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THE FRENCH DEFEAT NEAR HANOI.

PROPOSED BRITISH SCHOOL AT…

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IRISH LACE EXHIBITION IN LONDON.

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EARL SPENCER AT LIMERICK.

THE GROWTH OF MORMONISM.

-THE FISHERIES CONGRESS.]

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THE FISHERIES CONGRESS. a Monday at the Conference held at the Inter- 0 Y^onal Fisheries Exhibition, a paper was read by m'ofesøor G. Browne Goode, M.A., Assistant Director the United States National Museum and Gommis- T,ioner to the present Exhibition. Hia Excellency the American Minister presided, and | in opening the proceedings spoke of the high reputa- tion of the learned Professor, to whom, he said, was largely due the success of the American section of the Exhibition. The learned Professor began with an interesting account of the growth of the fishing industries of the United States. The first American colony planted at Jamestown in 1609 owed its permanence chiefly to the abundance of fish and oysters in the adjacent rivers. Little substantial progress was made, how- ever, until after the war of the rebelliorf. Since I860, and especially within the past decade, the fisheries, as the Professor showed, have increased in extent and value te a degree without* parallel in their pre- vious history. The present position of the industries is remarkable. Great freezing houses have been built on the Great Lakes, on the Pacific coast, and in the cities of the East, and refrigerator cars are running upon all the trunk lines of railway. Columbia salmon, late whitefish, cod, bass, Spanish mackerel, and other choice fishes are frozen stiff and packed up in heaps like cordwood, and can be had at any season of the year. Refrigerator cars carry unfrozen fish from sea and lake inland. Smelts and trout, packed in snow in the north, are received in New York by the car-load daily throughout the winter. Halibut are brought from the distant oceanic banks ia refrigerators built in the holds of the vessels, and 12,000,000 to 14,000,000 pounds are distributed, packed in ice, to the cities of the interior. Tinned fish, especially salmon, lobsters, and sardines, and mackerel, are extensively consumed, and value to at least 3,000,000 dols. is annually exported. In 1880, 2,153,000 salmon were received by the establishments of the Pacific slope, and were packed in 31,453,000 one- pound cans, worth at the factories 3.255,000 dols. Sardines to the value of 825,000 dols. were packed in Maine, these being simply young herrings, mostly in cotton-seed oil of domestic manufacture. 4,178,000 pound cans of lobsters were also packed in the fac- tories owned by Maine and Massachusetts. The ingenious devices for sea, river, and lake fishing aa exhibited in the American Court, were described, showing that a remarkable degree of perfection has been attained in every branch of the industry, espe- cially in the propagation and acclimatisation of useful fishes. In the last-mentioned undertaking, the fish cultuTists have been assisted by grants of public money. Professor Goode estimates the different fishes of the United States waters at 1,400; of these 300 have a recognised economic value. He divides the 47 recognised fishing industries of his country into four divisions-L Ocean fisheries, con- ducted by sea-going vessels; 2. Coast fisheries, conducted ehiefly from small boats; 3. River and lake fisheries, which produce shad, alewife, salmon, whitefish, smelt, and sturgeon; 4. Strand fisheries and shore industries, including seal, turtle, terrapin, clam, quabog, abalone, moaa, salt, and sea- weed trades. The whale fishery haa decreased in value of late years owing to the introduction of mineral oils and over-fishine. The aims. methods, and achievements of the United States Fish Commission were explained towards the clpse of the paper, which was supplemented by an explanation by Mr. Earle of a series of diagrams of the excellent hatching and re- frigerating apparatus in use in America. The Marquis of Exeter moved a vote of thanks to the Professor for his paper, taking the opportunity of thanking the Government of the United States for the aid they bad given him in information and in ova, in successfully carrying oat his own small experiments in pisciculture. Professor Huxley; who seconded the resolution, held by the Government of the United States as an example of what must be done in pisoiculture if it was to be of any value. His Excellency the American Minister, in replying to a