J? O "W 1ST TALK. BY OUB LONDON CORRESPONDENT. Our readers will understand that we do not hold ourselves responsible for our able correspondent1 s opinions. CRIMINALS have not been lucky lately. A few years ago there were a number of timid judges and juries who let off altogether, or compromised deadly crimes, by secondary verdicts. Judges and juries have become more just, that is, more careful of the lives of innocent people than of the comfort of villainous assassins. But we have seldom had so straightforward a aumming up as that, or such plain speaking in passing sentence, as in the case of the wholesale poisoner, Mrs. Catherine Wilson, tried before Mr. Justice Byles. She was tried and convicted entirely on circumstantial evidence, of poisoning her landlady, although no poison was found in the tortured victim's body. She poisoned her with physic colchicum, which cures the gout, and an over-dose produces nearly all the symptoms of cholera. She was convicted because the jury had no doubt that she had also robbed her victim, forged a letter to her, and told lies about the cause of her death. The Judge summed for a conviction with a directness unusual in these tender-hearted days, and told the jury, what it is well should be known, that it is not necessary that poison should be found in the body to convict a prisoner, if the other evidence be sufficient. When the jury had found the wretch guilty, the Judge spoke out and told the jury and the public that this was the eighth case in which there was reason to suspect Mrs. Wilson of poisoning. In 1853-4 her master, in Boston, made a will in her "favour, and he died ,soon after, with symptoms of over-doses of poison. In 1856 she, no doubt, poisoned a man who was living with her. In 1859 a friend of hers, a Mrs. Jackson, drew £120 out of the bank, and died of something like cholera. The money was never found, but a note of hand in the names of two persons not to be heard of was found, and since proved to be a forgery by Mrs. Wilson. In 1860 she poisoned a Mrs. Atkinson, who lodged with her, after robbing her. In 1861 she poisoned a man who lived with her. In 1862 she was ac- quitted for poisoning a woman with sulphuric acid. In all these cases she hung tenderly over her patients and treated them with the greatest ap- parent affection. By two persons she was suspected, but they were more afraid of being called as wit- nesses than anxious to bring an assassin to justice. This woman had no conscience. She was calm to the last. Yet there are people to be found weak enough to pity and spare her. In Scotland they are getting up an agitation to save the life of a woman who took the clothes of a murdered woman, the plate out of the house where the murder was committed, and systematically went to work to destroy her own clothes, stained with the blood "of her murdered friend. The defence, that an old man of ninety, a witness at the trial, committed the murder, and that the woman only concealed it and took the money to pay her debts. The judge and jury may have been wrong in acquitting the old man, but certainly they could not have been wrong in convicting the only person who profited by the crime. The ex-M.P. and member for Lambeth, who was convicted the other day of forgery, and sentenced to transportation for life, took up the position of a sort of Eugene Aram in the dock, and made a long speech, with what meaning it is impossible to understand. He says he began his forgeries to pay for books. That he was not a libertine, a gambler, or a wastrel. Well, then, what did he do with two hundred thousand pounds? This is certain—he spent all the money he could lay his hands on in the shortest possible time, and he has now consented to be be converted into a felon for life, in order that his brother may drag from the people the estates, the purchase money of which he has spent. Roupell is a para- dox no doubt a paradox with rascality at both ends of the argument. The last royal wedding—that of the boy King of Portugal to the child daughter of the King of Italy-has been a valuable subject for the writers of fashionable gossip. By close examination, it is discovered that the bride of fifteen, who has just given up her dolls, is a very tall and as fully developed as an English girl of eighteen, with a stately gait, a very plain face, like her father, and red hair. One wonders what the King of Portugal, who is only eighteen, will say to the choice of his ministers. Boys generally like pretty faces, and it is not until later in life that a fine figure is considered to compensate for a 0 turn-up nose and mouth of unseemly dimensions. It is impossible to help pitying this poor child, the last sacrifice to the progress of Italy, crying over her doll at the fear of being tied to a man she had never seen and yet it will probably turn out as well as most royal marriages. The Doncaster Races have given a heavy blow to pedigree. Tim Whiffler, a light and pretty little