MEMORIAL TO THOMAS CLARKSON. A memorial has fort been erected to Thomas Clarkson, one of the earliest advocates of negro emancipation, and a coadjutor of Wllberforce In the great work of the abolition of slavery In the West Indian dependencies of Great Britain. Mr. Clarkson was born at Wlsbeach In the year 1760, and, after a life devoted to the cause of emancipation, died at Playford Hall, Sussex, In 1846.-The Times of Friday (10th Inst.) gives the following interesting account of the cere. mony of unveiling the memorial, which took place on Thursday In last week :— Between two and three miles from Ware an obelisk has been erected by Mr. Arthur Giles Puller, of Youngsbury, to mark the spot on which Clarkson first resolved to devote himself to the abolition of the slave trade. The ceremony of unveiling was performed last week by Miss Merivale, daughter of the Dean of Ely; and Dean Merivale, who forty-five years ago stood on the spot with Clarkson himself and heard all the circumstances from his lips, told the story in a very simple and unaffected manner. About half-past twelve o'clock a small company assembled around the memorial, among whom were Mr. Arthur Giles Puller, to whose liberality and public spirit the obelisk is due, the Baron and Baroness Dimsdale, the Rev, Canon Giffard. Rev. EL H. Coddington, Rev. G. Hill, Rev. H. Wetherall, Rev. R. Higgens, Professor Bonamy Price, and Dr. Gwyn Jeffreys. Mr. Puller said that the monument waiting to be unveiled had been erected to perpetuate the memory of an hour, he had almost said a moment, of crisis in the life of one who nearly 100 years ago, while still in the bloom of youth, rode as a simple wayfarer along the King's highway from the University of Cambridge to the metropolis. The history of Thomas Clarkson, or such of it as it concerned those present to know, would be narrated with riper eloquence than his by one who stood by Clarkson's side on that very 'spot some 45 years ago. The purpose and object of Thomas Clarkson's life, as well as of the resolution which he formed upon that spot, was, in sickness or health, in prosperity or adversity, through evil report or good report, to devote every faculty and every power which he possessed to bring about the abolition of the slave trade. Mr. Puller then introduced Dean Merivale as the historian of the Roman Empire. Dean Merivale said,—Ladies and Gentlemen,—Your friend and neighbour has introduced me to you under the very complimentary title of historian." I accept the title so far only as to give you a very simple narrative, without any attempt at eloquence, much less poetry. It was in the year 1785, ninety-four years ago, that Clarkson, then quite a young man, had taken his degree at Cambridge, and had competed in an essay for a prize. The subject of the essay was put forward by the Vice-Chancellor in a very tentative manner, showing how little impression and interest had then been created on this great question. The thesis was, "Is it lawful to enslave people against their will ?" It was, as it were, an open question. Clarkson, either pleased with the subject, though he had not at- tended to it before, or anxious to distinguish himself, wrote his essay and gained the prize. He recited the essay at what is called in the University the Com- mencement," which is the end of one academical year and the beginning of the next, and is always held at the end of June or the beginning of July. I tried to ascertain the exact day, but could not ascertain it, for, though there are records, that record has been lost. Himself mentioned the month of June, and therefore we accept the month, though we do not know the actual day. The day is interesting because, after de- livering his recitation, he took horse to ride to London. He tells us afterwards, in the history he wrote at the conclusion of the great campaign on the slave trade, how as he went along on his solitary ride he was thinking over and over again of what he had been saying that day or the day before, and, brooding over it, he felt very much depressed at the shocking things he had to relate. And he tells us that when he came within sight of Wadesmill he felt so much distressed and affected that he would not go into the village in the condition he was in. So he got off his horse, held it by the bridle, and thought again and again on the subject of his essay. At last he said to himself, "If this be so, it must be put down and he rose with his heart lightened, and went on to the Feathers Inn. He then proceeded to London, read Bach books on the subject as he could find, in the course of a few months associated himself with such men as Granville Sharpe and Bennet Langton, and in a short time determined to devote himself entirely to the abolition of the slave trade. He was a man of small means, but he determined to give up every idea of a profession, and to devote himself wholly to that great cause. For years he did so, and in 1867, 22 years afterwards, the abolition of the slave trade was carried by Act of Parliament, and the work he had contemplated was effected. (Hear, hear). And a very great work it was to forbid slaves being carried from Africa into Jamaica and the colonies. Slavery was not abolished at that time. There were two great stages-one the abolition of the slave trade, and the second the emancipation of the slave. That did not follow until 26 years afterwards. It was in 1833 that the class of men selected by Clarkson succeeded in effecting the complete abolition of slavery in the colonies. This event was felt very strongly, and particularly by the persons associated in the work, which began here with Clarkson sitting down on that spot and resolving to make the aboli. tion of the slave trade the object of his life. And now, ladies and gentlemen, if you are in the habit of reading history critically you will ask, "What is the evidence on which we know that Clarkson sat I down here?" Well, just aiter the Bill was carried, or