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Our Tonbon Corresjjaitbenf.

THE ENTRY INTO CABUL.

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CABUL DESCRIBED.

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ft Hltstc(hrirc0us Intelligent, HOME, FOREIGN, AND COLONIAL. A BOOK ALL PEDESTRIANS OUGHT TO BUT. — Walker's Dictionary. -Judi/. THE AUSTRALIAN WOOL CLIP. — Advices from Melbourne represent the prospects of the Australian wool clip as highly cheering. All the principal Bheep stations have finished shearing, and Bome of the wool to hand is reported fully up to the best descriptions of last seasons. The fleeces, if anything, are somewhat lighter, which is attributable to the dryness of the season. The greater portion of the finer class of wools is arriving from Riverina, and the northern and eastern districts of the Colony.- Wool Trade Beview. AMERICAN AND CANADIAN FOOD. — There was a great decrease in the number of live stock landed at Liverpool last week from Canada and the United States when contrasted with the preceding week. Only two consignment arrived, amounting to 378 head of cattle, 209 sheep, and 194 pigs, against 1,938 cattle and 2,984 sheep in the previous week. Fresh meat was also in smaller supply. The conveying steamers were four in number, and brought collectively 3,014 quarters of beef, 725 carcases of mutton, and 100 pigs, being a decrease of over 1,400 quarters of beef and 250 carcases of mutton. As regards live stock the numbers were about the lowest that have yet occurred since the trade was introduced. CHESS PROBLEM SOLVED AT CAPE TOWN,—Zulu- King Castled. -Puitch. THE LONG VACATION. -Next session attention will be called in Parliament to the inconvenience and pecu. niary loss occasioned to the public by what is known in legal circles as the long vacation. One of the bene- fits contemplated under the Judicature Act was the adoption of a system by which the law's delays would be reduced to a minimum. Instead of the entire staff of judges suspending their labours, a new arrangement would it was understood, be made by which a certain number of judges would act whilst the others sought the rest of which they were in neei. But this ar- rangement has never been followed. The result is that a strong movement is on foot, its object being to shorten the long vacation by bringing the judicial staff within the spirit of the Judicature Act. Our present system of law holidays is felt to be quite at variance with the requirements of the time. A SERIOUS BUSINESS. In a leading article on the occupations and employments of Women the other day, The Times observed that" A man and woman, when they marry, constitute a firm," which we may add, too often turns out a partnership of unlimited iability. —Punch. AN INTRICATE PROBLRM.-The Daily Telegraph says A curious point in natural history is receiving the attention it deserves at the hands of such men as Professor Mivart and Mr. Pringle. The subject which thus agitates the scientific mind, as stated in the 'Davia Lecture,' is 'whether kangaroos use their tails to a certain extent in their long jumps,' and it will at once be perceived that the difficulty attending its re- solution ia by no means imaginative. Eye observation is useless, for after the tail has actually been seen acting as a third hind leg, the question still re- mains whether the animal at that moment was making a long or a short jump. So great is the obstacle in the way of absolute determination that one gentleman has made a long mathema- tical calculation, ending in the decision that, 'supposing the speed of the kangaroo to be fifteen miles an hour, or seven and a half yards a second, only length of bones and mobility of joints would permit the feet to rest on the same spot for even the fraction of a moment, while the tail would only touch the earth while traversing its Burfate to the distance of two feet for the tenth part of an instant.' Thus we are as far from a solution of this great problem as ever. In all probability it will join the more ancient and ethereal question, How many angels could stand on the point of a needle ?' and. like it, remain un- answered satisfactorily to the end of time." CURIOUS FREAK OF RATS.