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FISH CULTURE IN A MANUFAC.…

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FISH CULTURE IN A MANUFAC. TURING TOWN. On the above subjeot, The Timet haa published the following letter :— H Sir,-A manufacturing town does not seem the best place for the cultivation of fish, but in the northern districts we are apt to develop industries in an unex- pected way, and that this has been the case in Hud- dersfield may be shown possibly in a manner that will be interesting to some of vour readers. Huddersfield ia a pleasant town. It does not quite come up to the ideal of Edwin Waugh, the Lancashire poet, who desired to Loufge i' th' market-place And see the meadows mown.' but from any of the main streets of the town—clean and nfat, and built of a coolish graystone—green hilla can be seen, gome bordering on the distant moprland, and most of them plentifully sprinkled with the dwellings of persons engaged in the woollen industry, and further ornamented here and there with large factories, though edifices of that kind are generally to be found in the valley a where the water supply is abundant. "A good supply of water, ard of good water, is an essential in the woollen industry, so largely developed in Huddersfield, and a good supply of good water is also an essential in another industry, lately introduced into Huddersfield, aud flourishing at present near the Old Cloth-hall, in the heari of the town—the culture of fish. The good supply of water has been procured by the energetic and intelligent action of the Hudders- field Corporation, and tho unexpected use to which a portion of the water has been put is due to the equally energetic and intelligent action of one of the members of that Corporation, Mr. Bryam Littlewood, whose place for pisciculture was recently visited by the writer. "Three rooms in Litllewood\i Buildings are devoted to pisciculture. Each room is about 30ft. long, and they are ranged, in three stories. In the uppermost story there is a raiiee of reddish earthenware tanks, strongly made, each about 32in. long, 9in. wide, and 4in. deep, inside measure, and having a broad lip on one side near tha end, Tncse tanks are arranged in lots like a flight of etaire, and into the top tank of each flight there pours a stream of water, supplied from the corporation's mains. Taps regulate the flow from the pipes and control the quantity of water tha.t runs into the top tank. Thence in a steady stream, gurgling and murmuring as it passes down the broad lips of the tanks--oxygenized by eacb fall and by a special device placed in the Lp of each tank, most effective, but very simple-the water passes from tank to tank, flowing gently and steadily ever the ova. (or the fish) placed therein, until the bottom tank is reached, having in its course travelled first to right and then to left in each pair of tanks aa it makes its way downwards. From the first of tanks the water is conveyed to a second, then to a third set, and then into the drain. By a simple but effected siphon arrangement, any tank can be cleaned out, without any interference with tha flow of water through the other tanki. The evil. cf salmonides, when placed in these tanks, .greatly resemble a mass of carnelian beads. The eggs of the fish lie in the tanks like peas in a box, some times two, three, or four deep. When they have been in the water a few days, the eyes of the future fish can be seen as two dark specks. Later on the em- bryo fish can be seen through the thin shell, curled round so that its tail comes in front of its head, And in the central part of the egg there is visible what is commonly called the umbilical sac, a portion of the egg which is not fully absorbed when the young fiih oomes forth into tha water, but which afterwards becomes gradually incorporated. When placed under the microscope at lhi3 etage, the eyas of the embryo appear enormous, and project greatly from the bead. The heart can be seen moving regularly and sending at each pulsation rush of blood through the body, which is snugly curled up around the central sac. The markings on the skia, the arteries, and vein3 can be ftixtinctiy made out, the hurried rush of the red cor- puscles of the blood witnessed, and the globules of various sizes, probable globules of fat, seen in the sac. A microscopical examination of the ova at this stage is exceedingly interesting. But it is more interesting still to watch the fish hatching out. Standing by one of the tanks the writer watched the hatching of hundreds of Winder- mere char. About 4,000 eggs had been in the tank for about 80 days, and the young fish were coming forth every minute. Some of them burst the shell and swam forth clear of it at once, others dragged the shell after them for ft time, it being caught on their tail or being held by the umbilical sac, or in seme in. stances cowling the head. Few of the fish remained still after coming forth from the egg. Generally they went off with a rush, as if rejoicing in liberty, and then instinctively darted about to find a place of concealment but ft few took matters easily, and, having shaken -off the eggshell, rented from their labours. The thefl, after the fish had vacated it, looked like a thin film, more or less globular as ii; was more or less torn-a thin gray film remotely reseuiblijig the outer coating of a pea. One little fellow that had got his shell fixed to hia h-ad rushed about the tank frantically. Mr, Littlewood took up a glass tube, stopped one end with hia thumb, put the other near the little fish which, on his thumb being removed was instantly drawn into the tube. Then the tube, having bsen stopped at eaoh end, was placed in various positions, and the flow of water-ra. sembling the actitvi of the water in a stream-soon removed the encumbrance. Then the little fish was replaced in the tank, where similar small fish lay in hun- dreds among and underneath the eggs. The action of the now of water and the movement of the fishes formed these eggs into clusters and heaps. Suddenly one of a heap of eggs would split, and out would come a little char that instantly swain about to try the strength of its fins. This process w%a repeated over and over again. One of the little fellows was subjected to examination under a microscope, and ft splendid view was obtained of the circulation of the blood, traced bit by bit from the heart to the tail. The ingenious apparatus by which this was effected need not be described. To show the small chance of living that young fish have if hatched where larger fish come, or if turned into a brook among larger fish, some half a dozen were dropped into a tankj where larger char (five to six inches long) were swimming; in less than a minute they were all swallowed. "Seeing the difficulties which lie in the way of the natural production of fish, and the importance of augmenting the supply of food for our ever-increasing population, we ought to hail with pleasure extensions •f tha art and science of pisciculture, buch as those made by Mr. Littlewood, who has within the last few years gratuitously sent scores and scores of thousands of trout, char, and grayling to suitable places in Yorkshire, Lancashire, Cheshire, Derbyshire, and the Thames valley. The recent Fisheries Exhibition at Edinburgh will no doubt have tended to the farther development of fish culture. Let us hope that the exhibition to be held next year in London may in that respect prove eminently successful.— yours, &o., "T S. YATES. 31, Spring.grave.street., Huddersfield."

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