at the moment the Bid was on the point of being carried, Basil Montague, a man well known in the literary world, and interested in Clarkson's work, came one morning to my father's house and said, "We are going to take a step to perpetuate the memory of Clarkson's great deed, and to commemorate the commencement of the abolition. Clarkson is going with me down to Wadesmill, where, as you might have read in his book, he first conceived the idea. We have reason to believe that the friends of the cauie will one day erect a monment on the spot in order that there should be a local habitation as well as a name to this event in history. And we want to take with us some younger man, who may, perchance, survive us and live to point out the spot, and interest some generous spirits in giving effect to the desire." I had the honour of being introduced to Clarkson, occupied a place in his carriage, and came down with him to the Feathers." We got out at tha Feathers," put up our horses there, and set out for this place. In connexion with that visit I often think of the words of Words tvorth :— Clarkson, it was an obstinate hill to climb." It was, and Clarkson wa, then an old man and had been greatly affected by the circumstances. He had evidently been feeling the situation very much, but he walked up the hill, looked about, and said, "I should like to ascertain the exact epot." He seemed a little dazed, and I think the hill must have been lowered since that time. (Hear, hear.) He turned round and said, Oh I remember. I just turned the corner of the road, and noticed the smoke from the 'Feathers' Inn. I wouldn't go down, because I felt so much affected, and I got off my horse and sat down on that spot." Then Mr, Basil Montague, who was an impulsive man, seized mv arm, and, dragging me across to the place, said, "You will never forget that place." (Hear, hear, and a laugh.) Therefore, I always felt there was a certain obligation resting on me to commemorate that spot. I brought the subject more than once before persons in. terested in the great history, but have been unsuccess- ful until about one year ago our excellent friend, Mr. Puller, hearing the story, not from me, but another said, "I am very interested in what you tell me, and I should like to take it up myself." (Hear, hear.) He invited me to his house, and we came here together, and fixed, I believe, on the exact spot. (Hear, hear.) I hope you will always bear in mind, while thinking of Clarkson and his great deed, the very excellent deed Mr. Puller has done in erecting this obelisk. (Cheers.) Miss Merivale then came forward, and, unveiling the obelisk, said,—I now unveil this monument erected to Clarkson, the liberator of the African slaves, and I hope it may stand for many years as a memorial of his virtuous perseverance. (Cheers.) On the motion of Mr. Coddington, a vote of thanks to Miss Merivale was passed, and the ceremony termi- nated. The obelisk consists of a piece of Portland stone on a base of rubbed Yorkshire stone, and rises to no great height. It stands by the roadside, on a hill overlook- ing the little village of Wadesmill, among the pleasant places of the county of Hertford. It bears the follow- ing inscription On the spot where stands this monument, in the month of June, 1785, Thomas Clarkson resolved to devote hit life to bringing about theabolilion of the slave trade." On the base are the words Placed here by Arthur Giles Puller, of Youngsbury, October 9, 1879."
■—* There are now 105 firms, with a total of 6,250,000 spindles, only working three days per week at Oldham and at a meeting held on Saturday, at which forty companies were represented, it was resolved to adhere to short time for another month. The death is announced of Mr. Adam S. Findlater, head of one of the most eminent of the commercial firns In Dublin. To the Presbyterian College in Belfast he lately gave the sum 01 mo, 000 to increase the salaries of the pro- fessors; and this amount, the Dublin Mail says, did not re- present anything like the extent of Air. Findlater's charities, which must have been several thousands annually, to private persons and public Institutions. A man named Palmer, a maltster, who lived at Sheffield, has died from hydrophobia. He had a small rough terrier, which one night about a month ago awoke him by Its barking. Going downstairs to see what was the matter, he found the dog running about the kitchen in an extraordi- nary manner. While beating it to make it be quiet, tha dog bit his thumb. The wound bled freely, and, as Palmer did not apprthend danger, he simply bound It up, and did not consult a medical man. Last week his hand and arm became stiff. The medical man he consulted found that he wag suffering from hydrophobia, and he died on Thursday i*'1'*
THE (PROPOSED PARTIAL DISABMA. MENT. The Correspondent of The Timet, In ajftelegram from Naples, under date Oct. 15, My* :— "The Piccolo of this evening announces that a meet. ing will be held here on the 26th inst. in favour of a simultaneous partial and proportionate disarmament on the part of the European Powers, in conformity with the proposal of the Austrian deputy. Herr Vischof, and several members of the German Parliament. AU peace associations in Italy, England, France, and Germany have been invited to send delegates to the meeting. Several Italian deputies will also be present. The Right Hon. W. E. Gladstone, before leaving here, is stated to have written to the promoters of the meeting in favour of disarmament, Baying that he much regretted his inability to be present at the meeting, and that upon his returning to England he would support the same principle of disarmament. A special deputation will represent American and English Peace Aaaociationa at the meeting.-MeBBrs. Richard, Bright, Zanzon, and other chiefs of the Manchester School intend publishing articles shortly upon the same subject.—Germany will be represented by the Professor Baron von Holtzendorff."
