* The newspaper is of the full size, with double columns; it is printed on fine paper, of a blueish colour. It advocates Republican principles, and recommends an armed rebellion. It announces that a secret association exists at Palermo having for its motto "United Italy—Some its canity) • the plebiscite realised." ON Friday afternoon (says the John Bull) in con- sequence of the illness of the Lord Chamberlain, Mr Spencer Ponsonby received a small deputation instead of the larger one that bad been proposed, who presented a memorial, very numerously and influentially signed, praying that the ancient clause prohibiting the opening of theatres in the Holy Week may be inserted in the I licences about to be issued for next year. The names of one or two bishops known to be most opposed to the innovation will be missed; but we learn that the reason they are not appended to the memorial, which has been got up by the English Church Union with such zeal at this dull season, is that they thought it was a matter for the whole episcopate as a body to take up. We trust their lordships may yet adopt this course, as although the time for granting the licences is close at hand, the forms have, we understand, not yet been drawn up. I iHE iimperor has ordered M. JJroayn de 1'Huys to prepare for him an elaborate report on the internal and external condition of the French Empire. In confiding these duties to Drouyn de I'Hays, the Emperor is sup- posed to destine him to yet higher functions. IT is rumoured that a distinguished English naval engineer has been engaged by the Sultan to superintend the construction of a. number of iron-clad vassels. SEVERE illness of lengthened duration has led Lord Hatherton to place his resignation of Lord Lieutenant of Staffordshire in the hands of the Premier. His lordship's successor has not yet been appointed. THERE is little doubt that Count Bernstorff will return to the Prussian Embassv in London, and not be nominated to that at Paris, as stated in the French papers. WE hear that Vice-Admiral of the White, the Hon. Sir Montagu Stopford, K.C.B., is a candidate for em- ployment. Vie trust, says the Court Journal, thit the gal- lant, admiral will not, interfere with the claims whicb. Sir Michael Ssymour has for the command at Portsmouth. Sir Ilanry Brace's time, at our chief naval, arsenal, ex- pires on the first of March next. Å THE Cairngorm, which. has just arrived ia London reports having spoken the Confederate steamer Alabama, the 290," off the island of Flores one of the Azore group. The people of the Alabain -> stated that, they had taken and burnt four Federal whalers, and captured one schooner. This report, contra iicts a recent dispatch from America to the effect that the Alabama had visited Charleston harbour, and received a large amount of specie from a pilot b.;at. The dispatch is also further open to doubt fr.im the belief that there are MW few, if any, pilot boats at Charleston. THE rumour of the. Marquis of Lavalette becoming the successor to the present Freuch ambassador to our Court continues, and seems warranted. MR. A. SHAFTO ADAIR has issued an address to the Liberal electors of Cambridge, consequent on the death, of Mr. A. Steuarr. There is a rumour in Cambridge that Mr. A. Beresford Hope, who lately contested Stoke- npon-Trent, will be the Conservative candidate for the borough. AT the recent coats-it for the county of Oxfordshire it was found that, the register had been much neglected, chiefly from the supineness of tl;,o"e interested. Both Tories and Liberals therefore set to work, and in a short time, in the Hundreds of Bloxham (Banbury included) and Bullingdou (Oxford city and be rough included), and Deddiagtou district, p'acsd on the list upwards of 300 fresh voters. Daring the past week the courts were pre- sided over by the barrister, E. G. White, Esq. The result of the registration, as far as it is known, is sa.id to- be in favour of the Liberal party, who claim a majority of two to one of the fresh voters. THE deaths of Major-Generals Alves and Diggle will place two pensions for distinguished or meritorious services at the disposal of the General Cornmandiug-iii- Chief. As they were not on the fixed establishment of general officers, no promotions will take place in conse- quence cf their decease. THE reason assigned for tbe wavering as to the trial of Garibaldi is now pretty well understood to be that he will not mince the matter, but prove to the world that he acted in concert with the Kini. and, to a certain extent, with the Government.- Court Journal.
VICTOR HUGO ON THE PRESS.