horse, without any illustrious blood in his veins, has, on every occasion that he has had the chance, beaten all the best connected horses of his year, and at Doncaster vanquished the second for the St. Leger in the race for the cup with the greatest ease, so that there is no doubt but that this obscure bred horse is the best horse of the day. Every year sweeps away some celebrated metro- politan edifice. The other day Blackfriars Bridge and the Queen's Prison were both con- demned, and will disappear before the close of 1863. Now St. Thomas's Hospital is offered for sale for shops and offices; and in the same week, the chambers and gardens formerly sacred to doctors of civil law and the courts, are now con- centrated in Sir Cresswell Cresswell's summary jurisdiction. There are signs in the political atmosphere that next session will not be so calm as the last. Mr. Samuel Laing, lately Chancellor of the Exchequer for India, evidently means mischief. He will have the support of Lord Stanley on Indian matters; and many others will be glad to have a I dig at Sir Charles Wood's fluent self-conceit. If Mr. Laing's health holds out, he will be a very awkward customer, for he knows something about subjects in which the public take an interest. Having lost our American market, we cannot afford to neglect the splendid resources of India. The promoters of schemes seem mad on hotels there are half-a-dozen in the market with the oddest names as directors. A good many will find themselves a day after the fair; an Exhibition will not take place every year. The latest absurdity is a scheme for an hotel close to the Horticultural Gardens. Let all who think of visiting the Exhibition lose no time the rains and fogs have made their appearance, and Brompton is not nice on a damp day. Z.Z.
OUTLINES OF THE WEEK. THE disturbances that have taken place latterly in that portion of the Turkish dominions, called Herzegovina, did not originate altogether through the oppression of the Sultan or through the exercise of his despotic power, as is the case in Servia but the quarrel has arisen amongst themselves, and entirely through a re- ligious bigotry. Herzigovina is a land of mountains, covered with fertile plains, and extending over about 8,400 square miles, with a Christian population of mixed Greeks and Catholics of about 122,000. Sixty thousand Mussulmans, however, hold all the landed property, and though their feudal privileges have all been taken from them, yet they still exercise an all but intolerable tyranny over their countrymen-a tyranny that is felt the more bitterly since the oppressors are of the same race as the oppressed, and have gained by apostacy this power over them. The hatred of Christian to Turk would seem to be scarcely greater, however, than that between the Greek and Catholic churches. It has been stated that in the revolted districts, unoffending pea- sants have been taken by Greek Christians and ordered to kneel and make the sign of the cross to prove the truth of their assertions that they were not Mussul- mans. The wretched creatures did so in accordance with the Roman Catholic form, and their lives were un- ceremoniously forfeited to the bigotry and ferocity of their unrelenting judges. Marriages between the two churches are strictly prohibited by the Catholic clergy. In material comforts the people seem to be no more advanced than in Christian charity. The state consists of three large towns, and seven or eight lesser ones, besides small villages. Even in the towns the inhabitants appear to live in a wretched state of poverty and discomfort, but the villagers are described as being in a miserable state, they generally inhabit some score of huts, built of rough stones, without window or caimney, and roofed wita boards, which are again thatched with straw they seldom con- tain more than one room, which the family occupies in conjunction with the poultry and domestic animals. The furniture of these luxurious abodes consists of a hand-loom, two or three iron pots, a few earthern ves- sels, and some wooden spoons. The bedding is a coarse woollen blanket, which serves as a cloak in wet weather, and as a mattress and coverlet for the whole family, without distinction of sex. For the most part, the peasantry are Roman Catholics, while the inhabitants of the town generally belong to the Greek church the landowners again have apostatised from their original faith to carry favour with the Porte, and profess the Mussulman faith. An undying hatred exists between each of these, and whenever opportunity offers they rob and murder each other. Such, then, is the condition of Herzogovina, and such is the cause of the occasional revolts that we hear of in this state. The resources of the country are said by Lieutenant Arbuthnot to be great. The olive and mulberry thrive in a wild state, and forest timbers grow to great perfection the valleys are fully capable of culture, and gold, silver, and lead