—The following happened Tait week at the residence of relatives of mine, in Morayshire:—About three dozen pears ware shaken off a tree in the garden on to the grass. They were picked up and deposited for the night on a table in the kitchen. This table stood about three or four feet from the floor. Next morning they were all gone, and no one could imagine what had become of them. Suspicion at length rested on rats, although none had been seen about the premises for some considerable time. Search was made, and a hole discovered near the pump in the scullery adjoining the kitchen, and distant from the kitchen table on which the fruit was deposited about five yards. A workman was sent for to fill up this hole with cement, but in doing so he bad to open up the wooden framework round the base of the pump, and there were found all the misaisg pears carefully stored away.-R. A. r. GRANT, in Land and Water. EMIGRATION OF FARMERS.-The steamer Teutonia, of the Dominion Line, left Liverpool on Thursday in last week with 267 farmers and their families, bound for Texas. The party have been collected from the principal counties of England by Dr. Kingsbury, emi- gration agent for Texas, and have either purchased or rented land on the lines of the Galveston, Harris- burg, and San Antonio Railway. They consist for the most part of well-to-do farmers having sufficient capital to buy and carry on farms, and some members of the party had previously been out to Texas upon a tour of inspection, and hall returned home to report to their friends upon prospects in that country. Amongst the emigrants were several women whose husbands had preceded them some months before. The majority of the farmers have been drawn from Durham and Yorkshire, the rest being made up from Lancashire, Cumberland, Lincolnshire, Gloucestershire, and other plaoes. THE CHINCHONA TBEB ON THE ISLAND OF ST. HELBNA -Those who are curious as to the probable confirmation of the predicted beneficial effect on the climate the planting of trees in Cyprus will have, will read with curiosity a recent official report to our Government on the island of St. Helena which had been similarly denuded of trees, indeed, seems to afford a somewhat striking example of the effects of forest denudation upon climate. It is stated, however, that since the forest lands were replanted the island has ceased to suffer from droughts to anything like the same extent The area of St. Helena is forty-seven square miles, and the population in 1871, 6,241. The prin- cipal timber tree of the island is the pinaster. There are other exotic trees, but they are grown merely for ornament. The chinchona has been recently intro- duced into the island and has been found to thrive. About one-half of the timbered land in the island belongs to the Government. There are in all about 500 acres planted with trees, but not more than one- third of this area would yield timber. The self-sown trees are sufficient to counterbalance the annual con- sumption. It is estimated that the growth of three or four acres may be cut each year without injury to the woodlands. FROM GRAVE TO GAT.—Turning churchyards into gardenll.-Fun. EMPLOYMENT OF CHILDREN IN FRANCE.—A recent order has been passed, containing a supplementary list of occupations in which the employment of children is forbidden, the reasons alleged being principally from the danger of explosions, burning, or deleterious vapours. The industries thus vetoed are the manu- facture of aniliine, benzine, collodien. nitrate of methyle, sulphuret of arsenic, sulphuret of sodium, and of blister leaves.; in the textiles, of rag sorting, and the scouring of skins and woollen waste with petroleum or other hydro-carburretted oils in the metal trades, the galvanising of iron. Children are also not allowed to be employed in plaoes where chemical aUumettes are stored, nor in those processes of their manufacture where the mixture is prepared or the matches put up into packets. A partial employment only, under cer- tain conditions, is allowed in industries where sul- phuric acid is disengaged, such as in wool and Bilk bleaching, as well as in those where unwholesome dusts are given off, as in the preparation of tow for rope and in the manufacture and cleaning of bladders for toy balloons. EXPORTATIONS OF POTATOES AND TuRNIM.— Orders are being filled in Montreal for considerable quantities of potatoes, chiefly Early Rose, for ship- ment to Liverpool and Glasgow. They cost about 40c. to 45c. per bag delivered in Montreal, and are packed in sugar barrele, both erida being perforated to prevent them from he,ting. The freight by steamer will cost 3s per barrel. The potatoes so far delivered have been tine, very even ia size, and re- marksthly clean. A shipment of turnips will also be made thii week from the same port to Liverpool. THE LATE LIEUT. HAMILTON.