-=- A QUESTION OF PRIVILEGE." In the House of Commons, on Monday night, Mr. Newdegate rose to call attention to a matter personal to himself, and likewise touching the privileges of the House. During the recess a great number of state- ments had appeared with resptct to his conduct, and to the observations he made in moving for the Select Committee of Inquiry respecting monastic and con- ventual institutions and it was surprising that writers in newspapers should venture to assail a member of that House in a manner of which he would now pro- ceed to give one instance. On Saturday last the Tablet contained the following statement: We hefr that in the clubs people are beginning to ask how is it :htt Mr Newdegate cAn stifftir the lie to be given' him as he has by Sir Charles Clifford, Father Gordon. Mr. Langdale, and others, and net come forward hkearrau to attempt to substantiate his charges or to retract them." The House would observe that tais was not only a libel in itself, but a compendium of libels, and that therefore, it constituted a gross breach of privilege. He now rose to state that nothing should induce him to take any action out of the House, either in courts of how or elsewhere, in rtference to statement* based on observations of his own bearing on a matter which the House had appointed a Select Committee to consider. He felt it due to himself to state that, ifi deference to the privileges of the House, he would be tempted by no insult to submit this matter either directly or indirectly to any other tribunal than that the appointment of which the House had been pleased to order. He ventured to make this statement because in 1865 he proposed the appointment of a committee of a somewhat similar character, which was not agreed to, but he was afterwards pursued by these same persons in the most insulting manner, with a view, he was convinced, to deter him from the performance of his duty in that House by endeavouring to force him to seek some other tribunal not appointed by the House for the solution of the question he raised and thereby make him waive his privilege as a member of the House. This deterring system was not only attempted against himself, but also, he understood, against; wit. nesses whose testimony might be needed for the inquiry, and it seemed to him to be a direct and deliberate breach of the privileges of the House. He was pre- pared to uphold the truth of the statements which he had made in the House, but he had committed one error which he now desired to correct. He stated on moving for the Select Committee on the 29th of March that the daughter of a respectable person in this town was persuaded to enter a convent at Hammersmith before she was 16 years old. That was an error, for the convent referred to was at Finchley. He would not now go into the reasons which led to the confusion but he hoped the House would excuse his explaining that it was in deference to the privileges of the House that he refrained from taking any further steps in reference to the gross libel he had called attention to.
PROCLAMATION OF THE EMPEROR NAPOLEON. The Emperor of the French has addressed the fol- lowing proclamation to the nation:— The Constitution of 1852, drawn up by virtue of the power you intrusted to me, and ratified by the eight millions of votes which re-established the Empire, has given to France 18 years of peace and prosperity, not unattended with glory. This Constitution has secured order, and has at the same time left a way open for every improvement. And, indeed, the more security has been consolidated the largpr has been the share accorded to liberty. But successive changes have altered the base3 of the Plebiscite, which could not be modified without a fresh appeal to the nation. It became, therefore, indispensable that the new Constitutional Pact should be approved by the people, as the Constitutions of the Republic and uf the Empire formerly were. In those two epochs the belief was, as is my own belief at the present time, that everything done wi'hout you is Illegal. The Constitution of France, ImperiAl and Democratic, when confined to a limited number of essential regulations which cannot be changed without your assent, wi Ijhave the advantage of rendering definitive the progress that has been accomplished, and of shielding the principle of government frsm political fluctuations. Time, too often lost in fruitless and passionate contro- versies, may henceforth be more advantageously employed in seeking the means of Increasing the moral and material well-being of the greatest number. I speak to all of you who since the 10th of December, 1848, have surmounted every obstacle in order to place me at your head and to you who for 22 years have incessantly added to my greatness by your votes, supported me by your co-oper*- tion, and rewarded me by your affection. Give me another proof of your confidence! By balloting affirmatively you will conjure down the threats of revolution, you will seat order and liberty on a solid \jasis, and you will render easier for the future the transmission of the Crown to my son Eighteen years ago you were almost unanimous in con- ferring the most extensive powers upon wo. Be now, too as numerous in giving in your adhesion to the transforma- tion of the Imperial regime. A great nation cannot attain to its complete development without leaning for support upon institutions which are a guarantee both for stability and progress. To the request which I address to you to ratify the liberal reforms that have been reallsed during the last ten years answer Yes! As to myself, faithful to my origin, I shall Imbue myself with your thoughts, fortify myself in your will, and, trusting to Providence, I shall not cease to labour without intermis- sion for the prosperity and greatness of France. April 4, 1870." "NAPOLEON. Saturday's Journal Officiel publishes an Imperial de- cree by which the French people are called upon to as- semble on the 8th of May and accept or reject the fol- lowing Plebiscitum The people approves the liberal reforms effected in the Con stitution since I860 by the Emperor, with the co-operation of the great bodies of the State, and ratifies the Senatus Con- sultum of the 20th April, 1870. The voting will last from six o'clock in the morning to six o'clock in the evening. The Prefects, may, how- ever, if requested, fix the time for the commencement of the proceedings at five o'clock in the morning. The voting will be by ballot, with printed or written bulletins, bearing the words "Yes" or "No."
THE SEFTON LIBEL CASE. Mr. W. C. Leng. Editor and Managing Proprietor of the Sheffield Daily Telcgragh, has sent the following letter to The Tinut for publication I think it is not usual in this country to cosdemn a man without hearing from him a word of explanation or defence. I therefore appeal to your seils. of fairness to insert this plain statement of fact in the matter of the unhappy libel which has been so severely commented upon inyour columns. In the first place, it is not true that the rumour with re- spect to the Princi of Wales first apppared or was originated in the She field Doily Telegraph. The unfortunate para- graph in which the Prince was named appeared in a London evenintr paper on Saturday, April 2. It was telegraphed to #=* office, in common with nearly all the daily newspaper offices in the provinces, by the agents of the Press Associa- tion in London. Several country papers had previously published the same rumour, with even greater circumstan- tiality and it must have been current long before, for I have before me an American paper of March 30, in which a Linden telegram of March 28, couples the Prince's name w 1 "*}, "another divorce suit," th- ugh other names are omitted. The Sheffield Daily Telegraph, therefore, in no sense originated the scandal. What it is responsible for, and deeply regret it, is that the paragraph so copied from ii.Liv n evening paper, and telegraphed here, was pub- that I Us 0 days after its appearance in London, and mat m my absence through illness, without my knowledge or assent, one of my sub-editors, in a moment of deplorable maiiicretton. Added to this paragraph a line containing the names of the Earl and Countr ss Sefton. nnViwh' ordinary circumstances I should have waited ^;Lthr!Ca'e c,a,m,e sgain into court before making public an explanation which has already In substance been tendered, coupled with the amplest apology, to those who have so much reason to feel aggrieved but, as the case has been ui) V have no other resource than to seek the same J^lcityfor explaining the facts, and to ask whether, after hearing them, 1 can be held criminally responsible for an act in which I had no part, which is contrary to the whole tenour of my instructions, and which I repudiated and deepiy deplored from the first moment when it came to my WC' £ ?' n,r, nee? notur«e the Character which tne Sheffield Daily Telegraph has maintained for freedom from UOtlloiH writing..No instructions can have been more express or repeated than those given in this office to avoid any such literary garbage, and in the six years during which the paper haq been in the hands of its present proprietors not a single libel case has come into court in which we have been defendants. This is not the history of a journal given to the style of writing which you so Justly condemn. Tn a more humble way the jshe field Daily Telegraph may claim to be as con- scientious and as e'tR'er to avoid offending the law as any newtpaper in or out of London. But the experience of editors and managers, even of the most carefully conducted journals, will teach them bow im- possible it is, being so much at the mercy of subordinate'; to itvoid offence. In this instance a grave offence has been committed-one which, apart from legal consequences, has given to all who are interested in this paper the greatest concern, Under such circumstances, and remembering that I am the subject of criminal, not civil proceedings, I think I may ask for the consideration of other journalists, includ- ing even those who, from natural indignation at the offence, have judged and condemned me unheard. I say nothing now about the harshness of the law which, as I believe in the case of journalists alone, makes an Englishman crimi- nally responsible for the acts of another, even acts which he may with all his heart deplore as I do, and against which he may have tried to guard by every reasonable precaution.