have been discovered in the earth. It is supposed that cotton might be grown there to great perfection. But with all these advantages there has been a fatal error on the part of tha Turkish Government, which has prevented their growing with a progressive age. They have endeavoured to suppress any- thing that may tend to educational advantage. Sawing mills were introduced in 1850, but were immediately stopped by Omar; Pacha. Schools are nowhere per- mitted, and the people are brought up in ignorance and superstition. A country in this deplorable state has just cause against their rulers. To this demoralised condition may be attributed the present unsatisfactory state of affairs; and, until the Porte will choose to encourage education, and to promote everything which shail have for its object the development of the natural resources of the country, there can be no unanimity or order. WE rejoice that the prospects of the Lancashire Cotton Famine is improving; the treasure "hope" that lay at the bottom of Pandora's box has just emerged; it is exceedingly gratifying to relate that many thousand bales of cotton have arrived in Liver- pool from India, and we are informed that there are half a million on the way. We sincerely hope the manu- facturers will take advantage of this raw material, there will then be some hope for the Lancashire operatives their patience and noble endurance during all these varied troubles are beyond praise. They have manfully weathered the storm thus far with every inducement to crime, the returns show that in Lancashire it is not on the in- crease. But some months will yet elapse before they can be employed; there is a dreary winter yet before them, when extra comfort will be needed, extra food re- quired. We have seen some harrowing tales of distress in a little work, A visit to the Cotton Districts," in which the author describes the most agonising scenes the poor sickly wife, with child in arms, sings her first song in the streets, without courage to ask for aid, though the streaming tears betray her want, the sickly children, not able to bear the coarse fare allowed them, are sinking fast into the grave, whera actual suffering is visible in the countenance, it yet retains a manly bearing, and a look which seems to say We never give up; men that used to live in luxury are now satisfied with only a sufficiency of bread. The country gene- rally must sympathise with them, but kind words will not fill empty stomachs, or cover naked bodies. We remember an old anecdote of a good-natured gentleman, who got into difficulties through kindness to others. Well, all his friends were sorry for him, but words cost them nothing, and the gentleman remained in durance vile," till a number of lr's old companions met upon some festive occasion, and all exclaimed how sorry they were for Mr. B A gentleman now entered the room, who asked if they had spoken sincerely. They were indignant at .the question, when he answered, "My sorrow goes to the extent of £ 10, all I can afford T. I and now, gentlemen, I will test your sorrow." The friends could not refuse their aid, and Mr. B—- was liberated. Now, as regards the poor Lancashire opera- tives, we did expect that the manufacturer, who has for many years reaped the benefit of their labour, would have come forward, "heart, pocket, and hands," to assist them in their need. The initiative was, however, taken by others, and a cry of pity has gone from one end of England to the other—ah and even to our antipodes many have responded nobly, but there is still great need of help and we may still ask our friends, How great is your sorrow ? We have admired the system adopted by a very popular journal to enable every one to contribute a trifle. Cassell's Illustrated Family Paper called the attention of the public to this subject a fortnight ago, and issued with their publication a bill that may be filled up by penny subscriptions we are glad to hear the appeal has been well responded to, a very considerable sum having been already received- The Lord Mayor of London, with an equally liberal spirit, has invited all who can contribute wearing apparel to forward it to the Mansion House, and he will see that it is properly distributed. Our facetious friend, Mr. Punch, does not often give us anything that would" point a moral or adorn a tale," but last week he exhibits to our view a Spanish bull- fight, depicting the poor bull pierced with many wounds, and horses that the bull had gored in a most deplorable condition, and he dedicates it, "with every feeling of disgust, to the nobility, gentry, and clergy, especially of Spain and France." The cartoon might be slightly exaggerated, but we all know such things exist, and we hold up our hands in horror that it should be so. Yet our own feelings on many occasions are not a whit more humane. It is true bull-fighting is not permitted, but horse-racing is, and this we must make as exciting as possible to be