FARMING IN SCOTLAND. The Times publishes the following letters :— Sir,—The accompanying letter to me is from a well. known Scotch landowner, and refers to his estate in Scotland. He is now on a visit on the Yorkshire Wolds. Although more cheerful than in the bouth, even there we see signs of doubt and anxiety as to the future.-I am, Sir, your obedient Bervant, J. J. MMHI. Tiptree-hall, Kelvedon, Essex, Oct. 9. Oct. 7.—I have observed In The Times of this morning a letter from you. forwarding another letter from Berkshire, alluding to the depression among the farmers and the falling of rents. As a set-off at this moment, when landlords In all quarters are giving from 10 to 15 and 20 per cent. reduction to their tenants, I should like you to know that a few days ago, when at Sprlngkell, a tenant of mine, whose family have resided on the estate for nearly 200 years, and who would next year have completed his second lease of 15 years, re- quested me to let him give up this year, being deslrons to go to New Zealand next spring. I somewhat hesitated, doubting my ability to relet the farm at this time; bat I did consent. I immediately had Ave offers 'or the farm, all on the estate, and all offering a rise of from S to 10 per cent. I accepted one who offered above 7 per cent., as having the larger capital, and let it to him on a lease of 19 years, much disappointing the other offerers. The farm is one of 184 acres, and the new rent is £.li2 10s., or within a fraction of 20s. an acre, which In my locality is a most satisfactory rent. Thirty years ago the rent was £130; now it is 9,182 10s and this without Mechi's sewerage.' A few of my tenants I found asking for a little assistance, but how did I give It ? Not by reducing a single rent, but by granting them more or less lima for two years or so, of which I have an abundant supply on the estate. Tell this to some of yeur Essex landlords and farmers. I found the corn crops on the estate (almost entirely oats) very nearly an average as to bulk and even when stacked they will not be so injured as was looked for. Turnips. I fear, will be otherwise, though my friend, who is tending his farm, has splendid crops of both O&ts and turnip'. Har- vesting in this quarter is going on but slowly, owing to un. certainty of weather: the crops are far from being bad as to bulk, but, I fear, will be soft when thrashed.
THE BISHOP OF MANCHESTER ON THE BAD HARVEST. The Bishop of Manchester preached on Sunday night at St. Paul's Church, Ramsbottom. In the course of his remarks he said it had been decided by their vicar, wisely he thought, not to hold the usual harvest thanksgiving. He saw that morning in the Rossendale district corn standing waiting, but not fit to be got in, and farmers told him that very much corn would simply have to be got in and given to cattle. Trade, as they knew, was very bad; indeed, it was altogether a time for very great humiliation. He was told a few days ago by Sir E. Watkin that we were suffering from the result of the five years' great prosperity we had had. No doubt there was something in that. When we had very good things many men did not remember they had need to be thankful for their mercies; they looked upon things as the result of their own energy and powers to govern things. He believed nothing would so greatly improve things in the commercial world as the restoration of confidence between em- ployer and employed, and between wholesale dealers and the retail dealers. It was something appalling to think of a nation in seeming poverty, yet living so licentiously, spending 140 millions of money on strong drink, and another .£15.000,000 on tobacco. The intemperance of the nation was increas- ing. This was most humiliating to a Christian country, and he believed if we did not UST more care with reference to our desirei and appetites we should fail to see our true duty. We were at present under. going the chastening of a wise and kind God, and his exhortation was for them to humble themselves before God.