IRISH EMIGRATION. Mr. Henry Mervyn D'Arcy Irvine, of Castle Irvine, Irvinestown. County Fermanagh, has sent the follow- ing to The Times: — In your number of Thursday, the 21st, your Irish corres- pondent states:—"A great increase in emigration has re- cently arisen, and this is attributed to the discontent which now exists. It is reported that during the past week nearly 1,000 emigrants from Ulster left the port of Derry alone, and they are also leaving by each steamer from Cork and other ports." I am not ia a position to answer posi- tively the reason of emigration increasing all over Ireland, although I believe I can do, and state pretty clearly that it is not from discontent. But with respect to the 1,CCO emigrants alluded to as emigrating from Derry, I am in a position most positively to assert that this emigration was carried out for convenience, and under views consistent with the most stringent rules of political economy. I happen to know many of these emigrants per- sonally, and I also am in a position to know the motives which led most of them to emigrate. Irish emigration is not now, in any shape or manner, what It was formerly. For- merly, in emigrating they left home, family, and friends; they now leave home to meet more of their family and friends to welcome them than they bid Good-bye to at home, and In many instances a home prepared for them also. There is no part of the world where I would land that I would not meet numbers to welcome me, either of the families of my tenants or of those who know me, and I am very sorry to say that numerous Individuals of my teuants' families are still emigrating and about to emi- grate, the principal reason being that as sons and daughters of tenants and no subdivision of farms being allowed, or no new farms to be had, they have no other re- source to uphold their present position in society but to join their friends, who, as I am aware, are doing well and ,pros- perously in every quarter, as I am glad to say those who are left behind in Ulster are doing also There are two extra motives in Ireland for emigration which are already beginning to tell—namely, the proposed Irish Land Bill and the through railway to California and San Francisco. If the Irish Land Bill passes, those tenants who are In possession will remain sn, forbidden to subdivide their lauds, and the landloid being assured of rent will scarcely I-r the sake of an improvement eject any tenant;, no matter how he may farm; and among the 1,000 emigrants alluded to there was ore who came from California to get a farm from myself and I had none to give, nor could he get one elsewhere; and many others emigrated for the same reason, having no hope of getting any farm at present. As California and San Francisco are so easily got to, the influx of Irish toH, always very large, will now be enormous. The correspondence between the Irish there and here is jenor- mous, and as the emigrants report that the climate is very favourable nothing will stop them going. I now atk a fur- ther short space to state how this affects us here. Labourers are not to be had at any money, and the only resource left to landlords and farmers is to lay down a larger portion of their land ingraz ng than usual. ] formerly employed 200 labourers a day I have only now ten, and my farm offices all closed and were it not for English emigration, and that I cm now procure servants and tradesmen from Eagland, I should be obliged to close my establishments altogether. I can state, as far as Ulster is concerned-that is, allowing for the usual exceptions—this is the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth; and I beg to enclose you, for your privats information, what position I am in to have this knowledge, which is better than a week or a fortnight's tour in the North of Ireland.
Jnnùnri Cartrspfln&jitt. [We deem it right to state that we do not at aL times identify olUSelVtli with our correspondent' opinieas.] When the Session opened there was a promise of such abundant legislation that the position of affairs at the close of the Eaater recess is rather discouraging. Neither of the more important bills which Government introduced has yet passed the Commons, and, sup- posing that they all pass the Lower House—or rather that the House pass the bills—they cannot be pre- sented to the Upper House till rather late in the Session. Up to the present time their lordships have had very little to do, and ere long they will have so much work thrust upon them that it is doubtful whether they will be able to get through it. The moral is obvious. ext Session (what a many improve- ments we are always going to have "next Session") some of the Government measures must first be introduced into the House of Lords, and then the work of legislation will be easier. Meanwhile the im- pression is gaining ground that the massacre of the innocents this Session will be unusually severe. Numerous facts have recently been stated which show that emigration from this country is now going on to a large extent. By the aid of Government, by the help of the National Emigration Aid Society, and of other associations, through the agency of Emigration Club", and by individual exertions, there is no doubt that during the whole of the spring and summer of this year there will have been a constant outflow of emi- grants. On the whole this fact is certainly advantage- ous to the mother country; but there is one class that we cannot get rid of, and that is the pauper class. A good deal has been said for and against pauper emi- gration, but the balance of argument appears to have been on the side of the objectors. But now a very im- portant statement, to which too much publicity cannot be given, has been made by the New Zealand, Examiner. Commenting on the pauperismof England, this journal alludes to the "better class" of pauper families, and lays, They are the very class that would be welcome in the colonies. At home they have little that is desirable to look forward to; in New Zealand there is no position which is beyond the reach ef a man of ability and integrity. Would not any board of guardians gladly be relieved of a thousand paupers of this class at the cost of a year's main- tenance? Yet this sum, it has been calculated, would land them in New Zealand." That is the question. An affirmative answer cannot readily be given by any one who has studied the matter; but it is certain that if boards of guardians could be induced to do this, either with the aid of Government or private loans, the burden of pauperism at home would be-lessened, and the poor emigrants would have a new and hopeful career before them. This phase of the emigration question is certainly deserving of more consideration than it has yet received It is said that a number of Fenians have arrived in London from America, and that they contemplate doing damage to some of our public establishments. It is probable enough that there may be exaggerated fears on this head, but it is certain that the chief of the City police sent to the proprietors of The Times a warning that there was some danger of an attack on their office, and that due precautions were taken. The police are now at work endeavouring, by enquiries at lodging-houses and other means, to circumvent the Fenians, and it is to be hoped the guardians of the public safety will have all the success they could desire. The General Post Office authorities have officially stated that it is proposed to commence the new rate of postage on newspapers and printed matter on the 1st of October next, by which time the halfpenny stamp will be issued. It is a pity that the reform is to be so long delayed, but it is a greater pity if it is intended, all is stated, that the halfpenny stamp is only to carry one newspaper under six ounces, and not packets of the same newspapers under that weight. This is not what the advocates of postal reform intended. The Workmen's International Exhibition, which will be opened on the 7th of July at the Agricultural Hall, Islington, is likely to be very attractive, and of a genuine character. It is a pity, perhaps, that it should be inaugurated so late in the season, when so many people will have left town but then it is not intended to be a fashionable lounge, but rather an exhibition of deep interest to maanfactarers, traders, and mechanics. The time for receiving applications for space has now expired, and all articles must be sent in between the 20th of May and the 25th of Jose. The place has already been proved to be admirably adapted for such an exhi- bition, and we may fairly hope that the forthcoming show will be largely attended. The London season would not be itself without the "Picture Exhibitions." The Society of Painters in Water Colours has opened their gallery, and a charm- ing exhibition it is. Other exhibitions will foUow, ard the Royal Academy will ere long have its daily crowds of loungers and connoisseurs, who will go, not because they are particularly fond of paintings, but to see who else* goes, and because it is the thing to do. Now when the fashionable dilettanti have lounged and chatted, and ogled the paintings and one another, would it not be well to open these exhibitions at six- pence instead of a shilling, so as to give the working classes a chance of improving their minds by the con- templation of works of art ? The Crystal Palace programme for the year com- mencing with the merry month of May is a seduc- tive one. On the 7th there is to be a grand opening musical festival. The summer concerts will commence on the 14th, and among the succeeding entertainments will be several flower shows, a Queen's Birthday fite and a Coronation day fête, special amusements for Whitsuntide, a monster Tonic Sol-fa Concert, an exhibition of Church decoration and primitive firework displays, and shows of dogs, birds and pigeons. The public are really much indebted to the directors for providing such unexceptionable entertainments. It is pleasing to find that the new Columbia Fish- market is having a very beneficial influence on the fish trade of very distant parts. A letter from Kinsale says that the market has been an inestimable boon to the fishermen there—that vessels come there from Lowestoft, Cornwall, the Isle of Man, Boulogne, Havre, etc., and that efforts are being made to erect a quay to cure fish on, to dry nets, land fish, etc. A very large proportion of the fish coming to this Irish port is sent to Columbia Market. The establishment of this new market has already somewhat cheapened fish, and has certainly benefited the eastern fisheries. In fact, to all parties concerned, except a few would- be monopolists, Miss Burdett Coutts's philanthropic acheme has proved a great boon. The new market, moreover, has done very little, if any, injury to Bil- lingsgate. There is ample room for the two. Is it not very strange that nothing has ever been heard to clear up that mysterious robbery of nearly JB10,000 in bank-notes? The robbery took place so long ago as the 5th of February last, and though a re- ward of £ 1,000 was offered for the apprehension of the thief, and though the numbers of the notes were flashed all over the world by telegraph, nothing has transpired to indicate who stole them, where they were taken to at first, or what has become of any of them. Have they been destroyed Are they or any of them still wandering about the world? Their non-discovery all mysterious as their disappearance. Are bicycles a nuisance ? That is a matter of opinion bat sometimes they undoubtedly are, and it is well at all events, that velocipedista should know where they nay and where they may not ride. They may not ricfa on the pavement—that has just been settled by a lad being fined half-a-crown for doing so. But may they may ride in the road. Well, cela depend. If a man can't ride he musn't ride—which seems droll, but is a more sensible rule than it appears. And if a man can ride and rides not wisely, but too well, he certainly ought to be kept within bounds. One of our magis- trates now has under consideration a case of this kind. A "youth" was showing off his skill in the public road. Perhaps it is not too much to say that there was "youth at the helm and pleasure at the prow," supposing a velocipede has a prow; but be this as it may, he was treating the public roadway as though it had been a circus for bicyclical (how many new words this mechanical horse is giving us 1) perfor- mances. He confined himself strictly to the roadway, bat circled about and rode round at a great pace— eight or nine miles an hour." The magistrate said this was the first case of the kind—" furiously riding a bicycle "—that had come under his notice, and he would take time to consider. Perhaps a little magisterial ^verity in such cases would do good. It has been officially decided to do in New York what might very well be done all over the United Kingdom. The Legislature has decreed that every re- sidence in that city shall have its fire-escape. No such change could be produced here but by Act of Parlia- ment, for all the writing and talking in the world would not induce people to have fire-escapes. And yet there is no difficulty. Either a rope-ladder or a slight iron chain-ladder would answer the purpose, and they might be kept in a box affixed to the outside of a house, say near one of the top windows. The fire-escape arrange- ments on the whole inthiacountryarebad, and to a great extent they are necessarily bad; but surely it would be possible to leave fire-escapes at each house so that a person being burned to death ahould be a very rare exception to the general rule. As a somewhat kindred xabject let me say a word about the laxity in enforcing the present law with regard to the storage of gun- powder. A tradesman has just been fined JB20 for atorfog 2,200 pounds of gunpowder on his premises, the taw atlowing him to store only 200 pounds. The fine as too 81&ll for so grave an offence, the danger of which may be estimated from the fact that a night or two More this penalty was imposed an explosion took place on the premises next but one to where this powder was stored. And I wonder at how many places at this moment is more gunpowder stored than the law allows.