attractive. Steeple chases over a danger- us country, where life and limb are in danger, will bring together thousands, whereas, if it were over a country not difficult to ride there would be no charm to the morbid taste of the multitude. Who can read of the late steeple-chase at Limerick without a shudder ? Sporting journals relate, with extreme minuteness, the beautiful start, the high spirits of the lookers-on. and the excitement experienced when, first, Capt. M'Creight got a tremendous fall, which incapacitated him from riding the remainder of the day. Next, Glendinane got a dreadful fall; the rider, Mr. Russell, fell also, and re- ceived serious injuries, such as are believed to be danger- ous Glendinane's back was broken. Then Bendemere fell, rolling over the rider, Mr. Falkner, who sustained a spinal injury to some extent, and was conveyed to the weighing-room in an exhausted state. Palermo fell, and the rider, Mr. Long, received injuries in the leg of a severe nature. Next, Merrimac fell and received mortal injuries, Romaika also fell, Anonyma fell'and the rider, Mr. Thompson, was rescued from a perilous position. In the end Kate Fisher won amidst great applause. But Kate Fisher's triumph was of short duration, for being entered for a steeple-chase run on the following day, another chapter of accidents ensued, and she amongst the rest got a tremendous fall and broke her back. These are only a few of the incidents connected with the Limerick races-the course being made as difficult as possible, and the danger as great; a vast concourse of people assembled and were highly delighted with their entertainment. Indeed, whether it be the flying Frenchman, or Blondin on the high rope, or a dangerous steeple-chase, whenever there is the greatest probability of a sensation scene, there will be collected the greatest crowdss What is the principle on which our laws against the cruelty to animals are a iministered? If individuals risk their own neuka hy riding steeDle- chases with impossible fences, it does not appear right to destroy fine and valuable horses, exposing them to a cruelty greater than the law should permit. It would be well indeed if a little more common sense and common humanity ruled our actions. There is little to be said about the political world, except that Mr. Laing, in addressing the Glasgow Chamber of Commerce on Indian affairs, made a de- termined attack upon Sir Charles Wood, whom he declared to be incapable of filling his present position, and that he had already done much to cripple the wholesome government of the country. Lord Stanley was invited to take the chair at a meeting of the Stockport Mechanics' Institution, but as this was neither time nor plode to bring forward politics, he altogether avoided them, and talked a great deal of nonsense. He said, to "popularise" science, was a feat intrinsically impossible, though there had been mistaken efforts made to create a popular love for science; this could never be, but it might be popular in its results. He then went on to encourage the Stockport men for the slow growth of their educational zeal, by the false doctrine that all slow growth is surer and safer than fast growth, on the old analogy of the tree which grows rapidly being the first to decay. What twaddle is this ? Is the vice or crime which grows most rapidly in a nation the first to decay ? A slow-learning boy may be a sure learner, but a slow-learning population implies a large number of men who do not learn at all. It might do very well for Lord Stanley to speak thus to gratify his hearers, but his sentiments will not bear cool reflection.
The First Fog. The appearance of the interior of the Exhibition build- ing on Saturday was one of great loneliness, and the statuary had quite a spectral air in consequence of the fog which at one period filled the vast expanse. The effect was very singular-somewhat like what we re- member to have seen under the great dome of St. Paul's Cathedral at the funeral of Turner, the artist, when it was said that the elements themselves had contributed a fitting pall for the coffin of the illustrious deceased. The fog of Saturday was also premonitory and suggestive, as we are very likely to have denser ones later in the season, when the utmost vigilance; and perhaps some extra precautions, will b3 necessary to prevent a few of the valuable and more portable contents disappearing altogether during the prevalence of the murky atmos- phere. His Royal Highness Prince Alfred honoured the Exhi- bition with a visit. His royal highness was received by Mr. Sandford, secretary to the Royal Commission, and by that gentleman escorted over several of the depart- ments. A good deal of time was spent in the Porcelain Court, after which his royal highness partook of luncheon in the refreshment department. Cardinal Wiseman and Lord Clyde were also amongst the visitors, the former, as usual, devoting his principal attention to the Roman Court.