JOHN RICHARDS & Co., TAILORS, DRAPERS, AND GENERAL OUTFITTERS, 10, MARKET STREET, ABERYSTWYTH, MOST respectfully beg to inform their customers and the general public that their first Parcel for the AUTUMN has been delivered in Scotch Tweeds, all Wool, and warranted well Shrank. Patterns free on application. GENTS' SUITS MADE TO ORDER, FROM 42s. An assortment of Silk, Felt, Straw, and Tweed Hats, Caps, Shirts, Collars, Cuffs, Braces, Ties, Scarfs, Umbrellas, &c., &c. Variety of Gents' and Boys' made-up Suits kept in stock. GENTS' from 35s., BOYS' from 7a. 6d. ALL GOODS MARKED IN PLAIN FIGURES. Any Article not approved of may be exchanged. ORDERS PROMPTLY EXECUTED IN GOOD STYLE & WORKMANSHIP. AGENT FOR ELIAS HOWE'S NOISELESS SEWING MACHINE. M. H. DAVIS & SON, BRIDGE STREET AND QUEEN STREET, ABERYSTWYTH, Have just received a new supply of BRASS AND IRON BEDSTEADS, Spring and other Mattresses, Of which they respectfully solicit inspection also to their extensive stock (by the leading makers) of Grates, Kitchen Ranges and Stoves. Reaping Machines, by Hornsby, Samuelson, and others. Chaff Cutters in great variety, and other Agricultural Implements. WATER FILTERS by several Makers. Cutlery, Weighing Machines, Baths, and every description of Furnishing and Building Ironmongery, Electro Plated Goods, &c., &c. S. ALLSOPP AND SONS, BURTON-ON-TRENT. OFFICE, Alfred House, Upper Portland Street, Aberystwyth. STORES, Railway Station. GEORGE CARESWELL, AGENT. If I II A U A K|' G Medal 1>aris Exhibition, 1878, KINAMAN S PURE, MILD and MELLOW. DELICIOUS and MOST WHOLESOME. I I THE CREAM OF OLD IRISH WHISKIES. LBS Dr. HASSALL says—" Soft and Mellow, Pure, well Matured, and of very Excellent Quality." WHISKY K I The Gold Medal Dublin Exhibition, 1865. «■ 20, GREAT TITCHFIELD STREET, LONDON, W. J. E. J OI\ESI §|f FASHIONABLE BOOT AND SHOE MAKER, 54, NORTH PARADE, ABERYSTWYTH, JlllMlk -jl/FAKEK of the Celebrated TOURIST and PORPOISE HIDE -UlL SHOOTING BOOT. Every description of goods made |Ss||i 11 to order on the premises, of the best material and guaranteed workmanship. A varied stock of Ladies', Gentlemen's, and MM Children's Boots and Shoes for summer wear on hand. Kepairs of every description executed on the shortest notiee. r"f. & W. BUBB, PAINTERS, PLUMBED S, GLAZIERS, GAS FITTEES, HOUSE DECORATORS, PAPER HANGERS, I GENERAL HOUSE FURNISHERS, TERRACE ROAD, ABERYSTWYTH- AGENT FOE BEOKEE'S BDENEES, WEIGHT'S GAS STOVES, aid ATIvIN'S GOVKBNMENT FILTERS. Cheap Paperhangings from 3d. each. Baths, Perambulators, Fancy Baskets, &c. FURNITURE DEPARTMENT TABLES, CHAIRS, SOFAS, COUCHES, PIER AND TOILET GLASSES. ESTABLISHED 1826. thomaFwhite, (Son and successor to the late Elizabeth White,) MANUFACTURING LAPIDARY AND JEWELLER, EGYPTIAN HOUSE, TERRACE ROAD, AND YORK HOUSE, MARINE TERRACE, ABERYSTWYTH. A splendid collection of Jewellery of the newest designs, comprising Necklets, Brooches, Ear Rings, &c., GEM AND OTHER RINGS. ALWAYS M ST°C OLD CHINA IN GREAT VARIETY ANYTHING NOT IN STOCK MADE TO ORDER. ■NT-R ^LAL1 £ R IN SILVER AND ELECTRO PLATE. No connection with any other firm in the town the same name. c, AND ELECTRO PLATING. Beach atones and other Pebbles Sliced into Slabs, Drilled, and Cut into any Shape or Form. ALL Cabinets, Tables, &c., inlaid. Church Decorations. ALL "ORK DONE ON THE PREMISES. RELIANCE HOUSE, GREAT DARKGATE-STREET (OPPOSITE THE MEAT MARKET), AND 7, PIER STREET WILLIAM PROBII, WORKING LAPIDARY, JI WELLER, AND SILVERSMITH BEGS to inform the Gentry, Inhabitants, ana Visitors of Aberystwyth that he has now on hand a well- jfeelected Stock of Diamond Rings, Wedding Kings, Signet Rings, and Gem Rings Bright and coloured Gold Jewellery, m all its branches, made upon the premises. Every article warranted. Also a large Stock of Whitby Jet and Bog Oak OrDanieiits. Old Gold and Silver Purchased. Wholesale and Retail Dealer n New and Second-hand rlate. IN CONSEQUENCE OF SPURIOUS IMITATIONS OF LEA i & BSAUCE, PERRtNSN Which are calculated to deceive the Public, Lea and Perrins have adopted A NEW LABEL, bearing their Signature, thus, Which, is placed on every bottle of WORCESTERSHIRE SAUCE) and without which none is genuine. Ø" Sold Wholesale by the Proprietors, Worcester; Crosse and Blackwell, London; and Export Oilmen generally, Retail, by Dealers m Sauces throughout the World. Marble and Stone Works, SWAN HILL, SHREWSBURY. R. DODSON RESPECTFULLY