-Lord Cranbrook has addressed the following letter to Mr. Alexander Hamilton, of Ibstiage, Balbriggan, Ireland, father of Lieutenant Hamilton, who was killed in the massacre at Cabul"India Office, Oct. 3, 1879 —Sir,—Before leaving Balmoral yesterday I was desired by the Queen to inform you that she had had the gratification of signing the warrant for Lieutenant Hamilton's Victoria Cross, and regrets much that she cannot bestow it on him with her own band. As that is im- possible she wishes me to express to you her strong sense of his heroic gallantry, both in the action by which he won the honour and in the undaunted courage with which he faced inevitable death. Allow me to add my sympathy with every word and mark of honour to the memory of your eon,—Believe me, yours very faithfully, CRANBROOK." CANADA AND .PROTECTION.—A Quebec correspon- dent of rTie Times says :— To add to our other troubles, the Government have placed on instruments the enormous duty of 30 per cent, (in place of the 174 per cent. formerly paid, which was bad enough), with the humbugging cry of Protection to Canadian manu. facturers, when it is well known that, excepting pianos 611 j °'^ail8« no' a single instrument of any kind is made from one end of the Dominion to the other." GIFT OF A LIFEBOAT.—-A lady residing at Brighton has given to the National Life boat Institution C750 for the purpose of placing a lifeboat on the coast. It appears that a mutual promise was made by the hus- band and wife that the survivor should give, during lifetime or by will, a lifeboat to the institution. The husband having died, the widow has now carried out their mutual agreement, and the lifeboat is to be named the Margaret and Edward. JOHN HUNTER'S CHAIR.-At the annual dinner on Wednesday, October 1, at Willis's Rooms, of the authorities and medical staff of St. George's Hospital, London, the chair, taken by Dr. Wadham, the pre- sident, on this special occasion, attracted considerable notice, on account of its quaintness and apparent antiquity (says Land and Water). On reading the brass plate affixed to the chair, we ascertained that it had been made- out of the four-post bedstead upon which the celebrated surgeon and anatomist, John Hunter, was placed when he was carried from St. George's Hospital, in the boardroom of which he died suddenly, to his house in Leicester-square, in October, 1793. The bedstead was given to Mr. Frank Back- land by Professor Owen. WHEAT FROM RussrA —In the last nine months the declared value of wheat imported from Russia was .£2.725,135, against 23,053,395 in the previous year. A NEW TANNING MATEBIAL-A trade is springing up between France and the A'gentine Confederation, in the employment for tanning purposes of the bark of a tree called Qudracho colorado, of which 25.000 tons have been recently ordered by a French firm. It is said to be far superior to oak tan, inasmuch as it considerably shortens the length of time (nearly one- half) which the hides have to remain in the tan-pita. THE FRENCH OYSTEB FISHERIES -Some interesting details have been furnished regarding the oyster fisheries in the report for last year just issued by the Marine Department. The number of oysters sold during 1878 was 640,884.674, of the value of 22,212,159f. The greater portion of these was the result of oyster cultivation in the various oyster parka, the number obtained from the fisheries buns* only 169,397,046, which, however, was over 65 000,00 > in excess of the yield of 1877. There has been a decided increase in the production from the beds of Caneale, Loiient, Auray, and Vannes, as also in the Fortune oyster beds at Royan. Oyster farming, too, is steadily on the in- crease, and there has been a large quantity of spat at Arcachon and Auray, together with a very satisfac- tnry condition at the depots of the growing oyster at Marennes, the island of Olrrou, and at Sables d'Olonne. At the end of ln«t year there were in France 36,933 oyster cultivating establishments, with an average of nearly 23,000 acres, and owned by 40,686 pesons. AVERAGE PRICES OF BRITISH CORN.The follow- ing are the average prices of British corn for the week ending Oct. 11, as received from the inspectors and officers of Excise Wheat, 48s 8 I. barley, 46s. 9 oats, 22s. 2d. per imperial qr. Corresponding week last year Wheat, 39i. 9J.; barley, 403. Id.; oats 21s. lOd. PULLMAN'S DINING CAR.