The Cape of Good Hope and the Sea-Serpent. Amongst the matters, small in bulk but not in interest' which the comparative emptiness of the building on Saturdays brings to light, may be mentioned two cases occupying a corner in the Colonial Court, and which are devoted to the products of the Cape of Good Hope. It will be remembered that the Cape colonists, although profiting, perhaps, more largely han any of our foreign possessions by their connection with the mother country, magnanimously refused to vote a shillin g to the sending over contributions or commissioners to the Great Exhibition. A private individual, Mr. Ghislin, of Hatton-garden, has endeavoured, to some extent, to make up for this want of colonial liberality. Mr. Ghislin's contributions are all contained in two small cases, but they are not without in. terest, the more especially as one of them professes to v solve the mystery, so long a piece de resistance with the American newspapers, of the great sea serpent. Mr. Ghislin asserts that the monster, which has frightened mariners both young and ancient, is nothing but a species of sea-weed, which when forced to the surface in oceanic commotions floats about in masses sometimes a thousand feet long, and to a nautical imagination presents the ap- pearance of the sea monster, which from the days of Bishop Pont-Oppidan dewn to the present has been the subject of so many marvellous descriptions. Mr. Ghislin, nothing daunted by the traditions, has boldly seized the leviathan, brought him to land, and, having squeezed him into a substance called "laminae," has turned him into excellent handles for knives and razors, and put him to various other purposes to which gutta-percha, india- rubber, and, more commonly, German staghorn, have been hitherto employed. As the supply is inexhaustible, this laminite may turn out to be a very valuable contribution to the material of industrial art. There is also in this case a collection of fibres, for some of which a prize medal has been given, and others which are pronounced to be very useful in brush and paper making. There is also an immense variety of Cape wines ex- hibited, some of very rare quality, and the graceful manner in which one department is festconed with vines is deservedly admired.
Railway Indicator. All those railway ttravellers who have in vain en- deavoured to master the mysteries of Bradshaw," or to acquire a familiarity with the railway language, will thank Mr. Leigh, of Golden-terrace, Dalston, for an ingenious Indicator," which he exhibits in Class 5 in the western annex. Mr. Leigh's indicator being hung up in a railway carriage is so contrived as to disclose the name of each station a few moments before the latter is reached, and thus to enable the passengers to ascertain the rate at which they are approaching, whit every railway passenger anxiously desires-namely, the end of his journey. Mr. Leigh, having been overlooli ed by the jurors, has good-humouredly given a medal to himself, of which the spectator will see the joke when he has inspected and satisfied himself as to the usefulness of the invention. The number of visitors have diminished during the week, and the returns have not been equal to those ad- mitted in 1851. The total numbers admitted to the building from the 1st of May to the 27th of September inclusive (22 weeks -129 exhibition days), compared with 1851, are as follows, viz. 1862. By season tickets up to last week 810,373 „ during last week 26,377 836,750 By payment up to last week. 3,878,471 „ during last week 188,194 ————— 4,066,665 Total 4,903,415 1851. By season tickets up to last week 689,441 „ during last week 20,815 710,256 By payment up to last week 4,232,152 7 during last week. 254,562 ———— 4,4E6,714 Total 5,196,970