CAPTURED AND MURDERED BY BRIGANDS. The telegrams have informed us that the three Englishmen — Mr. Vyner, Mr. Herbert, and Mr. Lloyd-and the Italian Secretary of Legation, who were captured by brigands in Greece a fortnight since, were all murdered on Thursday night or Friday morning in last week. The Greek Government had been only too zealous in its attempt to rescue the prisoners, and thus to free the country from the disgrace of their capture within a few hours' journey of the capital. The brigands, closely pursued and hard pressed by the troops, determined that if they did not receive the ex- pected ransom their unhappy prisoners should pay the penalty. The telegraph reports that the travellers were thus murdered in cold blood. Mr. Vyner was a younger brother of the Countess de Grey and Ripon, and was travelling for pleasure in the East. Mr. Herbert was the third secretary of the British Legation at Athens, and a comin of Lord Carnarvon. Mr. Lloyd was a barrister engaged in railway practice, and was called to the bar in 1858. Count Boyle is said to have been the Secretary of the Italian Legation in Athens. Lord Muncaster is a Baron in the peerage of Ireland, and a Baronet of Great Britain. He succeeded his brother in 18f 2. and married a neice of the Earl of Scarborough in 1863.
The followicg particulars, the substance of which is derived from a letter written by Lord Muncaster, have been published:— "On Saturday, the 9th of April, Lord Muncaster, who, with Lady Muncaster and a friend, Mr. Frederick Vyner. a younger brother of Lady de Grey and Ripon, was travelling in the East, applied, through the British Legation at Athens, far information as to the safety of visiting the plains of Marathon, and if an escort was necessary and could be fur- nished to enable them to do so. The reply was to the effect that the road was safe; that there were no brigands in Attica, but that an escort would be provided. Accordingly, on Monday, the 11th of April, at 6 30 a.m.. the party. consisting of Lord and Lady Mun- caster, Mr. Frederick Vyner, Mr. Herbert, one of the Secre- taries to Her Majesty's Legation, Count de Boyl, Secretary to the Italian Legation, and Mr. and Mrs. Lloyd, with their young child, five years of age, left Athens in two cirrisgts under the escort of four mounted gendarmes for Marathon, accompanied by a Suliote named Alexandroi, the most ex- perienctd and intelligent dragoman in Greece. "On traversing the plain, they fonsd a small detachment of six infantry soldiers, and afterwards a larger one of 25, apparently patroiling the road. After exploring the scene of one of the most interesting events in history, they atart.d to return to Athens. The detachment of 25 men appears to have endeavoured to keep company with them, but was unable to do so, and they again passed the smaller party of six men, who succeeded in keeping tolerably close in their rear At 4.30 p.m., entering a thickly-wooded part of the road near the bridge of Pikerneas, two mounted gendarmes riding one on either side of the carriages, and two front, a volley was suddenly fired into them, killing one of the gendarmef, and mcrtally wounding; another. The road was immediately filled with brigands, who forced the occupants out of the car- riages, using much violence, striking, though not severely. Lady Muncaster, and tearing off her watch and lockets, and menacing with knives the lives of all. They hurried their captives up the side of Mount Penteiicus, but had scarcely got 60 yards from the road when the six infantry soldiers came up and at once commenced firing into the brigands, who returned the lire. "The soldiers, finding themselves overmatched (the brigands being upwards of twenty in number), happily discontinued the engagement, which would have been probably fatal to the captives, who were collected in a body in their midst. "The brigands then hurried their prisoners up the alopesof Penteiicus, and after two hours' walking they put the ladies on the horses of the dismounted gendarmes, and, with one servant, let them go to AthenL "After the ladies had gone, the five gentlemen and Alexandros were compelled to walk with them up and down wooded ravines, sometimes resting for half an hour, till about two a.m. on Tuesday, the 12th of April, when they stopped in a dry watercourse to kill and roast three lambs, making their captives sit round the lire, and pressing upon them the insides of the animals. Weariness and depression of spirits had deprived them of appetite, even if the food had been more attractive, and they partook of nothing except some black bread and water, which was all the nourishment they had for upwards of 48 (?) hours. 1' Resuming their march, they halted again about daybreak, and all Tuesday lay under some bushes; luckily it was fine, so they did not suffer much. During that day they consulted as to what was to be done, and it was agreed to ask for one of their number to be allowed to to to Athens to arrange for payment of the ransom they demanded, and an amnesty. Alter several hours' talk between Alexandros and the captain of the band, the terms of ransom were settled so far as that the captain of the brigands reduced the enormous sum demanded, of £ 50.000 to the still enormous and extravagant sum of £ 21,000. He would not, however, suffar any further discussion, but, growing Impatient, said emphatically, Finish quickly!' The captives then arranged that Lord Muncaster should be the person to go in and make the arrangements necessary for his own and companions' release -a promise being exacted by the brigands that, failing in his mission, he was to return, and that the lives of the others depended on his success. Ihey promised to let Lord Man- caster go that night, but did not do so, as they could getne guide, and none of the brigands dared to be seen with one of their captives. "On Tuesday, throughout the night, they walked over boggy plains, and up and down hills, wet through from heavy rain, In which they lay down for three hours, till six in the mo-ning, when they started again, and then stopped for the day in a ravine, where a shepherd was found and a small cart obtained in which Lord Muncaster proceeded to Athens He, of course, made Immediate arrangements for sending food and clothing to his unfortunate friends, and for obtain- ing the money, which was promptly and generously placed' at his disposal by a merchant in Athens. The only difficulty lay in the transport of so large a turn in gold. — ■'
The following account, by Mr. Thomas Cook, of the earlier circumstances connected with this terrible tragedy, has been forwarded for publication :— "GreeK brigandage has long been the terror of visitors to Athens, and has tended very much to deter timid tourists from entering the country. On the day of our arrival here (Monday, April 11) an exciting and distressing illustration of this 'reign of terror' was realised. The three next chairs to that which the writer occupied at the table were turned down for an absent party, who did not arrive to take possession of them. In the early morning they bad gone, in the company of others, to eee the famed battle-field of Marathon. The party consisted of the Lord and Lady Muncaster, Mr. and Mrs. Lloyd and their little daughter, Mr Vyner, a travelling friend of his Lordship, Mr. Herbert, Secretary to the British Legation, and Mr. Boyl, Secretary to the Italian Legation. One of the chief guides of the city ac- companied them and an escort of four policemen. We are told that on the previous night, at the dinner-table of our hotel, they laughed and joked about their anticipated excur- sion, and their exposure to the possibilities of an attack of brigands. Their jokes were turned into sad realities, and soon after dinner, on Monday evening, the two ladies, the little lassie, and two of the policemen, returned to tell the story of the capture of the nobleman and gentlemen of the party, their guide also being detained. It is reported that as the party were returning from Marathon, through a narrow pass between the hills, the four policemen were fired at, and two of them received mortal wounds, one of them dying immediately, and the other lingering till this morning. A posse of about thirty heavily-armed brigands rushed from behind the bushes which lined the sides of the road and captured the whole of the gentlemen. The ladies were also required to dismount from their places in the carriages. The ladies, after enduring the menaces and curious examinations of the highwaymen, were liberated, and. accompanied by two of the policemen returned to Athens. The police- men were empowered to offer terms of ransom, on thn double condition of an amnesty and a sum of .E1,OCO,0 0 drachmas, amounting to about £32,000 sterling. No wonder that this sad event should excite the whole populations of city and country as the news spread; and as there was danger of exaggeration and mistake, we at once telegraphed to our London office the names of the party and the chief facts, adding the assuring words that Cook'a party were all safe.' The propriety of this course W2o.ll soon evident, as one of our party was told up the Piraeus that the captives were of eur number. At the time of writing these notes, little reliable information can be obtained, but a great variety of rumours are afloat. This morning (Wednesday) it is positively stated that it is part of a political movement for embarrassing and effecting a change of Government. But the haul is considered to be so valuable that the captors will not reduce their demands, and the grave question is where the money is to come from. On receipt of the news, a troop of cavalry was despatched and also a number of foot soldiers; but, with the view of saving the lives of the captives, they have been recalled, and the matter is one of bandit-diplomacy -one of the unavoidable humiliations of a weak Govern- ment. Most disastrous is the event regarded by the people of Athens, as it must have the effect of discouraging still fur- ther the visits of those upon whom they have to rely for most of their support. Guides are deploring the loss of oc- cupation hotel keepers may well fear the consequences; cab proprietors and cabmen view the results with the same fearful apprehension; the complications which it will occa- sion cause quiety-disposed politicians to tremble and the whole population is moved with fear, with the exception of those who are suspected of having sympathy with the per- petrators of the crime. Our own party would have been over the hills and far away but for this event, but it is now deemed prudent to keep within the precincts of the city. Should political ends be aimed at, the plo is likely to be widespread, and there would in all probability be more than a single and daring band of 30 brigands. I