VICTOR HUGO ON THE PRESS. At the dinner recently given at Brussels, in honour of Victor Hugo, he thus spoke of the press:—"Without the press there is profound darkness. All these pro- blems become immediately formidable. We Cia only distinguish sharp outline?; we may fail of BAaing the entrance and society may founder. Quench the pharos and the port becomes a rock. Gentlemen, with a free press error is not possible; there is no vacillation, no groping about in the progress of man. In tbe midst of social problems, of the dark cross-paths, the press is the indicating finger. There is no uncertainty. Advance to the ideal, to justice, and to truth; for it is not enough to walk, you must walk forward. How are yoa going? That is the whole question. To counterfeit movement is not to accomplish progress. To make a foot- print without advancing may do for passive obedience, to walk about for ever in the paih is but a mechanical movement, unworthy of man-let us have arc aim-let us know where we are geirg-let us proportion the effort to the result—let an idea guide us in each step we take — let every step be logically connected with the other—let the solution come after the idea, and let the victory come after the right- Never step backwards. Indecision in movement shows emptiness of the bra n. What is more wretched than to wish and not to wish ? He who hesitates, falls back and totters, does not think. As for me, I can no m ire admit policies without a head than I can Italy without Rome. Since I have pronounced the word Rome, let me interrupt my thought for a moment and direct it to that hero who is lying down on his bed in pain. Indeed he m'iY smile; glory and right are with him What strikes one down- what crushes one—is that there can be founa in Italy- in that noble and illustrious Italy—men who draw their swords against his virtue. Do these Italians, then, no longer recognise i Roman ? These men call themselves men of Italy; they shout out that it is vicrorious, and do not perceive that it is decapitated. Ah! th." is a sad misadventure, aud history will start back indignant before this hideous victory, which consists in killing Garibaldi in order that Italians may not have Rome. Gentle- men, who are the auxiliaries of the partiot? Thp press. What is the terror of the cowaTd ana the traitor? The press. I know it, the press is hated, and this is a great reason for loving it. Every indignity, erery persecu- tion, every fanaticism, denounces, insults, anl wounds it as far as they can. I recollect a celebrated encyclical, some remarkable words of which have remained on my memory. In this encyclical a pope, our contemporary Gregory XVI., the enemy of his age, which is somewhat tbe misfortune of popes-and having ever present in his mind the old dragon and beast of the Apocalypse, thus described the press in his monkish and barbarous Latin, guia ignea, caligo, impetus immanis cum strepitu horrendo (a fiery throat, darkness, a fierce rush with a horrid noise). I dispute nothing of the (iescription. The por- trait is striking. A mouth of fire, smoke, prodigious rapidity, formidable noise. Just so. It is a locomotive which is passing, it is the press, the mighty and holy loco- motive of progress. Where is it going ? Where is it drag- gicgeivilisatior)? Where is this powerful pilot entire carry- ing nations ? The tunnel is long, obscure, and terrible, for we may say that humanity is yet underground, so much matter envelooes and crushes it, so many superstitious prejudices, and tyrannies form a thick vault around it and so much darkness is above it. Alas! sine man's birth the whole of history has been subterranean. We see nowhere the divine ray but in the nineteenth cen- tury, after the French revolution there is hope, there is certainty. Yonder, far in the distance, a luminous point appears. It increases it increases every moment; it is the future; it is realisation; it is the end of woe; it is the dawn of joy; it is Canaan, the future land where we shall only have around us brethren, and above us Heaven. Strength to the sacred locomotive! Courage to thought- courage to science courage to philosophy. Courage to the press! courage to all of you writers! The hour is drawing nigh when men, delivered at last from tats dis- mal tunnel of 6,000 years, will suddenly burst forth in all its dazzling brightness."
THE NEW ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY.
THE NEW ARCHBISHOP OF CANTER- BURY. The question respecting which so many duubtful rumours have been circulated is at length decided. On Thursday morning a communication from the premier was received by Dr. Longley, Archbishop of York at his palace, Bishopsthorpe, (ffering the vacant &ee for his acceptance. His grace lost no time in intimating to Lord Palme-ston his will-ngness to undertake the responsible dntits attached to the Pnmacy. The ante- cedents of the new arahbisliop are of a very honourable c uracter; and although he occupied the see of York k 5'ears only, he is held in the highest estimation by the clergy and citizens, and Ms removal will cause a general fteling of regret. His grace, who was born in 1794, was educated at Westminster and Oxford where he distinguished himself as a first-rate classical scholar, filling the position in the Uni- versity of College Tutor, Censor, and Public Ex- aminer. He was subsequently curate of Cowley Oxon, in 1823, and the rector of Wrot-Tytherley, Hants, from 1827 to 1829. In the latter year he was elected head master of Harrow School, the duties of which post he performed until 183,% when he was ap pointed first bishop of Ripon. In 1856, on the resigna- tion of Dr. Maltby, he was appointed to the see of Dur ham, from which, in May 1860, he was elevated to the Archbishopric of York, on the death of Dr. Musgrave. Dr. Longley was most active in the discharge of his episcopal functions as Bishop of Durham, and exerted himself nobly in raising a pecuniary fund for the benefit of the sufferers by the calamitous accident in the Burra- don colliery in 1860, while his zeal and energy in his recent sphere of spiritual duty resulted in the establish- ment of the York Diocesan Church Building and Endow- ment Aid Society, in furtherance of which mainlv through his unwearied efforts, many thousands of n'-mnda have been subscribed. 1
Tiie Hartley Institution.—The arrangement# on thp°^Tg the Han,ey In^,tUti0n at Southampton proximo are rapidly progressing.- Lord Palmers,on, who is to inaugurate the opening, will be met about two miles from the town by the mayor and corporation, the magistrates, the volunteers, cavalry, in- fantry, artillery, and engineers, Foresters and Odd Fellows; and his lordship will be escorted into the town under numerous triumphal arches. After the inaugura- tion a banquet will be given by the mayor in the large reading saloon. In the evening a concert will take place for which Mr. Rowland, the musical conductor at South- ampton, has been empowered to obtain the services of the most oistinguished musical artists. On the second iu i maJor and mayoress will give a grand bail iE Eie lecture-hall, which will hold nearly 2:000 persons.