ITALY The distribution of the prizes to the students at the Technical Schools ,at Turin took place on the 26th inst. Prince Napoleon, Prince de Savoie Carignan, Prince Humbert, and the Princesses Clotilda and Maria Pia, with the diplomatic body, were present. The Marquis Pepoli delivered an eloquent speech to the students and the audience. He said :—" The unity of the country now achieved also requires unity in study. It responds to the convictions of all. They are deceived who imagine that municipal spirit or special interests can destroy or endanger that unity which is now the glory and the hope of every Italian citizen." The marquis pronounced a warm panegyric upon Prince Napoleon, who, he said, had defended in the French Senate the unity of Italy, which he loved like his own country. The speaker concluded. by praising the attitude of Turin, which fervently desired to lay down its position as the capital of the kingdom upon the altar of the country, for the sake of fulfilling the national wish (great applause). Both Prince Napoleon and the marquis were heartily cheered bv the assembly. The nuurillge or me rrincess Marie Pia with the King of Portugal by proxy was celebrated in the Royal Chapel at Turin on Saturday. The King of Portugal was re- presented by the Prince de Savoie-Carignan. The nuptial ceremony was performed by the Arch- bishop of Genoa, and the Bishops of Oinerolo, Biella, Cremona, and Alete. The King of Italy, the royal family, Prince Napoleon, and the Princesses Clotilda and Mathilde, were present. A grand fete was given at court in the evening. The streets are thronged by crowds. Rumours of ministerial modifications continue to be current. The Movimento publishes a communication from Garibaldi denying that he had received a letter from an emissary of Mazzini, and contradicting the statement made by the Patrie, that Professor Partridge, the English 'surgeon, had brought the wounded General 12o,060f. The Queen of Portugal left Turin on Sunday with great pomp.
THE MONITEUR ON THE ROMAN QUESTION. The Moniteur of Sept. 25, contains the following. The Roman question having become the subject, of a polemic, it is opportune to make known what efforts have been made by the Emperor to bring about a recon- ciliation between the Holy See and Italy. On the 20th May, 1862, the Emperor addressed a letter to M. Thouvenel, maintaining the necessity for a policy of conciliation, and proposing a combination on the following bases: The Pope will lower the barriers which separate the Pontifical territory from Italy, and Italy will give the necessary guarantee for the independence of the Pope.' A double end (continues the Emperor's letter) will be attained by a combination maintaining the Pope as master in bis own domain, and lowering the barriers which at present separate the states of the church from the rest of Italy. In order that the Pope may be master, he should be independent, and his sway should be freely accepted by his subjects. We must hope that it will be thus when • Italy engages with France to recognise the privileges of the states of the church, and when the Pope, returning to ancient traditions, shall recognise the privileges of the municipalities and provinces, so that they may govern themselves. On the 30th May M. Thouvenel addressed a note to the Marquis de Lavalette, which says:—'The words of the Emperor have never held out a hope to the cabinet of Turin that Rome could become the capital of the kingdom of Italy with the consent of France. All the declarations of France announce a firm determination to maintain the Pope in the possession of his present territory. The only possible arrangement would be the maintenance of the territorial statu quo. Italy would have to renounce her pretensions to Rome, and engage with France to respect the papal territory, and assume the greater portion, if not the whole, of the Roman debt. You will communicate to Cardinal Antonelli the project of conciliation, in which there is nothing of a comminatory character. At the same time you will give him to understand that if the theory of immobility continues to be put forward, the Emperor's government, although as much as posible protecting the interests of the Holy See, would be com- pelled to quit a situation, the prolongation of which be- yond a certain time would falsify its policy, and throw the public mind into the greatest disorder.' The reply, dated Juno 24, of the Marquis de Lava- lette to the note of M. Thouvenel states that he had communicated the project of conciliation to Cardinal Antonelli, with whom he discussed it in four successive interviews. He found the cardinal opposed to all idea of a transaction, and his eminence at length stated that the project could not be received.