will wait and see the result of reported impending negotiations, and finish these notes at the latest moment before the departure of the mail. Thursday Morning, April 14. At the moment that the closing paragraph of the above was written, yesterday, Lord Muncaster arrived at the hotel, being brought here in a little waggon, in charge of a peasant of the mountains, on parole, for the purpose of negotiating with the Government, and to get supplies of food and cloth- ing for his Lordship's friends in the brigand camp. The Minister of War and our Minister, the Hen. Mr. Erskine, had a conference at the hotel with his Lordship, after which the noble captive, true to the word and honour of an English- man, was reported to have sustained the integrity of his parole and allowed himself to be taken back in the same ignominious manner in which he had been brought hither, in charge of large supplies of food, furnished by our host. It was currently reported that the terms proposed by the brigands for the liberation of the captives had been raised from Z-32,000 to 440,000, the amount to be paid in English gold, and a free pardon assured to the thieves and murderers. That the last appellation Is strictly correct was affirmed by the funeral of one of the policemen, which we witnessed immediately after the reported departure of his Lordship. This sad event drew together an immense con- course of spectators of all classes in the cathedral and at the grave. About a score of our party being recognised in the cathedral, we were invited to places close to the chair of the officiating archbishop, and to each of us was presented a candle, to be held in accordance with the custom of the Greek Church. Apart from the symbols, the insignia, and the nasal intonatIOn of the prlestP, the funeral service was very solemn and affecting. In an open coffin before us lay the murdered soldier (or gendarme), his face naked, and his body clothed in the official dress in which he had been shot, with his little military cap, resembling those worn by French gendarmes, on his head. Ihe body was surrounded with flowers, and on his breast was a little framed picture, the subject of which we could not recognise, but as all who kissed the face first kissed the picture, we took it for a Madonna, or some other emblem of the Saviour. Hymns and prayers were chanted, the patriarch read extracts from the Scriptures, including the scene at the grave of Lazarus, the solemn service commencing, I atn the resur- rection,' <ftc and a lengthy written paper read by the chap- lain of the army, which seemed to excite much interest, Then followed a closing benediction and address to the relatives and friends of the deceased, during which the lights were ex- tinguished, the distressed widow and several children were assisted to take their last look upon and to kiss the lifeless cheeks of the murdered husband and father, and then friends and comrades rushed forward in like manner to ex- press their sympathies, many of them in tears. The cere- mony ended, a procession was formed, headed by the usual insignia of the Greek ceremonial, and with the face of the corpse still bare, it was removed to the cemetery. The ser- vice in the cathedral occupied nearly an hour, and the procession was nearly half an hour before it reached the grave around which a large concourse gathered. There was no religious ceremony, except a few words from the priests as the corpse was lowered into the grave, but here a scene of great interest was witnessed. A soldier of the dragoons stood by the corpse, and delivered an energetie, impassioned, and affecting oration, which drew tears from many of the crowds As this oration was in Greek we could only judge of its power by the attitudes and expression of the speaker, and its effects on those who understood the words but it was evident that the whole soul of the man gave utterance in one of the finest touches of Greek oratory. Three rounds of firing by a group of soldiers simultaneously with the filling of the grave closed this affecting inci tent of the excitement of the week. As in the cathedral, so at the grave, the greatest courtesy was shown to the few English spectators. The soldiers cleared a way and beckoned to each of us to take a position as near as possible to the oorpse, and the orator made touching allusions to the English
The Leicestershire Chronicle publishes, in its issue of the 22nd of April, the following letter from Mr. J. E. Hodges to his brother Mr. George H. Hodges, of Leicester "Athens, April 13. "I must now tell you of an event which has occurred here, and which has filled Athens with excitement. It seems that Lord and Lady Muncaster, Mr. Vyner, Mr. and Mrs. Lloyd, and daughter (a child of six years old), all of whom were staying at this hotel, accompanied by the Secretaries of the English and Italian Legations, left here on Monday morning for a visit to Marathon, a few miles from here. They started in two carriages, accompanied by a well-known guide, and a guard of four soldiers. They took luncheon with them, intending to be back to dinner. It appears they had completed their excursion, and had got about half-way home again, when they were attacked by a party of brigands, numbering about thirty. They stopped the carriages, shot one of the soldiers dead on the spot, and severely wounded another. 'I hey then took the whole party prisoners, except one coachman, who escaped, and came in here, while we were at dinner, with the news. Their places at tab'e being empty, there had been some joking about their having been captured we little thinking such was the dreadful fact. The man was taken at once to the Hon. Mr. Erskine, our Minister here, to relate the story, and in a snort time a party of soldiers was sent in different directions in pursuit. "About half-past 10 at night Lady Muncaster and Mrs. Lloyd and child returued with the two unwounded soldiers, confirming the news, and adding that the gentlemen had been taken to the mountains, and that the brigands demanded a ransom of a million drachmas. It appears none of the party are injured, although one of the ladies was struck to force her out of the carriage but they were not even robbed. No further news was heard till lext morning, when, by the 'a advice of Mr. Erskine, the soldiers were recalled, it being thought that if the brigands were attacked the lives of their captives might be endangered. The troops are now back again I have jast beemaJking to agentlemanwhoia travel- ling with the party, and who has juat returned from an interview with the Hon. Mr. Er.-kine, and the impression is the money will have to be paid, and that very soon, as it is an easy matter for the brigands to escape into Turkish territory, where they would be comparatively safe. As you may imagine, the excitement is intense, and we have had no further news till now Wednesday. "The King, with one of his Ministers, has Just arrived, and has sent for Lord Muncaster to his palace. It is a marvellous thing that, within two hours of the capital of Greece, are a set of scoundrels dictating terms to this Government, as though they were a powerful nation, with an accredited Minister in the form of a brigand, who brings despatches, coolly waiting an answer "I have entered somewhat Into detail, as from the position of the captives, it will create considerable sensation, and of course there will be various stories of this affair; but this I know is correct as far as events have transpired. While I was sitting to-day writing in my room, I heard a great commotion, and, on going out to learn the cause, found Lord Muncaster had been rtl-ased on parole, either to send the ransom, or te return himself in three hours. You will be surprised when I tell you that, after he had had an inter view with Mr. Erskine and two other gentlemen, a wretched-looking horse and cart drove to the hotel door, which was filled with food and clothing for the captives, as it is said the brigands have none. Lord Muncaster fol- lowed in a carriage, and has gone back to the brigands. The result of his interview with Mr. Erskine has not transpired. The troops, however, are not to be sent in search-and all this happening in a civilised country—sup- posed to have a Government. We intended to have gone- to Marathon on Thursday but, of course, shall not do so now. I have just returned from the funeral of the soldier who was killed. The Greeks bury their dead with their faces exposed, In fact, there is no coffin lid at all. The ser- vice was very grand and impressive, and the church crowded. It was a painful sight to see the relatives, friends, and comrades kiss the dead man before he was carried out of church. "April 14. "It is the strangest thing that there Is a regular corre- spondence going on between the captives and their friends in this hotel. More food and clothing is sent for, and Lord Muncaster is back here again. A cut-throat looking scoundrel is waiting outside his door, having brought him a letter. It is stated that the brigands have raised their demands, and also demand a free pardon; and if not accepted in three days, they declare they will cut the throats of their captives and leave them." and leave them."
With reference to this melancholy event a correspon- dent writes as follows :— "It is due to the memory of the victims of this dreadful tragedy, Englishmen who have been murdered in a foreign country, that the following points should be clearly under- atood:- 1. That the expedition to Marathon was undertaken with the full knowledge and consent of the Greek Government, uuder the formal protection of an escort, and even. as there is reason to believe, with the assurance that such protee- tion Was unnecessary. 2. That the capture of the whole party occurred within a very few miles of Athens, and that when it had so taken place the means of ransom to the last farthing were imme- diately forthcoming, without reference to the Greek Govern- ment. 3. That the Greek Government were distinctly warned that any employment of force against the brigands would be followed by the massacre of the prisoners, and that they gave a solemn promise, which Was communicated to the brigands that they should not be molested. That, false to this promise, the Greek Government did send, or allow to be sent, troops, who surrounded the brigands, and thus deliberately provoked the massacre. 5. We know that the annesty was a vital point with the brigands, and would have saved the prisoners. The Greek Government refused this on apparently frivolous grounds but assuming that their objection to It was reasonable, it was at least a matter for further consideration. By attacking the brigands, the Greek Government destroyed all chance of success, and are thus now wholly and solely responsible to the English people."
