A NEW REFORM ASSOCIATION. For some weeks past negotiations have been on foot between a body of influential gentlemen, members of ^arhament and others, and several of the leaders purnMLr f working classes in the metropolis, for the reallv rlpHLa8cer!ia^D!? whether the working men are whether the'8 • obtaining the franchise, and, if so, classes could "u,0118tot the working measure of Refor™ u- for fnrthenng a measure 01 r^eiorm which would accomplish that object. Among other sentlemen who have taken a deep interest in the movem^t may be enumerated the foUowmg rnembers Gf Parlia^nt :_Mes8rs. Cobden, Bright, Stansfeld, Taylor, Seely, -SVirster, White, &c. and also several well-known public 8uch a, Samuel Morley, Mr. Beales, Mr. Potter, 1\1r. Mason Jones, &c. These gentlemen state that they are prep* if they see the working classes themselves mov;n £ earnestly in the matter, to put down a sum of 5,OOOt. to Carry on the agitation. The result of these nego- tiations has been the sending out by a committee of working men a circular to upwards of 250 representa- tive men among the working classes, comprising the secretaries and officers of the principal trades, friendly, and other working class organizations, requesting them to attend a meeting at St. Martin's-halL Should this meeting respond to the appeal thus made, a deputation will be appointed from it to meet the gentlemen above-named on an early day to make the necessary arrangements for establishing the association, which it is intended shall be inaugurated by a great public meeting at one of the large metro- politan halls, over which a leading Liberal member will preside, supported by a large number of the advanced Liberal members of Parliament. An im- portant part of the programme will be the appoint- ment of sub-committees in each metropolitan borough, whose especial duty it will be to watch the election and the candidates who may offer themselves, with a view to obtain the return of members who will honestly carry out the principals of the association,-viz., the extension of the franchise to the working classes. The exact basis on which the association is to be formed will be settled at the delegate meeting to take place as above, but whether it be that of a residential manhood suffrage, or household and lodger franchise, or a less extended suffrage, one of the principals of the association is to be that it will accept any instalment of Reform that may be offered, from whatever party it may proceed. Should the proposed association be successfully established, it cannot fail in exercising considerable influence over the future of Reform, ana in all probability become a power that no Govern- ment, to what party soever it may belong, will be able to despise with impunity.
n THE SUICIDE OF VICTOR TOWNLEY. I An inquest was held on Thursday, at the Penton- jjille Prison, in London, on the body of George Victor Townley, the murderer of Miss Goodwin, who com- mitted suicide on Sunday evening week, by throwing himself over the staircase after chapel. The body presented a ghastly spectacle, occasioned by a severe cut (sustained in the fall) over the right temple ana forehead, extending half over the right eye. principal evidence was by George Bearman, a priso who said:— I recollect that on Sunday, the 12th Inst., I UU the right of the deceased at chapel- He was prayer the last hymn was sung. He then got up, opened^u^rayer hook and sang out the last two verses very. «< 319th hymn." heard him do that before. He said to • h t jjis praveP, Th.lm, th. right hymn. H. -M" He t £ mask I have never been spoken to byany one He neverusedtospeaK. b 1 8peak without the least fear vThat i toow of the c^se! We were all singing when K JecfaieKan to sing- He sang very loudly the follow- ^Helrno foe with Thee at hand to bless, nit w/no weight, and tears no bitterness; Where is death's sting? Where, grave, thy victory 1 I triumph still, if Thou abide with me. Hold Thou Thy cross before my closing eyes, Shine through the gloom, and point me to the skies. Heaven's morning breaks, and earth's vain shadows flee. In life, in death, 0 Lord, abide with me.-Amen." He used to walk out of his cell and go into the chapel and ait down. He never used to speak to any one. When he jumped over, the Warder was about 24 feet from him. He sprang over so suddenly that I had no opportunity of catching bold of him. Samuel Holmyard, another prisoner, stated that when in chapel he said to Townley, How long ?" and he replied, Ten;" meaning that his term was ten years' imprisonment. Mr. Bradley, the surgeon to the prison, in the course of his evidence, said The substance of the brain, as far as I could see, was healthy. There was no evidence of any disease; its weight was 55 ounces, which Is above the average by seme ounces. His weight at the time of death was list. lib. He was twenty-five years old when he was convicted. There was no disease of the brain so far as could be ascertained, but, not- withstanding that, insanity might have prevailed. He came into this prison on the 3rd of February, 1864. On admission he appeared in good condition. I have had opportunities of judging the state of his mind from time to time, and I as- sumed that if anything strange had occurred it would have been reported to me. I have seen nothing to lead me to sup- pose he was subject to attacks of insanity nor has he ever been reported to me as having any tendency to unsoundness of mind. I have never observed anything in his habits of an unusual nature. I had frequent opportunities of talking with him, and I thought hm generally cheerful. He was 12st. Ctb. on admission, atid list. lib. on the 13th of January. Finding that he had thus wasted I prescribed more bread for him, for which be subsequently thanked me. In my expe- rience a man may have lucid intervals, but there would be no evidence of such Insanity. The deceased never appeared to be desponding. 