THE HEALTH OF GARIBALDI. Mr. P. A. Taylor, M.P., in a private letter to the Garibaldi Committee, says Spezzia, Sept. 20, 1862. We have been to take leave of the general, and return to-morrow to Genoa. He seems in a satisfactory con- dition. There are no unfavourable symptoms. He sleeps well, which is a great thing. He does not eat a great deal, but he seemed always to have been a small eater. I thought him looking better. He had been told was with me, and w went together to bid him good-bye. He said to me, Je sxds bein-bein reconnaissant, and bade me say 06 for him to his English friends. Mr. Par- tridge leaves with us to morrow. We all feel greatly relieved at sight of his present condition. There are plenty of people coming or writing to offer him help of every kind-all of which is pleasant to see. One lady comes from Naples; several from Milan, &c.: others write from England, saying, How shall we send our presents?" and so forth. Both of his sons are with him—Menotti, of course, a prisoner bis wound was quite slight.
AMERICA. NEW YORK, SEPT. 16. An engagement occurred on the 14th inst., at Mum- fordsville, Kentucky, in which the Confederates were repulsed with heavy loss. Nashville is being fortified against an expected attack of the Confederate General Bragg. A portion of the Federal army has left Nashville to get in the rear of the Confederates in Kentucky. The Confederates in superior force attacked the Federals on the 10th instant, between Fayette and Gauley, in WesternVirginia. Jh.0 Federals have retreated to Elk River, below Charleston, Virginia. They had previouslv shelled that place, destroying all the salt works, and continued their retreat to Ripley, Virginia. The Provost Marshal of St. Louis has received instruc- tions immediately to carry out the Confiscation Act in Missouri. The property liable to confiscation is esti- mated at fifty million dollars. The Richmond Whig says that the expenses of the Confederate Government since the commencement of the war to August of this year amount to 347,000;000 dol's. The Confederate Congress has adopted a resolution to make a proposition to the Federal Government to treat upon the manner of conducting the war so as to mitigate its horrors. A bill has been introduced in the Confederate Congress to facilitate obtaining letters of marque, so as to render privateering more efficient. A resolution was passed recalling Messrs. Mason and Slidell. NEW YORK, SEPT. 18. After the engagement reported by M'Clellan on the 14th inst., the Confederates retreated during the night in the direction of Sharpsburg. No official despatches have since been published. The newspapers' correspondents report that the Federals pursued the Confederates on the 15th, on which day a battle occurred near Sharpsburg, between General M'Clellan and the Confederates under General Lee. The battle was renewed on the 17th, when General Lee was reinforced by General Stonewall Jackson, who had recrossed the Potomac into Maryland. General M'Clellan has also received reinforcements. The Philadelphia press describes the battle of the 16th as very severe, and states that the Confederates were flanked by Generale Hooker and Porter, and severely punished. The battle was renewed on the 17th by the Confede rates with great vigour, lasting till 4 o'clock in the afternoon, when the Confederates retreated, leaving the Confederate General Longstreet and part of his division prisoners. The same authority states that six Confederate batte- ries and 15,000 prisoners were captured since Sunday, The latest news received states that the result of the battle of the 17th was decidedly in favour of the Federals, but another battle was necessary to determine definitely who shall finally be the victor. The carnage is reported to be very freat. The Federal Colonel Miles, with 6,000, surrendered at Harper's Ferry to General Jackson, on the 14th. The Federals were parolkd. It is reported that the Confede- rates have since evacuated Harper's Ferry, and that it is now occupied by Burnside. The Federal gunboat Essex bombarded Nantez, Missis- sippi, during two hours and a half..Ths city surrendered, but was not occupied by the Federals. The Essex has burned Bayon Sara, Mississippi, leaving two houses standing. NEW YORK, SEPT. 18. The battle at Harper's Ferry commenced on th° 12th by a Confederate attack on the Federals stationed on Maryland Heights. The Federals sent reinforcements from Harper's Ferry to Maryland Heights, and the engagement continued during the 12th and 13th. The Federals evacuated Maryland Heights oa the 13th, and