-To the directors of the Great Northern Railway Company the public will shortly be indebted for the introduction of a veritable Transatlantic novelty in railway travelling. It has been arranged that Within a f-w weeks the first Pullman's car fitted up with a diuing and smoking room complete shall be placed upon the Great Northern system between London and Leeds. This will indeed be an innovation in the right direction, travellers leaving either London or Leeds after break- fast, being thus enabled to reach their respective desti- nations before two o'clock, complete their business during the afternoon, and pattake of an elegant dinner while on their return journey by trains leaving either end about five p.m. Should this novel idea be appre. ciated by the public of which there seems to be no doubt, if carried out with the usual zeal and public spirit exhibited by this company, similar dining cars will hereafter be attached to all the Great Northern express trains, and a real benefit in economy of time and increased comfort of travellers will be insured. "READY CRACKED!"—The Mark Lane Express says :—"Judging from the quantity of walnuts which we see in the streets of London, and the price, it seems that one of the fruits of the earth, at least, has not failed badly. Eight a penny, reaay cracked,' is not a very high price, but, I suppose, about an average one. When I saw one of the street-vendors biting the pieces of broken shell off walnuts which were to be sold 'ready cracked' the other day, I was reminded of the old countryman who presented his landlord with a quantity of nuts extracted from their shells, with the remark—as a proof of devotion—* There, Sir, me and my wife have broken nearly all our old teeth out a crackin' o' these nuts for you.' DISASTERS AT SEA.-There were 35 British and foreign wrecks reported during the past week, making a total of 1,243 for the present year, or an increase of 137 as compared with the corresponding period of last year. The approximate value of property lost was £740,000, including British jE 440,000. THE WITHDRAWAL OF THE BURMESE MISSION.— The Special Correspondent of the Standard at Thyetma telegraphs the particulars of the withdrawal of the British Mission from Mandalay. It seems that early on the morning of his leaving the Resident sent round a circular to the English settlers, stating that he was about to proceed at once on board the steamer, which would be detained a sufficient time for them to let him know their intentions. The Burmese imme- diately took possession of the place thus quitted, and only allowed the baggage to be removed after having received the King's orders. Nearly all the European subjects hurriedly followed the English representative, and commercial matters were completely upset. THE LATB BISHOP WILBEBFORCE.—Mr. Murray has in the press the first volume of Canon Ashwell's Life of the late Bishop Wilberforce. It will carry the narrative down to the year 1848. The book begins with an account of Wilberforce's early education, and contains some of his father's letters to him. It then describes his school and college life, his ordination, his work as a parish priest, his introduction into' Court, his marriage and the loss of his wife, and the effects that loss had upon him. Hie attitude to the Oxford movement is dealt with at length, and corres- pondence printed with the Prince Consort, Dr. Hook, Bun sen, Mr. Carlyle, and Dr. Pusey. Letters to and from Mr. Gladstone on Dr. Newman's "Theory of Development," are also given. Wjl berf oroe's accep- tance of the see of Oxford, his organization of the diooese, and his entrance into the House of Lords, oocupy the later chapters of the va\waie.—Athewxu.m. THE NEW POST-OFFICE CHEQUES.—In speaking of the Post-Office cheques, whi h, it is said, will shortly make their appearance, May fair says The cheque is printed in the form of an order, but the names of the payee and of the paying Postmaster are left blank. Thus any person desiring to send asmall sum, say five shillings, to another person living at a distance, can purchase at any post-office for a small fee a a order for the amount already printed, and leaving the spaces above-named blank, can forward this cheque or order to his friend without further trouble. The recipient of the order can then fill in the name of some Post-office, and cash the order at once, when it would of course be cancelled, or he can still leave it blank and use the order as negotiable paper. These orders or cheques will be of immense servioe to persons who are continually sending small sums of money abeut the country. They have the advantages of money orders without the trouble, and of course the department saves the cost and labour of preparing an advice in each case. The new post-office cheque may, in fact, be compared to a miniature Bank of England note, with this advantage, that when the name of the payee and of some particular office has been inserted in the body of the form, there will be an almost certain guarantee that the cheque is cashed by the right person." A DIFFICULT PROBLEM TO DECIDE.