begs to intimate that the Show Rooms contain a large collection ef Garble, Stone,and Enamelled Slate Chimney Pieces, Marble and Stone Mural Monuments. Cemetery and Churchyard Memorials, Fonts, Fountains, Vases, &c. £ P7 TAYLOR, LICENSED DEAISRIN GAMLF AND POULTRY, XTTITTV SEED) &c., teeKT MARKET HALI/, LXJIKACE ROAD, ABERYSTWYTH. GILLHEADS AND INVOICES: OBSERVER OFFICES, FLANNEL! FLANNEL! FLANNEL!! GREAT REDUCTION IN WELSH FLANNELS! White Flannel, all Wool, 9d., 10ld., Is. and upwards. Plain, Grey, and Stripes, very heavy, 10|d., Is. and upwards. The New Patent Flannel, in all colours, from 2s. 3d Welsh Blanketings, from 2s. Welsh Knit Stockings, from 2s. Welsh Knitting Yarn, from 2s. per lb. White Whittles, 16s. and upwards. WELSH FLANNEL DEPOT, TERRACE ROAD, ABERYSTWYTH. JOHN EDWARDS & Co., PROPRIETORS THOMAS GARNER, CONFECTIONER, BAKER, &c., TERRACE ROAD, ABERYSTWYTH. REFRESHMENT ROOMS. ESTABLISHED 25 YEAR ,^5% DAVID THOMAS, Watchmaker, JeweHer &o„ 13, GREAT DARKGATE ST., ABERYSTWYTH. THE FLORENTINE ELECTRIC HAIR BRUSH WILL RELIEVE NERVOUS OR BILIOUS HEADACHE IN FIVE MINUTES Positively remove Scurf and Dandrif, Prevent Falling Hair and Baldness while promoting a Healthy and vigorous growth of the Hair. It will always t)e found most Efficacious in those distressing Headaches peculiar to Ladies. Price 2s 2s. 6d., 3s., 3s. 6d., 4s., 4s. 6d. Made only of the Best Pure Bristles, and supplied wholesale only, by THE PATENT LIOXITE MANUFACTURING CO. (Limited), who possess the formula and sole right of manufacture; Factories and Depots :—London, Paris, New York, Hamburg, Berlin and Vienna. AGENT:—H. P. HAWKINS, 23, Pier-street, Aberystwyth SAVE OF 80 PER CENT. OF COALS. SECURE CLEANLINESS AND INCREASED COMFORT! This can be done by the use of CONSTANTINES TREASURE KITCHEN RANGE, Which can by seen in operation on application to MR. GEORGE GREEN, AGENT FOR ABERYSTWYTH of whom all particulars can be obtained. NONE SHOULD BE WITHOUT THEM. NEW LABEL. IN consequence of the continued use of IMITA- TIONS of SCHWEPPE & CO.'s Red Label, used over the cork of their SODA WATER, they have been compelled to adopt a New Label, which is affixed on the side of the bottle, in add-on, to the one over the cork. SCHWEPPE'S GINGER ALE. SCHWEPPE'S MINERAL WATERS received the HIGH- KST AWARD at the PARIS EXHIBITION, 1878. They have always had the Patronage of Royality, and continue to be supplied to THE QUEEN. Every bottle of the Genuine is Protected by Labels, with Name and Trade Mark—A FOUNTAIN. Retail of all Chemists, Wino Merchants, andGroc No ONE BOX OF CLARKE'S B 41 PILLS is warranted to cure all discharges from the Urin- ary Organs, in either sex, acquired or constitutional. Gravel, and Pains in the Back. Sold in Boxes, 4s. 6d each, by all Chemists and Patent Medicine Vendors or sent to any address for 60 stamps by the Maker, F. J. CLARKE, Consulting Chemist, High Street, Lincoln. Wholesale Agents-BARCLAY & SONS, London. Aberystwyth—W. G. VAUGHAN, Chemist 1, North Parade. And all the Wholesale Houses' GEORGE'S PILE AND GRAVEL PILLS. Patronised by several eminent Physicians and Surgeons, and UNIVERSALLY held in high esteem. Though you have suffered and despaired for years and tried Remedies in vain, be assured there is still a safe and speedy cure for you at a small cost by using GEORGE'S PILE AND GRAVEL PILLS, which are now recognised by all as being the best Medicine yet discovered for PILE AND GRAVEL, as well a,, for the following pains, which in Ninety-nine Cases out of every Hundred, are caused by these painful lialadies:- Pain in the back, Flatulency, Griping, Colic, A sense of weight in the back and loins Darting Pains in the region of the heart, Liver, and Kidneys, Constipation, Pains in the thighs, sometimes shooting down to the calf of the leg and foot Suppression and retention of urine, Pains in the Stomach, and all Liver Complaints. Thousands have been cured by these Pills, and many who had been pronounced hopeless have been thoroughly restored to health by their use. ONE BOX WILL CONVINCE THE MOST SCEPTICAL OF THEIB EFFICACY. In order to suit all who may be suffering from One or Both of these Maladies, the Proprietor prepares this Vegetable Remedy in the following forms :— No. 1—GEORGE'S PILE AND GRAVEL PILLS. No. 2—GEORGE'S GRAVEL PILLS. No. 3—GEORGE'S PILLS FOR THE PILES. Important Testimonials from Doctors, Chemists, and In- valids, from all parts of the country, will be forwarded to any address on receipt of a stamped envelope. Sold in Boxes, Is. lid. and 2s. 9d., by all respectable Chemists; by Post, Is. 4d. and 3s., in postage stamps. EVERY BOX IS PROTECTED BY THE GOVERNMENT STAMP. NOTICE.—The title "PILE AND GRAVEL PILLS" is Copyright, and entered it Stationers' Hall. Proprietor, J. E. GEORGE, M.R.P.S., HIRWAIN, GLAMORGANSHIRE. DRAPERS' POSTERS & HANDBILLS, U displayed in first-rate style, and on the shortest notice. OBSERVER OFFICES, ABERYSTWYTH AND ABERAERON