The Athens Correspondent of the Levant Herald, writing on the 12th, gives the following account of the capture of the party Yesterday, about 9 p.m., the bad news reached Athens that the band of the Arvaniti and Spanos, composed of twenty-two brigands, had captured between Marathon and Pik-rmi, at five bourt,'di, tance from the capital, e gat foreigners of distinction,—nuintly, Lord and Lady Muncnsier andthfcircjusinfwhoi-.rrivedlierethreedaysbefon}, Ni r. Her- bert, Secretary to El. M. legation, Count Boyle, first lecretary ot the Italian legation. ilr Llojd, an English barrister, with his wife and a little daughter six years old, together with the Italian servant of Count Boyle and a dragoman. The party had left Athens on the morning of the 8th for Marathon, and after having visited the historic battle- field, was returning to the capital, when, about three p m hitVi) g reached a small stream, they were saluted by a discharge of firearms from a party of brigands am- bushed round the spot. The shots were first fired at the geunarmes who escorted the carriages, and with such efftct that one man and his horse were killed and another wounded by the first volley, two others were at the same time pounced Oil and captured. The carriages were also immediately seized, and the robbers then dashed out from their cover in two bodies, one of which kept up the fire agatnst ttie elcort-which was only composed of ten foot and four mounted soldiers who had closed in round the scene of the fight, while the second body, sword in hand, seisad the carriages and made the travellers alight. This latter party theu carried off their prisoners in the direction ot Pen- telicus, while the remainder of the band covered their rear. The diforganiled escort kept up a dropping fire after them, but soon gave up the pursuit—the robbers (say the escort) shouting out that if they persisted they would murder the whole of the prisoners. After the soldiers had retired, the brigands being more free in their move- ments, directed thetr steps towards Penteiicus, which they reached in a couple of hours. They there released the two laoiea, the little girl, the Italian servant, and the two gendarmes, after having stripped them of all the, possessed. The liberated prisoners arrived at Athens about eleven o'clock, in a state of consternation which may be imagined. On the way they met eight suspicious looking characters wearing the fustonella, going in the direction of Penteiicus, who were probably to form a reinforcement of the band of brigands. The news of this audacious outrage, perpetrated almost at the very gates of the capital, spread like lightning, and threw the whole town into the greatest excitement. Crowds continued to throng the caf!;1 and streets until one in the morning. It seems that the Government were entirely ignorant of the presence of a band of thirty Attlcan brigands and people do not hesitate to accuse ttee Cabinet, and Jabove all the Minister ot War, especially, of culpable ignorance and neplect. It is said tnat the brigands demand a ransom of £ 30,000 for their prisoners. Writing on the 13th, another correspondent of the Bame paper says:— On Monday evening all Athens was thrown into a state of excitement by a distressing rumour. A mounted gend- arme was said to have ridden up to the Hotel d'Angleterre with the news that a party of English tourists, who had been to visit the field of Marathon, had fallen into an ambush on their return, and been seized and carried off by a band of brigands. The news, unfortunately, proved too true. Lord and Lady Muncaster, Mr. Fredk. Vyner, Mr.-Lloyd, anEoglish barrister, with his wife and little girl, the Hon. Mr. Herbert secretary of H.B.M.'s legation, and Count de Boyle, Secre- tary of the Italian legation, had left Athens on Monday morning on a pleasure trip to Marathon. The authorities hud given them a guard of four mounted gendarmes and had sent on an order to the police posts ou t e road to add five men on foot to this escort. All went well until the return home, when, after having passed the village of Pikerml-.familiar to men of science on account of the interesting fossil-remains discovered there-the party found themselves sud- denly rolled to a halt by a band of fifteen brigands, who covered them with their levelled rifles. On the mounted escort attempting resistance, a discharge of musketry brought two of them from their saddles mortally wounded, and killed the horse of a third. The five gendarmes on foot, who were seme little distance behind, were shopped by another batch of the bandits apparently told off for that pur- pose. In this way, these latter, numbering in all twenty- eight ruffians, were "masters of the situation." Having offered refreshments to their prisoners, and attended to the immediate wants of the wouuded, they then released the ladies and servants, and carried the gentlemen away with them having first given to one of the liberated party to take into Athens a letter in which they fix the ransom for their prisoners at £50,000 sterling. So matters stand for the moment. Lady Muncaster, and Mrs. Lloyd and her daughter, have returned to the Hotel d'Angleterre, and the two wounded gendarmes have been taken to the military hospital, where but little hope is enter- tained of their recovery. Mr. Erskine, her Majesty's Minister, has been in corstant communication with the Government and with the police authorities. One of the first results of his interposition was to put a stop to all pursuit after the brigands, lest the lives of those whom they had in their power should be endangered. That point settled, Mr. Erskine sought to negotiate with regard to the ransom; an offer of 7,0003tg. was refused, and the band do not appear disposed to abate in the least the enormous sum they first demanded. The public consternation at this event is indescribable. Everv one was aware that brigandage had increased to an insufferable extent; but an outrage like this, committed almost at the very gates of the capital, upon the persons of foreigners of high position, is an act of audacity with- out a precedent. At the time of the occupation of Greece by the English and Fronch troops in 1856, a French captain was actually carried off by brigands from the French camp itself between Athens and the Pirseus, but the Greek Govern- ment was, a: that moment, absolved from all responsib-1 ty for the maintenance of public order. The coup de main of Monday last will furnish the enemies of Greece with addi- tional arguments against her; so striking a proof of the deplorable absence of public security cannot fail to give fresh rein to all possible calumnies that can be heaped upon the country. There is extreme indignation against the Ministry. It Is justly remarked that the inca- pacity of the Minister of War for the post he occupies has long been notorious, and that nothing can excuse his reten- tion at the head of a department which is of paramount importance in the suppression of brigandage. His col- leagues, aware of his incompetency, did, it is true, seek to have him replaced by a more capable officer, but M. Soutzoshas always proved skilful enough to frustrate the efforts made to remove him from office. M. Avgherinos, also —whom M. Zalmis, while himself absent in tne suite of the King had entrusted with the Ministry of the Interior- comes in for a full phare of the public blame. People naturally ask, how came it that the Home Minister, whose department it specially concerned, could have been ignorant of the fact that a band of 28 brigands was prowling about Attica ? It is really incredible that a band of such a number should have been able to move about unnoticed at so short a distance from Athens. P.S.—Lord Muncaster has arrived at the Hotel d'Angle- terre within the last hour. He was released by the brigands on promising to send his ransom to them. The other four- Mr. Herbert, Count Boyle, Mr. Lloyd, and Mr. Vyner—re- main in their hands.
The decision upon the petition against the return of Mr. Bernal Osborne for Waterford has been given by Baron Hughes. His lordship said that five out of the eight charges had been withdrawn, and that he did not believe the witnesses called to prove bribery and undue influence. On the whole, he decided against the petitioners, aad saddled them with costs. Mr. Osborne therefore keeps bill seat.
"PINDER v. POTTER." In the Court of Exchequer, the cause of Pinder i. Potter" has been tried, and was an action for libel, tried at the Staffordshire Spring Assizes, before Mr. Baron Martin, and which resulted in a verdict for the plaintiff, damages £20. The defendant is the pro- prietor of the Staffordshire Sentinel, and the plaintiff is a hat manufacturer, but happens also to have been a lieutenant in the Burslem Volunteers, a Staffordshire corps. The libel in question was embodied in a letter appearing in the columns of the Sentinel, herded Our Brave Volunteers;" and it charged the plaintiff with cruelty towards a dog that had been an old pet of the family. The letter purported to emanate from the deceased dog, and was as follows I don't know if all the readers of your newspaper bflieve in the doctrice of transmigration of souls, hm I should like to give you my experience on the subject. You will say, "What has this to do with our brave volunteers?" I will tell you. Until lately I was only a good-sized dog, hut my transmigration has taken place, and I can understand now what people are talking about. I hear that the members of the Burslem Rifle Corps are trying to raise subscriptions. Now I think that in the interest of humanity, people should considt-r what they are going to help before they give their money. In my former state I belonged to one of the officers of the company above mentioned, and for many years 1 was their faithful dog, friend, arid protector. On the whole, I believe I was good-tempered, but having lately lost my master, 1 may, perhaps, have got a little peevish, and did not like to be leased. One night the officer -1 call him so to distinguish him from the rest of the family-tried my temper a lio"d deal. I turned round to frighten him, but did not bite. I saw he looked angry, but, of course, I was only a dog thea, and could not tell what I said or thought, and as we all went to bed as usual I forgot all about it. Next morning I was taken into the garden, and with some trouble tied to a roller there. My heart misgave me, but I thought all Volunteers are brave men, and no brave man would intentionally torture a helpless animal," and when I saw the officer walk into the house I felt sure it must be a joke, and I shouH be untied direetly. Itf seemed a long time after that that I saw him stand at one end of the bed-room windows pointing at me with something, and then I felt a dreadful pain somewhere, and knew that he had shot me. I looked up. and tried to remind kim how often I had protected him and his, but again came a cruel shot. Then I knew that he was gObllr to kill me. I tried to struggle out of my cords, but I could not, and five times I was struck. After that I remembered no more until I found myself what I am. I am able to read and write in my present state; and although I cannot do the latter well, as you see, still, Mr. Editor, I thought I had better ask the people of Burslem, if they are justified in encouraging our townsmen to learn the use of the rifle if it is to be put to such a purpose as I have above stated. With much respect, Mr. Editor, 1 beg to finish this letter with the proverb, A living dog is better than a dead lion." According to the facts disclosed at the trial, the de- ceas;d dog, which was a mastiff, named "Lion," had formerly belonged to the plaintiff's father. P pon one occasion after the death of his father in 1867, it had strayed away, and was found at his grave. It then became the property of the plaintiff's brother, and on his departure for India it was transferred to the plain- tiff. There was no doubt that it was a great pet in the family, and that it was especially dear to the plaintiff's sister. Unfortunately, however, "Lion" began to show signs of an uncertain temper, and these had been especially noticed by the sister so he was under a cloud. At length, one Saturday night, it came to pass that during the progress of the family supper the dog snatched a piece of meat from off the plaintiff's plate, and thereupon the plaintiff pinched his ears, and by so doing made him yield up the meat, but at the same time causing Master "Lion" to growl. Indeed, the crisis was such that Miss Pinder had to stand in the gap and place herself between him and her brother. Sub- sequently she took occasion to disclose her general alarm a, to "Lion's" tendencies, and recom- mended his destruction. Upon that he was led out into the garden by the defendant's servant, and having been chained to the roller, a bowl of food was plaeed before him for the purpose of engrossing the dog's attention and steadying bis movements. Simultaneously the plaintiff, armed with his breech-loader, and sup- plied with ammunition to the extent of ten cartridges, mounted to a bed-room window on the first floor, and, having steadied his rifle on his left arm, he discharged it deliberately at Lion." By the first shot the bowl only was hit, Lion" remaining untouched; and a second and a third discharge were equally resultless. The fourth fire, however, hit the dog, though not vitally, and tbe fifth put him out of the world. The quest on was, Did these facts disclose an intention on the part of the plaintiff to torture the dog ? The de- fendant maintained that they did, and justified his cor- respondent's •ritiscisma. The learned Judge, however, rulrd that there was not a scintilla of evidence to sup- port the charge advanced against the plaintiff, and the jury found a verdict accordingly. Mr. Matthews, Q.C., now moved for a new trial— firs' because of the misdirection of the learned judge in telling the jury that the facts disclosed no evidence of the plaintiff having been guilty of cruelty; and, secondly, because of the verdict being against the weight of the evidence. He urged that the plaintiff should hava used prussic acid, or some other means of speedy despatching the dog, instead of converting an old family friend into a rifle target. Mr. Baron Pigott: Certainly, if the plaintiff's object was merely to indulge in a little rifle practice-that would lork like torturing the dog. Mr. Matthews.: It was evident that he contem- plated missing him the first time, for he supplied him- self with ten rounds of ammunition; and, although a bad shot, he took aim from a considerable distance. The Cnief Baron What distance was the window from the garden roller ? Mr. Baron Martin: There was no evidence what- ever as to that. The Chief Baron, in delivering his judgment, said he was strongly inclined to agree with Baron Martin that the faats disclosed showed no evidence whatever to justify the defendant's plea. But he was certainly of opinion that the veuiict was not opposed to the weight of the evidence. It might be that the plaintiff had adopted an inconsiderate method of destroying the dog but there was certainly no proof that he had been guilty of an intent to torture the old favourite of the family. It was impossible to disturb the verdict. Mr. Baron Pigott thought that in the result there ought to be no rule for a'ne w trial; but at the same time he must say, if the Wt iter of the letter had contented himself or herself with simply stating the facts, and that bad he been one of the readers of the letter, he should have come to the conclusion that it was a very cruel way of destroying the dog, so much so that if the jury had found that the object was to torture it, he should be for disturbing the verdict. Mr. Baron Cleasby said the mode of destroying the dog was undoubtedly ill-considered but it did not follow that because a man acted foolishy that he thereby laid himself open to the charge of intentional cruelty. Mr. Baron Martin If the charge had been that the plaintiff bad acted imprudently, the plea might have been justified; but the sting of the letter was that he, being an officer and a gentleman, did intentioaally torture the dog. He repeated his conviction that there was not a scintilla of evidence to leave to the jury in support of the defendant's plea, or that what had been done was f. r the purpose of enabling the plaintiff to indulge in a lutle rifle practice. The theory as to that was all imagination for the only witnesses examined were those on behalf the plaintiff, as the defendant called none. Rule refused accordingly.