vote of thanks for presiding, said, without any national vanity, which was far from his feeling, he might say that it was the wise and generous appropriation of £7,000 by the American Congress which had greatly encouraged the Fisheries Exhibition at its outset (hear, hear), and he had been greatly gratified by hearing from the very highest authority that the American section of the Exhibition was distinguished for its scientific arrangements, and therefore for its prac- tical utility to the lessons which might be learned from it. He had been struck by several points in Professor Goode's discourse. The figures (as to ova) were of such a nature that the mind lost itself as in the vast distances of astronomy; but it was gratifying to hear that the protection of fish in the United States was now due rather to individual effort, if he might so denominate societies of anglers and fishermen, than to the protection of the State. That was rather a curious and interesting illustration of one of the refeults of the progress of Democracy, of which many people stood so much in terror. It recalled to him the fact that the riots in Pittsburg ten years ago had not been put down by the militia, aa was supposed-on the con- trary, the rioters put down the militia — but by public opinion. On the strike of the working men beginning they had public opinion with them, people thinking the reduction unwise and uncalled for but the moment they proceeded to violence public opinion went round to the other side, and the workmen were left, as it were, in a vacuum in which they could not breathe. The difficulty of protecting anything in a country so wide as the United States he illustrated by the case of the repudiation of aa attempt on the part of the State of Maine to protect the moose by a trapper who went 180 miles into the depths of the forest, beyond any habitation, where, of course no moose warden could follow him but public opinion, he believed, would be able to protect even the moose in Maine. That sort of independence of the American was typified even in the American oyster. (Laughter.) The young of the European oyster remained within its shell for a certain appre- ciable period, but the young of the American oystet, far more adventurou", were turned loose into the wide world of the ocean to look out and provide for them- selves. (Laughter.) Professor Goode had spoken of the importance of the New England fisheries in early times, and it would be difficult to exaggerate that importance. The fisheries had been what the mines of California had afterwards become; and per- bars it would turn out that the fisheries would be more durable than the mines. They certainly, in one point, had been of very great importance, the point to which Edmund Burke had alluded in his speech to the electors of Bristol when he spoke of "those hardy fishermen who had whitened every ocean with their sails." Their great value, as estimated not only in New England but throughout the United States, was as nurseries for seamen. (Cheers.) One of the things which bad impressed him in that exhibition more agreeably than almost any other was the hint which it gave them of callings which summoned forth all those many qualities of endurance, self-reliance, and self- sacrifice in peaceful occupations which they had been too uaually led to think found only scope in war. (Cheers.) It was very agreeable to think that on their side of the water, the men who carried on these fisheries had always been encouraged, and encouraged, sometimes, be believed, by special bounties. So im- port,ant had they always been considered that in the State House of Massachusetts, over the Speaker's chair, a model of a cod fish hangs, as an emblem of what at one time was the most important industry of the State.

HARVEST PROSPECTS,

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REDUCTION OF RAILWAY RATES.

THE PLAGUE OF LOCUSTS IN RUSSIA.

A BODY FOUND IN A BOX.

¡.' SIR THOMAS BRASSEY ON…

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THE WAR IN THE SOUDAN.I

THE FISHMONGERS' COMPANY.

THE RESOURCES OF MADAGASCAR.

THE REVENUE.

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- WOMAN'S POSITION IN AMERICA.

DOGS IN TRAMCARS.

EVENING OPENING OF MUSEUMS*

DEATH OF SIR WILLIAM KNOLLYS.

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THE ROYAL CALEDONIAN BALL.

COMPARATIVE THIRST IN FRENCH…

MILITARY AFFRAY IN IRELAND.

OVERHEAD WIRES in the METROPOLIS.

—*^ CANADIAN ITEMS.

THE IRISH. LAND ACT.

POSTAL SAVINGS BANKS IN FRANCE.

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