THE BISHOP OF BEDFORD ON "BOOKS, AND HOW TO USE THEM." The Inaugural address of the winter session of evening classes in the City of London College, 62, Leadenhall-street, was delivered by the Bishop of Bedford "On Books, and how to use them." The Rev. C. Mackenzie, chairman of the Council, took the chair. There were in this institution, Bishop How said, books to read and classes to attend, and these were both good but his idea was that the outcome of the lecturers' work in the classes, if it were well done, would be to send the students to the library. It ought to excite a keen interest in the subjects taken up, whatever they might be, and it ought to create a relish for those subjects which would at once send the learner to books. A great step had been made when a man had learnt to de- light in books and to look upon them all close friends. The next question was what to read, and how to read, and he urged those who wished to strive after a hillh ideal of education to choose some one branch of study, and to avoid desultory reading. He would say, Be thorough." Whether they took theology, the noblest study of all, or history, which stood next, or physical science, tor which there were manifold aids, he urged thoroughness. There was one Bubject to which he hesitated to recommend entire devotion, and that was poetry. It would not, he thought, be a wholesome thing to read poetry only, Any study, indeed, was bad which stimulated only one faculty. Nothing, for instance, did more to brace the reasoning facul- ties than the study of mathematics. Nevertheless, a character built up on nothing but mathematics would, he feared, be hard, dry, and unsympathizing. So nothing gave more grace and finish than poetry but a man who gave himself to the reading of nothing bat poetry would be rather like one who should feed his body on fruit and sweetmeats. Yet poetry ought to form part of every man's reading. Even one thing mastered was invaluable, not only for the discipline the effort to master it would render necessary, but for its own sake. "A little and well" was a true saying. Thomas Hobbes, of Malmesbury, used to say, If I had read as much as other people I should know as little," The thing of next Importance was to read good books, or, rather, he would say, the books of good men. He would counsel them, whatever subjects they took up, to read the works of good men. The profit of a book really de- pended much more upon the writer than upon the subject, as in conversation they would do better to hear a big man upon a little subject than a little man upon a big Bubjeut. Touching, then, novel-reading, while deprecating a self-indulgent, enervating abandon ment to the practice, he dwelt upon the good which in many ways might be derived from the works of such writers as Thackeray, Trollope, Miss Young, or the authoress of "John Halifax." As to natural science, he expressed a hope that the objection to science on the part of those who had accused scientific men of being their enemies was a thing of the past. He was not afraid of real seience or real scientific discovery, and religious people would do the greatest roesible harm if they set themselves against science and denounced the study of it. With regard to the method of reading, he advised his hearers to take notes and to make ab- stracts of the books they read and extracts from them, for a carefully. filled common-place book was a most valuable possession. The important thing in self- education was to acquire the power of concentrating the attention upon the work in hand. Lastly, be urged that while seeking the education of the mind they should also cultivate the sympathies of the heart and the aspirations of the soul, and concluded by re- minding his hearers of the humility with which men such as Newton and Bacon had spoken of the littleness of their knowledge.