A QUESTION AS TO BUGS. The cause of Lake v. Dipstale" has been before the Court ot Common Pleas, and was an action to recover damages 4 grounds that a house which the plaintiff had taken of tne defendant in Exeter had not been properly repaired according to the agreement, and that part of the premises was luiested with bugs. The case a tne on for trial before the Lord thief Baron at Exeter, when the jury found for the plaintin lor £ lo on the first head of claim, and nothing in respect of ttie second. His lordship, however, directed that a verdict should be entered for the plaintiff for 40s. as to the bugs. Mr. Cole, Q.C., now moved to set aside the verdict as to the 40?. and enter one for the defendant. The Lord Chief Justice observed that the costs of the motion would be ten times the amount of the 40a. Mr. Cole said that the Lord Chief Baron reserved the question of costs, and the question whether the 40s. verdict should stand would probaWy influence him as to certifying for costs. The defendant would rest content if he had no costs to pay. Mr. Lopes, Q C., mentioned that if this rule were granted he should have to move on behalf of the plain- tiff for a new trial upon the ground tha.t the damages in rt-ff-rence tn the objectionable insects were quite in- sufficient. He had no doubt that the Lord Chief Baron had a strong view upon this point. Mrs. Li k-i appeared in the box, and she was a most beautiful lady.. Tne Lord Chief JuBtice Did the bugs destroy her beauty ? (A. laugh.) Mr. Lopes was afraid that they damaged it and that of her child also. Mr. Justice Smith: If the Lord Chief Baron has a strong opinion he will be sure to express it. (Laugh- ter.) Mr. Lopes The jurors were Moor men from Dart- moor, and they looked with contempt upon anybody who would say that he had been injured by a bug. Mr. Justice Smith They lived in a part of the country where there probably were none. The Lord Chief Justice said that the best way would be to speak to the Lord Chuf Baron upon the subject, but the fact of those two motions and the nicety with which the pleadings were drawn might show that the case was a fit one to be tried in a superior court. Judgment was postponed.
UlisttlliiRMiK Jmtfllifprt, HOME, FOREIGN, AND COLONIAL. ATTEMPTED ESCAPE FROM A NOKNERT.—On Suudav moroin?, a nun, known as Sister Agne-, made h-r es: ape from the convent at Baideley, near Knowle, Warwickshire. She was captured by a Mrs. Heath. Although alleged to be icsane, she l ad provided her- self with Victuals, and when seized was on the public ri al, calling to a man to help her. Mrs. Heath ha^for lawny ytarjs been a "con fidential servant in the convent. Sist-r Agnea is described as one of the inner circle," and it gaui that only on rare occasions she bad an opportunity of escaping. At chapel on Sunday morn- ing she feigned illness, and start she would ray her piayersin thegtrden. On getting out she ciambered over a high wall, and got into the road, but was pureued aud captured. The greatest excitement prevailed in the neighbourhood in consequence. A CosTIUDICTION.—On the subject of a recent burglary at th* Hon. Mrs. James Norton's that lady writes to the Echo The Hon. Mrs. Norton presents her compliments to the Editor of the Echo, and. in answer to numerous letters on the subject, wishes to state that no burglary has been com- mitted at her house, that mischance having occurred to the Hon. Mrs. James Norton, widow of a clergyman, the Rev. James Norton, a junior branch of the family. The Hon. Mrs. James Norton is a daughter of Mr. Lowndes, and in- herited a competence from that gentleman; but with respect to any advantage to be gained by a nocturnal visit to the house of the Hon. Mrs. Norton she is anxious—not only for the reassurance of her friends, but for the information of those gentlemen who get their living by these irregular adventures-to declare that the most moderate-minded burglar would be disappointed in the result, unless he were able to avail himself of manuscript papers in verse and prose, and deal for them with some liberal publisher, there being nothing else in her house worth taking. THE EDUCATION QdKSTioN.—A meeting of about three thousand people was held on Monday night at Sheffield, for the purpose of considering the Education Bill and the varions amendments which have been proposed. The meeting expressed itself strongly in favour of undenominational teaching, and Mr. Mundella,M. P., while giving credit to the Govern- ment bill for its provisions, insisted that secular educa- tion was indispensable for the country.—At a meeting of the Education Union at Manchester, Bishop Frazer said it waa unfortunate the education question had passed into the hands of philosophers, doctrinaires, and system-framers, who had no practical knowledge of the matter. He suggested a modification of the Church Catechism. Resolutions in favour of the principles of the Union were passed. Nitw ZBALANDKRS AT COURT.—The Special Cor- respondent of the Southern Cross states that during the viceregal visit to the Thames the Maories who wer., presented to his Excellency brought cards of the newest la-hinn. It was tunny to see one of the na'ives, who presented his card as though he felt vastly important in so doing, but whose whole dress for the occasion consisted of a Crimean shirt and canvas trousers, worn to a fringe at the bottom of each leg. But that native, nevertheless, got through the presentation by no means badly, and he beamed with delight at the hand-shake of the Governor and his Excellency's greeting. A FEVER-STRICKEN TOWN.—Daring the past week Dr. Buchanan, a Government inspector, sent down by the Medical department of the Privy Council, h'lS been ensraged in making a sanitary inspection of the town of Wbitehaven. Attention had been directed to the high rate of mortality in the town, and inquiry showed that during the lafrt four months there had been, out of a population of 19,000 people, between 360 and 370 casi-s of typhus fever, and one patient out of every six hsd died. The medical officer of the local Board of Trustees, on being called upon to report on this sad state of affairs, attributed the frequent occurrence of fever at Whitehaven to overcrowding and defective drainage. Out of 4 538 inhabited houses, 2,500 had no drainage except the surface. He stated that he had urged upon the Board the absolute necessity of enforc- ing a proper and efficient system oi household drainage; some of his suggestions had been adopted, and some had not. Dr. Buchanan commenced a personal in- spection of the town, which occupied him three or four days. The effect produced upon his mind by this in- spection was that, after he had been in the town a few hours, he telegraphed to the Privy Council that White- haven, infected and overcrowded, was not a fit place for the Cumberland Militia to assemble in for their an- nual periodical training. In ordinary course the Militia, mustering, with" camp followers," athousand strong, would have assembled at Whitehaven this week, but the Adjutant, Captain Morris Fawcett, has, by order of the Secretary for War, issued a notice countermanding the former summons, and announcing that the Cumberland Militia are not to assemble this year. They will, however, receive their usual bounty. MATRIMONIAL CHANCKS.- (From the Manches- ter Examiner) A gentleman, aged 30, of good appearance and affection- ate disposition, desires a matrimonial alliance with a domes- ticated lady, possessing an annual income of about £ 400.— Particulars in strict confidence to G. G. &c. "Wanted, by a widower (bond fide), a well-brought up and educated young lady or widow, between 24 and 30, to take charge of his small establishment and family, with a view to matrimony.-Address, with or without carte de visite," &c. A young gentleman (29), of respectable family, is desirous of corresponding with a thoroughly domesticated female with a view to matrimony.—Address, in confidence, enclosing carte de visite (which will be honourably returned if not ap- proved of). C. J. M. &c. To ladies.-A gentleman of position, In the prime of life, is desirous of meeting with a lady in similar circumstances, with a view of marriage; the Continent, if agreeable, would be their chief residence; the strictest privacy may be relied on; cartes exchanged before an interview.—AddreM, in first instance," &c. Tiiz GOLDEN ORIOLE.—Mr. Edward Hearle Rodd writes from Penzance, April 23 It may interest some of your readers to know that a large number of thepe fine-plum aged birds have immigrated to this district and the Scilly Isles during the last few days. Those I have seen were in the most brillIant adult plumaue. A large fl >ck, estimated at 40, were flashed in a large thick covert at Trevethoe, near Hayle, and out of another flock of eight five were obtained. I received a notice by the packet from Scilly to-day that four were seen together on the Trescoe Abbey road another seen on "Sampson" Isle, and others at St. Mary's. The female, in very fine adult plumage, when plaoed by the side of a male, appears considerably larger. SINKING OF THE ANDAMAN ISLANDS.— In a recently issued report on the vegetation of the Andaman Islands, Mr. Kurz. the curator of the herbarium of the Calcutta Botanical Gardens, gives it as his opinion that these islands are in a (■inking state, and mmt eventually disappear. Mr. Kurz, however, has made an estimate which will relieve the superintendent of the settlement, and the 6,000 odd convicts under his charge, of any present fear of a deluge for he assumes that if the process of submersion proceeds at the rate he expects, namely, of one foot in 100 years, it will take 1,000 years before all the stores and houses along the beach at Ross Island disappear under water. Mr. Kurz is not without a reason for the faith that is in him, and seems to have arrived at this conclusion from having observed, at various points of the islands, a vast extent of decaying vegetation, stumps of trees, &c., covered by, or open to the action of, the sea. A RUFFIANLY SOLDIER.