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Cambrian and Aberystwith and…


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Hocal Mormon..








THE AMERICAN PEACE CON- FERENCE. The site chosen for the conference between Messrs. Lincoln, Stephens, and Hunter, was one, the name of which is sufficient to recall reminiscences of the days when the great American Republic was one and indivisible. Fortress Monroe, as every student of American history is aware, takes its name from the man who propounded and upheld the celebrated Monroe doctrine, the cardinal point of which, divested of its somewhat vindictive spirit, is undoubtedly that of unity and mutual help. There are those in the present day in America who declare that the only real basis of peace between the contending factions of American politicians is the mutual determination to main- tain the Monroe doctrine, and, at all events, if this determination were once arrived at, it would be in some measure a security for the prevention of internecine hostility and a pro- mising sign for the future. To confer upon the chief recommendations of this doctrine, it was that President Lincoln and Mr. Seward, on the part of the North, and Messrs. Stephens and Hunter, on the part of the South, met at Fortress Monroe. On the one hand the com- missioners were official-consisting, indeed, in the highest officers of the States,—and on the other hand the commissioners deprecated the idea that they had the power of treating for peace with the Federals, and openly declared that their instructions did not permit them to make any arrangements except upon certain conditions. This fact argues a certain amount of condescension upon the part of the Federal president, and shows that his desire for the restoration of peace and goodwill did much towards inducing him to journey to Fortress Monroe. It was not to be expected, however, that a conference entered into on such unequal terms, and without any definite plan of argu- ment, wduld result in immediate good, and so it has turned out. Conferences pendente lite are to be deprecated for many reasons, not the least of which is that a temporary success gained by either party tends to make its repre- sentatives in the conference intractable and exacting; but the conference at Fortress Mon- roe was of too short duration to be affected in any way by military operations in the field. Nevertheless, the principle holds good, and before any real benefit can arise from negotia- tions, a cessation of hostilities will most pro- bably have to take place. As was predicted the sole question which stood in the way of a satisfactory understand- ing between the gentlemen thus semi-officially met together, was that of the recognition of the South by the North. All the conversation we are told came back to this irreconcilable diffi- culty, and the consequence was the utter failure of the Conference. President Lincoln seems to have spared no argument to induce the Southern commissioners to waive this point, even for the sake of the argument, and he even offered to modify many things in the existing law which might have a tendency to jar upon the feelings of the Confederates. But neither party were to be shaken upon the point of re- cognition; the North offer the South every- thing except it—the South refuse everything without it. The one party has been fighting for it; the other has fought, and hitherto suc- cessfully, against it. At the present moment the balance of success is undoubtedly on the side of the of the Federals, and still the Confe- derates adhere to their determination to achieve independence. Which is to win? We would fain hope that the conference was only preli- minary to a graver and more formal one for the settlement of the grave dispute which has caused so much bloodshed; but, up to the date of the last advices, we confess we do not see the slightest sign of swerving from their original declaration, on the part of either of the com- batants. The Monroe doctrine, subscribed to and supported by a united people, would even be better than the present fearful war. Meanwhile operations in the field are pro- gressing vigorously, and the inaction which the severity of the winter season seems to have in- duced, has been shaken off on either side. Lee has been appointed Commander-in-chief, a grade equal to that of General Grant in the Federal service, and rumours are rife of plans which he is said to be about to put into execu- tion for the welfare of theConfederacy. General Grant has achieved a success on the banks of the Potomac, and was preparing for a great battle. Sherman is pushing on in two immense columns towards Charleston and Branchville; Sheridan is active in Virginia; Pope is in Mis- Souri; and a further expedition to Mobile is talked of. The generals of Confederacy are equally alert. Beauregard has again assumed the command of his division Hardee is await- ing Sherman with a large force, and an addi- tional cavalry force is being raised. If peace be not speedily made we shall hear of blood- shed to a still more fearful extent than that of the Rappahannock and Bull Run.






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