A Berlin telegram says that, in consequence or the high price of corn and other articles of consumption, it is doubtful whether the German Government will adhere to its original proposal of levying the corn duties from the 1st of next January. Sir John Heatbcote Amory, M.P., of Tiverton, has Informed his tenants that 20 per cent. will be allowed off thtir rents In the case of all who pay at his half-yeariy audit early next month. Ou Tuesday a conference of the Miners' Associations of the United Kingdom was opened at Leeds Mr. A Macdonald, M.P presided over the meeting, and delegates representing the mining interest in all parts of the kingdom were prssent. OQ Wednesday the Conference was resumed under the presidency of Mr A. Macdonald, M. P Fifteen delegates, representing 160,000 miners, were presmt Tfie emigration scheme was uuder discussion, and it was decided thit it should take a national form, and be wotked eutireh free from any existing institution. The funds raised by the Society will be expended in grants of six pounds each to men who go to the United States, and of twelve pounds to emigrants to the Australian Colonies. Members of six months' standing are tope eligible to ballot for the grants.
GYMNASTICS BY STEAK POWER. Amongst the curiosities now to be seen at the ex- hibition in the Champs Eiyeeoa Is one of the new machines far exercising the human frame without any exertion on the part of the person exercised. According to the description given of the apparatus by a scientific correspondent of the Patrie the patient, as it seems most proper to call him, is in- stalled in a sort of arm-chair, and is invited to place his arms in two metal rests, shaped in the form of a bow, and each supported by iron roda which are capable of giving it a lateral as well as « horizontal motion, while his back at the same time rests against a strong metal framework, by which the whole body is forced forwards and backwards alternately. When the mechanism is set in mo- tion, the individual operated upon finds himsel £ suddenly going through a series of evolutions more or less intricate which he is powerless either to stop or direct. The exercise once begun must be continued as long as the machine is kept in motion, and of course it rests with the director or driver of the apparatus to de- liver his victim from a position which to some be- ginners may not feel very agreeable. The inventor of this system is a Swedish man of science named Dr. Zander, who is said to have constructed no less than seventeen different machines for similar purposes, each designed to favour the development of distinct muscles. Perhaps the most remarkable thing about them is, however, that they are generally worked by steam. It is not very long since the luxury of having one's hair brushed by steam power was intro- duced, or even siace the hobby-horses at fairs began to be whirled round by the same agency, while a steam organ-grinder trumpeted forth the most inspiriting of tunes. But we have now a fresh application of tha giant to practical purposes, and it is impossible to say how far the doctors may go in this direction now that they have once introduced suoh an agent into the field of hygienic exercise. There seems to be no valid reason why heneeforth boys should not be taught to row, or ladies to play billiards, by the use of the new apparatus. There is a familiar tale about the way in which the ancient Romans taught their seamen to row by first exercising them on dry land; and if Duilius and his fellow-admirals could only have pressed Dr. Zander into their service as a boatswain they would have made still greater progress than they did. One exercise there is at any rate which might, seriously speaking, be adapted to the mechanical system. It might possibly be applied both with success and with advantage in teaching on dry land the elementary movements of the art of swirnrning, -Globe.
MR. W. E. FORSTER, M.P., ON SCHOOIà BOARDS. Mr. TV. It Forster, M.P., was present on Friday night In last week at a complimentary dinner given by the Bradford Liberal Club to the past and present members 01 the Brad- ford School Board. Mr. Isaac Holden, president of the Club, occupied the chair. After tke toast of The Queen and Royal Family," Mr. J. V. Godwin proposed" The House* of Parliament." Mr. Forster responded, and proposed The Health of the past and present mf mtiers of the Bradford School Board." In the coarse of his speech Mr. Forstec said— When he introduced the Education Act he said he thought the education rate would not be more than 3d. in the pound. He believed some gentlemen regarded him as a defaulter because his prophecy had not come true, but on that occasion he was only stating what he and the gentlemen in the Education Department thought would be the cost. There were various reasons why they had made a mistake in their estimate, but, after all. the increase was not so large as was gen- erally supposed. The average rate for the last three years before the present for London and the 26 largest towns was rather less than 3i-i, in the pound. Foe Bradford and London it was rather more than 411. But how came it to be more than 3d. ? He would acknow- ledge that he had made one great, though an un on- scious mistake. He had underrated at the time be had brought in the Act, :tnd those who gave him intormation had also underrated, the educational deficiency of the country. They knew it was very bad, but they did not know it was so bad. Until the school census was actually taken they had no idea of the enormous multitude of children that were un- taught, and the immense danger that the country was in of being overwhelmed by an ignorant population. especially in the large town?. Of course that meant that the School Boards, especially in the large to -no. would have more to do, would have more schools to set up, and therefore more money to spend than was supposed but his estimated cost