- Yesterday evening (says Indian Public Opinion of the 25th of March) a little boy met his death near the Laboree gate in a most shameful manner. In the catal cut which runs past the city some native children were busy amusing themselves picking uo the flowers which floated down to them from the bathing ghats above, and which were caught at the bridge. Some European soldiers passed over the bridge, and one. thinking to play a practical joke on the boys, went behind a poor little fellow, about «x years old, on the edge of the bridge and toppled him over. Unfortunately, the bed of the canal, for the most part. shallow, deepens there into a pool, and the child being out of his depth waa carried at once under the bridge. After some delay he was got out, but died immediately after. It might be expected that a European soldier having committed such a painful mistake would have been the first to try to rectify it by atttmpting a rescue. It gives us much pain to record that be did nothing of the sort, but instantly ran away, and being followed by an indignant crowd made the most violent efforts to escape. He ran through the gardens to the Moree gate, where the constables managed to overpower him, not however without being severely wounded by the buckles on his belt which he uted vigorously. He has been handed over to the military authorities. A SHARK SrORy.-While the barque Arabella was on her passage home from Trinidad a shark was observed following the vessel. The shark-hook was immediately baited and thrown over the side, and the shark was immediately caught. As u-ual in sueh cases, the mate essayed to pass a hitch over the back of the animal, when he fell over overboard, and in his fall caught hold of the back of the shark. The master sprang overboard to the assistance of the mate and in the midst of the struggle which ensued the shark got clear off the hook, but fortunately the master and mate were drawn promptly on board, or the shark might have had the best of the business. MR. SOTHKRN'S VARIATION OF AN OLD SCENE. —During the recent visit of Mr. Sothern to Edinburgh he was asked out to dinner by the officers of the 17th Lancers. Before the wine was cleared off the table the officers pressed Mr. Sothern to perform a part of one of his characters, which, of course, he very naturally declined. They continued, however, to press him so much that he reluctantly consented, and commenced the drunken scene from "David Garrick," when to the astonishment of all present he swept the cloth clean off the table, smashing glasses, decanters, plates, &c., wholesale. AN EXCITING TIGER HUNT.—Quite a "thrilling" incident occurred in the course of Mr. Morris's recent tiger-slaying expedition to Ma?aowd (says an Indian paper). The hunting party, consisting of Mr. Morris and someof his friends, arrived, mounted on elephants, at the lair of the man-eater and on the first appear- ance of a stripe our officiating commissioner, with his customary skill, put in a well-directed bullet from his bone-crusher. This, however, instead of cowing, enraged the brute, and made him turn to show fight. The whole of the elephants ran like rabbits, but Mr. Morris's one, being the best trained and pluckiest of the lot, was, after a little encouragement, induced to face the foe. The tiger came on so rapidly that before Mr. Morris was ready to fire again the brnte had time to make a tremendous spring on the elephant. On this Mr. Morris drew a heavy hunting-knife and almost severed the tiger's Hfead from his body before the animal let go his hold and fell to the ground. Another bullet gave him his quietus as he lay. Mr. Morris's coolness and presence of mind at such a momentous crisis is all the more striking and praiseworthy when we take into consideration that his movements were much hampered by a native servant, who clung to him in a fit of the most abject terror. We have some mighty hunters in these parts, but not one of them will dispute Mr. Morris's claims to being the Nimrod, par excellence, of this province. DUEL AT TUNIS.—A Tunis letter mentions that a duel has just taken place in that port between a lieutenant of the Duca di Genova frigate of the Italian navy, and M. B-, writer of a communica- tion to the Corriere di Sardigne, containing some of- fensive remarks on the behaviour of the officers of that vessel when ashore. These latter drew lots for one to represent them, and the hazard designated Mr. V of Genoa. j'The encounter came off in a garden, and resulted in the offender receiving two wounds, slight in themselves, but sufficient to necessitate the termination of the combat.-Galignani. A DANGEROUS TRICE.—William Giliard, a youth of 16, employed by Messrs. Humfries, carpet manufacturers, Kidderminster, did a rash trick one afternoon last week. Some goods were being drawn up the front of a warehouse by a rope and pulleys, when Gillard thoughtlessly seized the end of the rope and allowed himself to be drawn up. He was soon too high to relinquish his hold with safety, and as the person winding up the rope did not see his position the unfortunate youth was drawn higher and higher. When he reached the level of the third etorey he was too ex- hausted to retain his hold any longer, and, relaxing his prasp, fell to the ground with a most violent concussion. The fall was enough to have killed him on the spot, but he was alive, thongh seriously injured. He was re- moved to the local in firmary, when it was found that he had sustained a fracture of the base of the skull, both bones of his left fore-arm were broken, and he was severely bruited. MR. C IRLYLB ON EMIGRATION.—The following extract of a letter received from Mr. Carlyle, on the emigration question, was recently r«ad_ it, the course of a debate in one of the Australian Legislatures The subject used to be of earnest-almost painful-tnte- rest to me in old years. It seemed that no nation ever had such glorious opportunities of c latiging its nearly intolerable curses and choking nightmares into blessings and winged angels as Great Britain by colonizing, or was so scandalously throwing said opportunities away. I have aince learnt that Great Britain will go on with parliamentary palaver, &c., were the Day of Judgment close at hand, and turn a deaf ear to all considerations of that or the like kind, and so I have dropped the speculation long ago, and it lies quite dead in me." • THE PROPOSED OHANGE IN RAILWAY TAXA- TION.-A return which has been issued shows the effect of the change in railroad taxation proposed in the Budget. To the public purse the result will be substantially the same as if the present 5 per oent, duty on passenger fares were reduced to 4 per cent.; TO the companies the results will be different. Supposaog the same traffic as in 1869, the North-Eastern will in future have to bear aq increase 01 taxation to the amount of above £10,000 a year the Great Xastern will have its taxation reduced by above jE10,000 a year. The Caledonian will have its taxation increased by £(,800 a year; the Midland by £3.770; the Man- chester, Sheffield and Lincolnshire, jE3,000 a year. As the total of the taxation is reducedjthe gains, of course, outweigh the losses. The Southeastern will p»y less taxation than at present by B22,000 a year; the South- Western, also, will gain nearly £22,000 ¡the London and North Western and the Brighton above B18 000; the Great Western above £17,000; the Metropolitan, £ 9,000; the Chatham and Dover, £ 7,000; the Great Northern, £ 6,000; and the Bristol and Exeter, £ 4,000. The total taxation is reduced by rather more than a fifth of its present amount; but such is the change in 7be incidence of the impost that the taxation of the North.E,stern, the Caledonian, aud the Manchester and Sheffield will btt increased by more than one- third, while tha taxation of the South-Western and the Brighton will be reduced to less than half its pre- se^. amount, and that of the Metropolitan to 1^'s than a third of the amount now paid, and the South-Eastern nearly as much. THE DIVORCE COURT.—The Court f jt Divoree and Matrimonial Causes was estabiishtd by an Act passed no longer ago than in 1857, and already six Act a to amend it have been round necesssrv. Lord Pen- zance has laid before the House of Lords a bill to con- splidatethis part of the statute law by repealing fill thtse Act", aud arranging in a new Act in better order the enactments 111 force upon the subject. The hill contains nicety-three clauses. The first thirty-four are devoted to the constitution and powers of the Court; the next thirty-three to the rehef aff rded by the Court—judicial separation, protection orders for deserted wives, dissolution of marriage, with clauses relating te alimony, settlements, and custody of children; the last 26 clauses embody the statutory provisions relating to procedure. AN ENGLISH PICKPOCKET ABROAD.