—The Paris correspondent of the Daily Telegraph says An amusing incident has jast occurred an the Boulevards, which are always crowded on Sunday afternoon. A young man and a middle-aged woman, coming from opposite directions, entered an open fiacre at tbe same moment. Each gave an address to the driver, w°?t much perplexed, did not know what to do, for his fares" began disputiag each other's rights o the vehicle. An immense crowd quickly collectea, ana manifested the greatest interest in the dispute, io add to the general mirth, a couple of agents de mile arrived, duly armed with the police and cab regulations; but extraordinary to relate, the case was unforeseen by the code," hence each policeman took a different view- one championed the Iadyi the other the gentleman; while at intervals both abused the driver. The latter. being of a facetious turn of mind, kept the company in roars of laughter by hIS comments on the event. Finally the gentleman declared that, though he was on an errant of importance and much pressed for time, he would yield to the fair sex. So saying, he j umped out of the vehicle; bat the lady, content, no doubt, with having Btrikingly asserted women's rights, quickly followed him, exclaiming that she was only on pleasure bent, and bad she known. Her words were lost in the laughter that ensued, and, as both occupants of the cab had disappeared in the crowd, nothing was left for the cabby, whose humour somewhat suddenly turned from gay to grave, but to vent hia displeasure by imprecations on the conduct of the policemen. The latter, however, retired in good order, in spite of the provoking jeers of the multitude, THE LANDED INTBMSTS.—Landed in difficulties, Punch. GOOD NEWS !—Lord Skelmersdale, speaking at the opening of a bazaar in aid of the fund for the erection of the new church of St. Luke's, Southport, said he had very high authority for saying that the heavy cloud of depression under which we had been for a long time was disappearing. There was a rift in the cloud, which he hoped and trusted would open until we saw the blue sky ef prosperity above us once more. THE EFFEcr OF HARD TIMES. — Mayfair Bays :— II The notion that education is a luxury, and in hard times must be cut down to the smallest proportions, is not confined to the parents of School Board children. Governesses are making their grievances known in part just at this moment; and with the usual futility. Nothing but a scarcity of governesses will bring the salaries of well educated ladies up to the level of house- maids' wages. But what becomes of teachers of languages in these times ? One of them-a most ac- complished liDgu'si, who had within a few years an excellent connection amongst English families—said to me the other day, No, I have hardly any English pupils now. When money is scarce English people do not want to learn French, German, or Italian. Most ot my P'ipils now are foreigners, who wish to learn iiiagitsn. 1 here is a moral in that contrast for those who care to read it," CONSCIENCE MONET.—The Commissioners of Inland Revenue acknowledge the receipt of the second halves of bank-notes for jS140, forwarded as unpaid Income-tax and 3 per cent. interest. CEYLON. — A correspondent writes (says The Times) i—" According to the 'Ceylon Directory and Handbook,' Ceyl m, with its population of 2J millions, covers 24,000 square miles of area. Its revenue is a million and a half, and it has a trade of 11 to 12 millions. There are large Crown reserves of valuable land. Th", public debt last year was less than £800,000. of which £ 250,000 was lately paid off and £ 100,000 funded, so that only half a million remains. Sir John Cooie, it is understood, has now fully matured his plans for the breakwater (already far ad- vanced in construction), jetties, and warehouses at Colombo, which are calculated to make the com- mercial capital of Ceyl jn the great steamer and calling port of