would not have baen far off the mark if the cost of maintenance, the cost of teaching,and the cost of the buildings had remained the same as it was at the time the Act was passed. The increased cost of teaching was more than he had ex- pected, but it was a cost that could not have been avoided. One chief reason why there had been this increase, especially in the salaries of the teachers. was that there had been an enormous and sudden de- mand for teachers. He had not only underrated the extent of the demand, but—and he was glad of it—he had also underrated the readiness of the country to supply the demand. He might have been too sanguine about the cost. He bad not been sanguine enough abont the willingness of the English people to respond to the Act of Parliament and to do their duty. He could not have supposed that the people of the metropolis would have taken up the matter so ener- getically as they did, or the town councils in the kingdom, and vie with one another as to how soon they would bring the Act into operation. He could not have imagined thit in the country districts there would have been such a large increase of schools, in many cases by voluntary managers. The country rose to the want. It said, We are convinced it must be supplied and we will have schools everywhere." That made an enormous demand for teachers. Con- sequently, labour in that particular walk of lift. had a pull on the market, and the salaries of teachers were very much raised. He was very glad they were, be- cause teachers were disgracefully underpaid before. He was not sure the salaries would remain at their present range, bat he hoped and believed that they would never return to what they were before 1870. Another cause of the increased cost of educa- tion was the improved buildings that were erected for school purposes, and he did not think they were too good; but some people might say, Oh but we know what is the cause; it is the ridiculously and extra- vagantly high education you have been giving the children." That really had had nothing to do with it. He pledged his knowledge of the matter that the in- crease of the cost from 3d. to 3f3. throughout England and Wales was by no mean* owing to what was called teaching special subjects. It waa a ridiculously small proportion of the children who learned these special subjects. In Bradford the higher Board schools had not increased the rate even yet. nor would they do so. because they were determined that inasmuch as the teaching therein cost more than at the other schools, parents of the children attending them should pay for it. But the teaching of the lowest elements-reading. writing, and ciphering—to those children who had been swept by the Education Act and by the compulsory provisions of that Act into the schools had increased the cost of teaching. Mora teaching power was re- quired in the Board schools to deal with those children who had never been taught before than with the gene- ral average of children at the elementary schools. He admitted that it was the duty of School Boards to look very closely to economy, and to be as economical as was consistent with efficiency, and he hoped not one whit more economical. They must take care that the children had good schools to go to, and were well taught, and any economy which prevented this being accomplished he hoped members of School Boards would resist, and boldly appeal to their constituents whether they desired it. There was some daDger of foreign competition, for what were the competing nations doing? Were they not giving their future workpeople the advantages of education? Depend upon it, if we starved education they would not. He had just come from Austria. We looked upon that as a backward country, but in the villages and towns of the Tyrol he found good schools, compulsory byelaws, and technical schools every- where, and it was quite evident that as far as education gave an advantage Austria would obtain that advantage for its workpeople. He hoped the Bradford School Board would not give up the higher Board schools, and that they would keep strictly to the determination to make the parents by the 9d. fee pay the greater cost of the education over that in the other schools, and in that case he thoncrht no ratepayer would have a right to object. He was glad to see that the Education Departmens had now taken the matter up. He thought their letter showed that they felt that the whole question came very eeriously before them, and he did not see that the letter had been written in any retrograde or re- actionary spirit.
The London Correspondent of the Manchester Guar. dim writes I have reasen to believe that Lord Derby has lately signified an important and friendly modiacation in his lordship's attitude with regard h the Liberal Party, aud that very shortly this will be made apparent. "The reports frem the various trade caatres are gradually beginning to be more cheerful. TUtiv are, of course, great fluctuations, lUld obvionsly many still f,.ir that the present hopeful reaction is merely temporary hut. jt is pleasant after months and even years of outness :uirl d. pres- slon to see that in Middlesbrough, Darlington. Sht-ffisid. South Shropshire, and even Souta Wales, there is a great change. Even if some of tmsapparent Improvement la due to speculation, that is better than the apathy to whicn » « had become almost accustomed. Still, ID should be borne in mind that the revival cannot progress with sufficient rapidity to prevent v^ry sevt re pressure from being ielt during the coming winter. It may be, indeed, tbat tha rise in the price of necessaries will counterbalance to a great extent even the new contracts wh'ch are beginning to come tu. The hard times of lvst winter have left many of the poor on the brink of sta fcki m, and the ca«e of the small shopkeepers—always ttit .a< to feel the lwueflt of •v I-vivol-Is In many cllstrick even worse.Pall Mail Qn&ttCi