crossed on a pontoon bridge to Harper's Ferry, previously spiking the guns on Maryland Heights. On the 14th the Confederates assembled on London Heights and opened their battelies from that point, and also from Maryland Heights. Skirmishing nnntin 4tti. ±JuiID £ the night of the i £ tli the Confederates planted additional batteries on London Heights, and another battery on the opposite side of the Potomac to the right of the Federal position, thus enfiladiing,the whole of the Federal intrench- ments. The Confederates opened fire from these batteries on the morning of the 15th, when a Federal council of war was held, and a white flag displayed. During the hoisting the white flag a shell struck. Colonel Miles, who commanded at Harper's Ferry, wounding him mortally. The Federals surrendered to General Jackson on the following terms:—" Officers and men to have ready parole. Officers to retain their side-arms and private property. All United States property to be turned over to the Confederates." The Confederates paroled about 8,000 prisoners, and the Neio York Tribun. correspondent says they captured 10,000 stand of arms, 40 cannon, and cartridges and stores. 1,500 Federal cavalry succeeded in escaping previously from Harper's Ferry and captured en route Confederate General Long- street's baggage train. Rumours from various sources state that the Confederates immediately evacuated Harper's Feriy, and that the Federal General Burnside has since occupied it. The Federal General Morgan, who is surrounded at Cumberland Gap, writes that his troops are in good health and apirits, and that his condition is in every respect better than that of the enemy who surround him It is stated that the reported investment of Charleston by the Federal gunboats has received some confirmation in a letter received from the Federal squadron, stating that Fort Sumter had been fired upon with shot and shell, resulting in serious damage. The Governor of Pennsylvania states that 72,000 have responded to his call for the defence of the State, and he expects the number will be increased to 100,000. Drafting is to commence in the State of New York on the 1st of October.' An explosion occurred on the 17th inst., at No. 8 Arsenal at Pitsburg. One hundred and seventy boys and girls were employed eighty were killed by the ex- plosion. Severe Fighting. Retreat of the Confederates. NEW YORK, SEPT. 22. THE Confederates have retired from the bank of the Potomac opposite M'Clellan, and have retreated in the direction of Winchester. The Federals are crossing the Potomac at Shepherds- town and William's Point. The reported occupation of Harper's Ferry by General Burnside was incorrect. The Confederates evacuated Harper's Ferry on Friday last, after-destroying all the government stores and the pontoon bridge, and partly destroying the bridge of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. The Federals now occupy Harrer's Ferry and Maryland Heights. NEW YORK, SEPT. 20. Later accounts from General M'Clellan's headquarters state that Tuesday last was chiefly passed in deploying the forces and gaining positions; but on Wednesday a severe battle was fought, lasting from dawn till dusk- The result of the battle was indecisive, but the superiority of position remained with the Federals; thdr loss is esti- mated at from 6,000 to 10,000 men. Federal General Mansfield was killed, and Generals Hooker, Dureza, Sumner, Meagher, Max, Weber, Dana, Hartsuff, Richard" son, Sedgwick, French, Ricketts, and Rodman were wounded. The loss of Federal generals and field omcerf is said to be so large as to be unaccountable. Little beyond skirmishing occurred on Thursday- General M'Clellan officially reports on Friday morning that the enemy abandoned his position on Thursday night, leaving dead and wounded^ on the field; and says:—" I do not know if the enemy is falling back to afl interior position, or crossing the river. We may safely claim the victory for ours." In a later dispatch he reports that General PleasantoO is driving the enemy across the rivor, and says :— Our victory was complete. The enemy is driven back into Virginia. Maryland and Pennsylvania are now safe." The Confederates all succeeded in crossing the Potomac on Friday morning, saving their transports and all their wounded, except 300. The Confederates are still visible in force on tM Potomac shore, opposite M'Clellan's position, and have posted artillery to prevent the Federals from crossing- The Federals estimate the Confederate loss at 18,00u to 20,000 men.
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