the E t&t; and this authority is, I understand, sanguine that the local estimates of receipts from port dues, & after the harbour is complete are much too low, although they show interest and debt sinking fund fully provided for, so that this great work will be altogeth,r reproductive. But, so far as the island trade is concerned, there can be no doubt that without the completion of an united railway system to feed the harbour works from the interior the latter will not be so great a success as they otherwise would be.' CONSOLATION FOR BEREAVED MOURNERS. -Conso- lation of bereaved mourners in Katiristan takes a somewhat, peculiar form, according to a lecture re- cently delivered at Simla by Dr. Bellew, now Political Officer with General Roberts' Kuram force. When a friend p,iye a v'si1: "f condolence, he removes his cap and throws it violtntiy on tb3 floor at the door of the room in which the chief mourner is seated. He then draws his dagt. tr, aud stepping up to the mourner raises hi in to hi* fer.t, kicks bim all round the room, set* him in his foimer place, sheathes his dagger, and, picking up his cap, departs. At Kafir christenings a feast is giveE, and the mother holds the child in her arws whilst the names of its ancestors are repeated. The child hf'Il'8 itself to what it wants, and the name mentioned at that moment becomes its own. NEW VARIETIES OF WHEAT.—Nine entries have been made in competition for the prizes offered by the Royal Agricultural Society of England for distinctly new varieties of wheat, combining the largest yield of grain and straw per acre, with approved form and size, smooth and thin skin, full and white kernel. and high spwific gravity in the seed, and with bright, firm, and stiff straw, Each competitor is required to send one sack of corn, a oortion of which will be retained for purposes cf comparison and arrangements have been made for the cultivation of the remainder (divided into equal portions) by skilled agriculturists in four localities aiffnring in respect of soil and climate. The prizes are two in number, viz., j325 and £10, and will be awarded for the best varieties of the crop of 1880, thus cultivated under the Society's auspices. Thd S .iaty have also determined to offer similar prizes in 1882, in order that the newer and im- proved Bpecirxiens then submitted may be tested by them during the ensuing season. A COSTLY DISH.—Oving to recent feasts carpesala Chambord ht.ve frequently been mentioned (says the Court Journal). It is a very costly dish, and one that the imperial gluttons of ancient Rome would never despise. It ia tb,, most expensive plat in modern cookery, and shows how far we are from the fowl in the pot, which Henri IV. hoped every Frenchman would be able to have weekly. Much depends upon the nsh those were most in request that were formerly fattened in the flat-bottom**? boats on the Ill, near the Rhine. They coat aa much as 800 francs a-piece, and one was brought from Strasborgto Paris and back again, un- able to fild a purchaser at the price fixed. The carp was kept alive in the boot of the mail coach by means of bread dipped in wine, Among the fifty good things that enter into the garniture of the dish are truffles, mushrooms, hearts of artichokes, cray fish, anchovy butcer, champagne, cocks' combs, &c. OVERLOOKING THE DRAWBACKS -Speaking at the annual dinUl r of the Long Sutton Agricultural Asso- ciation, Sir W. E. Welby Gregory, M.P., said there was a general revival of prosperity in the United States, and there were signs of its reaching our own shores. This meant an increased consumption of our own produce but would farmers ever be able to make head against the foreign competition to which they were expoff i ? He did not despair of their being able to do so. lId thought there were elements in the cal- culation of their chances which were often overlooked by those who took a desponding view of the matter. In the United States, in Canada, and in other parts of the world there were vast tracts of country which could produce corn and cattle at wonderfully cheap rates, and the cost of conveying their produce to our shores was also very small. But we were apt to over- look the drawbacks to which those who dwelt in those countries were exposed, such as the severity of the winter, the droughts of summer, and the ravages of insects, which, he was told, resulted frequently in the osi of two and sometimes three crops out of five.

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