—The cor- rectional Ttibunal of Tours has jaat tried two Eng- lishmen, named Golt and Hill, for picking pockets in 1 T t0JTn d?riDg the late BitciDgs Of the High Court of Justice. They appear to have made acquaintance at Marseilles, and to have travelled in company to Tours. Golt admitted that he had tried the pockets of several ladies in the church, and had abstracted a porte-monnaie which was seized on him, but the other prisoner denied all knowledge of the theft, and declared that he had believed his companion to be a respectable man. A letter found on the latter showed that he had shortly before received a sum of 12,000f. from his friends in England, but he had lost a Iurf; of it in gaming at Monaco. The Court sen- tenced Golt to six months' imprisonment, but ac- quitted Hill. THE GAME LAWS.—A meeting of the Hamp- shire Chamber of Agriculture was held on Monday, at Fordingbridge, under the presidency of Mr. Beach. M.P. It was resolved— "That, in the opinion of this Chamber, the time has ar- rived when, in consequence of the completely-altered s'ate of the country, some means should be adopted for checking the great evil of the over-preservation of game." A second resolution was also adopted by a large majority to the effect, that in any future legislation it ought to be declared that ground game should be the property of the tenant, and winged game the property of the landlord, any agreement to the contrary not- withstanding. AN ANECDOTE OF GENERAL THOMAS.—Among the stories told of General Thomas is one of an inci- dent which occurred when he and his chief of staff, General Garfield, were inspecting the fortifications of Chattanooga in 1863. They heard a shout, Hello, mister You I want to speak to you and General Thomas found that he was the person addressed by an uncouth backwoods, East Tennessee soldier. He stopped, and the dialogue which ensued was as fol- lows :—" Mister, I want a furlough." On what grounds do you want a furlough, mv man ?" I want to go home and see my wife." How 1. ng since you Faw lour wife?" "Ever since I enlisted, nigh on to three months. "Three months r' g')od.naturedly; "Why, my good man, I haven't seen my wiie for three years." The East Tennessean stopped whittling for a moment, and stared incredulously at length he said, "Well, you see, me and my wife ain't that kind." Even General Thomas's grimness was not proof against the laughter which he rode away to conceal, leaving the astonished soldier without an answer. CONVENTUAL INSTITUTIONS.—The number of nuns in Great Britain has been stated by Mr. Newde- gate and others to amount to 6,000. This is an ex- aggeration, and a very considerable one—says the Weekly Register, and thus continues The number of convents in England amounts to 216, and in Scotland to 17—total 233; and the total number of pro- fessed nuns and lay sisrers (not including novices) amounts to rather more than 2,600, or less than half the number stated by those who are arsulng in favour of a parliamentary committee of Inquiry. We susntct that in the very liberal statement of 6,000 nuns Mr. Newdeaate has included not only the novices who are in the various convents to try their vocation, but also the young ladies, and even the poor school girls, who are in someof the religious hon: es 1er education. But these, even if we include the unfortunate women who are being reclaimed in some of our convents, would not make the number up to 6,000. Of the 216 convents in England there are not more than 20 that belong to cloistered wtders and amongst the 17 religious honses in Scotland there is only one convent that is cloistered. On Suudpy, at St. George's Roman Catholic Cathedral, Southwark. and at most of the metropolitan Reman Catholic Churches, the congregations were invited to pray, during the ensuing week, that the threatened act of injustice and insnlt levelled at the Roman Catholic religious communities through the proposed inspection of conventual and monastic institutions, may be averted. THE IDEA OF THE PLEBISCITE;.—"We have re- ceived the following- curious story from a source en- titled to respect (says Le Gaulois) A. cordir g to our informant, the iirst i lei of ti e Plebiscite originated neither in the mind cf M. Ollivier nor in that of th& Emperor, nor even in that of M. Rouher. The Emoeror, it is averted, has kept up since his residence in England very intimate and confidential relations with a certain person whose advice hI. has been in the habit of taking in all difficult ca ea during his reign. In the late crisis, disquieted at the turn taken by omestic politics, he it stated to have had recourse once again to his private confidant, and it is at this person s suggestion that the Imperial decision was taken to appeal directly to the French people. The reasons which debar us from writing the name which is on our hps may be readily comprehended. THE MABQDTS OF Euu's LIBHRALITY.- The Times' Correspondent, writing from Rome, amongst other gossip narrates the following :— The Marquis of Bute has left after a long and I should think to him a costly season. Among other instance* of his liberality, one hr.s much gratified many kind people. is a Mies Lewis here, a scutptreso of merit, born in a wigwam-, her mother a red Indiau, her father a negro In common with several score brothers and sisters of the craft she hat been without orders this season, or, if with an order or hrO without ready money. A sculptor has to pay ront for a studio, wages to workpeople, and immense sums for marbln »h;c> sometimes turns out good for nothing when it ii cut LTto- Their own personal expenses may betriaicg. but they al»ay* have friends. The Marquis has not only ordered a MadolJvlJo from Miss Lowix, to be a copy of one now ift the workmen's hands, but alao paid herprompttyfor it, and so relieved thl' poor girl from some embarrassment. I hrpn this will nel draw upon him a crowd of canvassers, representing I tear, equal claims and equal need s. The Marqtt's is by no meaJI" so rich as people supposed. With a large but speculative income, he started with a large debt, and has had to borro* i more. He is no w on board his jacht, and is to spend his nex& T winter In Scotland. THE BELGIAN TROPMANN.—The Journal de Lieg6 states that the King of the Belgians has commuted tne capital sentence pronounced against Dessons-le* Monstier into hard labour for life. This criminal bad, as may be remembered, murdered three cattle-dealer*. brothers, and buried them in his court-yard, and had poisoned his own wife. No doubt whatever existed to his guilt, and the only motive for the present ac( of mercy is to be found in the repugnance of Leopold II. to sign a death warrant. R"COVERY OF MONEY SPENT fOR DRINK.— A Michigan woman has recovered by law all the money that her husband had spent in a liquor saloon for years. The prohibitory liquor law of that State d, not regard liquor as "property," and the recovered the money on the ground that it had beeØ paid to the liquor vendor without consideration. Aftet this verdict gets to be well understood throughout tb« State (says a Baltimore paper), very few m'jn will b* to undertake the., etailliql10t traffic wltbm Its lUll1t3. AN INDIAN STOET.-General Peasant on tell* an -amusing Indian story. He was otce, while .t* tioned on a frontier post, surrounded by threatening bands of Cheyennes, with whom he wished to nS? • treaty, but they were too suspicious or hS S place themselves m his power. At last he succeeded in capturing a young Indian of rank, whom he heíJ as a hostage. One day this captive, sullenly ■talking! about the fort came upon a soldier who for waat oJ better amusement, was playing with a child's mtLnivt 'v \°m' HJdescanpH f Ve?tln#lsV leaPed 411 obstruction* WTNR,? LN- A 8HORT HOWEVER, nereturntd, heading a deputation of chiefs, who, aftef'i pending an hour or so in rapt contemplation of th** jumping jack, held a solemn council and negotiated- the desired treaty, stipulating as the most important condition, that the marvellous little toy should alwaT* remain at the fort. WASTE LAND IN NEW ZEALAND.—The OtsuO' Government have set aside 100,000 acres of Preservation Inlet, West Coast, as a si e for ^settle- ment (says the New Zealand Examine Th* ground is being^ raP1dly taken up. The settle- ments at Martin s Bay and Preservation Inlet formed under a special Act. Under this Act *4* °f^° ^rnment empowered to leake d grants of 100 acres to any person above fifteen yean of ^7WN0NDL'10U 0F AT ^TWO *EAR6'<*C>IPATL thSd v^fTK to be ^daVhe Oration of th* third year; the party having, however, the option of purchase at 10s. a,n acre after the firt-t year, if they de' P* V .,7he quality to be disposed of in this & each settlement, Mai tin s Bay aDd Preservation Inlet,' Hot to exceed 10,000 acivp. A second class, Amounting to 30,000 acres at each fetutairient, ill op<aa for f.aie a 5s. per acre and a third class, 60,000 aores, at an nc set price of 5s. at ptihlic auction, or at 10g if fn]A privately; the holdm -R under t'rla class by anv onP person being restricted to 50Q aeres. J '•' FRIEITO ■ w COHWB-A genealogical ooo- temporary remarks v;p^>n the numerous instances in kht present House cf Commons ot tw0 or more me £ 4 belonging to ihe same family, Thia th^ wrXr L serves, can ro longer arise pr0D^ef„ but probably more tban iver frotu the of wealthy families, euher territorial or m«rw f'raI^ certain districts, Something abo muat be intile, not so muc^o hereditary geniwB as tothf .attribut*j tbe great political talent* of a statesir lr;fluence o* mending others who the same • "an la recoBV Thus Mr. Gladf-tua,, Mr Pr;!u iiame and blood; ton their faatlj Abercorn viyajs the lat« *> • and the Duke 0 of U.I-<T«l,V ICCEFE JConnell in the ee viz IV w^3ch contribute wilham, Gr vsvcnor' HajvV- Cavendish, TTi'#' ohild, and Vivian, Tn /» Lowther, Iv.tW are represented, and l8even father and so** brothers. In f&ot th are twenty-on* pairs o no leas than 101 ar .ere are 1D the Houne of blood with other who are clostly iJJ; other. I