1 think, on the contrary, that his corres- pondence showed he had hope. The chaplain to the prison, the Rev. Mr. Irwin, said During the first twelve months he was here I had con- versation with him upon the cause of his committal. He seemed perfectly insensible to the crime, and would talk coolly about It. He admitted he had committed the crime, but he denied there was any guilt in it. From this I opine be was morally insane. Beyond this I nevernoticed any act of insanity. He was always cheerful, always ready to enter Into conversation, and at all times extremely courteous. I have seen four of his letters written to his friends. He wrote a letter last Friday to his mother, of which a passage, I think, indicates an unsound mind. # The paragraph referred to, was at the request of the jury, read by the witness. Its tendency was that of finding fault with the prison discipline, because one of his letters to his friends had been intercepted by the governor in consequence of its being interlined, which, according to the rules of the prison, disqualified it for transmission. The governor explained that the rule of the prison was that prisoners did confine themselves in writing to ^fluielnnes °^the P?Per- Th°y were allowed to v i_ liked, but were not permitted to write between the lines. The following letter, written by the deceased to his mother on the Wednesday be- fore he committed suicide, was then read 8th February, 1865. My dearest Mother,—My writing gets worse and worse partly, I suppose, from want of exercising it, and partly from the steel pen however, you won't mind, I dare say. Letter paper is only issued on Wednesday's now, which is the cause of the delay; had I been aware of the new rule you might have had this last week, tho' it is doubtful. What can I say to you for your birthday any more, mum? Little, fJe&T> '° the purpose; as for hopes and wishes; but altho' these are useless, there Is^still love. Would that my love and gratitude were in anyway sufficient to jep&yyou for cnmft gone through for me; but I must sit here Job's J" A pretty way, indeed, of wishing you many M? T The fact mum, dear, as is usual with is 1 turn brain inside out, and there peonle wrm 1 er^T* 'a8n an t. It is true I find what some what can I Hn w kiod wlshes. but then that's all rubbish, so and Ml vnn tl.t TSn ot! y g1ve y°u my best and kindest love, and what ? iam Juat as usual» no difference whatever, ,o'1 mr, ?oi What's the object of it, we can have n^notlon of* tt look! very nonsensical, but that's no business of ourV and at any rate, we have had nothing to do with it, and perhaps we really do only see the wrong side of the carpbt. This however, is trite.; what I mean is, that such being the fact! ,tnJure bei"g equally beyond our control, never mind what happens to my body (you know law and society only profess to vent their spleen on the body), and consider that, after all, it is only with me the loss of a lew personal comrorts, being dressed queerly, and made to look a greater fright than one naturally is, and condemned to live among diMgreeabIe people; whereas with you it is very different, and havl. »°fJ ?ave tried to put myse1' in your place, of thinl. t that you would suffer, and fancy all sorts ~5?i ?an t exactly enumerate. But if you only saw w yv,ake it:> and what llttle trouble there is in wnniri f.i vere' 1 really do think, my dear mum, you rn^ f T vf eart..Remember, it is not with me as with most. I have no one depending on me. I am provided for for life, I may say, therefore I have really no cause to take thought for the morrow. You know the peculiarities of my temperament-tdiosyineracles, I suppose Mr. What's-his-name would say—and were it not for the trouble that my present position causes all of you there would, I think, be little to regret. It seems odd certainly, that when all parties might be suited so easily, this wretched bit of clay continues to eat, drink, sleep, &l, for no earthly object But here again, we get beyond ow v /vf? TaDd' after a111 wo"ld finish this (did you get a lock of hair I sent you with the last lot of books ? —it was in French), by wishing my darling mother as many happy returns of the day as possible, with such an unlucky wightor a son. By the way, I did not forget Kate'birthday. I forgot to tell you so. I had a foolish dislike to mentioning the birthdays at all, and half hoped she would forget mine. Many thanks for the last two letters and the cards which I have, which the authorities were good enough to let me read. I need not say how glad I am to hear of your uniting with kind friends. I won't say what comes upper- most in my mind, for this reason-I have found the Scotch- man's prayer useful. By going on the opposite tact one only puts a stick into the hands of one's fellow Yahoos to break ene's own head with. One gains experience here, and those going into the euter world will, doubtless, not fail to profit by it Should they happen to have been troubled with an excessive benevolence they will find It understood, while those two excellent and useful qitalities-secrettveness and Belf-esteem-will he correspondingly developed. Aboutvisiting from something Kate said-I fancy she and you are thinking of coming. It is very, very good of you both, and 1 fiont know how to thank you; but, my dear mum, it must not be. I told the governor so. I suppose he had not mentioned it. Remember you would never have thought of such a thing bad it noi been for a misrepresentation, and I am so far from being grateful for the same that-well, never mind what; but you shall certainly never be expoted to anything of the kind again, and I may tell you that the very notion of your being within these walls, or in contact with this place in any shape or way, is perfect torment to me, and infinitely worse than anything else I have to bear. I dare say there is not a man in the prt-on of any respectability who would not be heartily glad if the stupid and cruel mockery of visiting were totaily dene avay with. When you can see me withoutinslÙt to yourselves, well and good, but that is unlikely. Pardon me, dearest mum, if this is abrupt. I would have said more and more kindly, but have no space. I would rather not more than two came, and you can fix upon whom you would like to accompany the governor. After all, one can say nothing at such an interview; it must be unsatisfactory And now I must thank you for the eight books the governor brought me, especially for "Gil Bias" and "Silvio Pelltco." I am charmed with the latter. Do you know he sometimes reminds me of you? You would see, for any one else would what I mean if you read it. Charley had it in French. Gii Bias" I have nearly finished, and had many a good laugh over it. What a nice edition But I am sorry you should have got it for me purposely Don't buy any books for me, aid don't sand me any you are likely to want for yourself. Many thanks for the Sunday Magazine. I like it exceedingly, so ™1°J'onghly Catholic in its lone. Thank you for Pascal" and Ollemlorffthe latter does not at all matter beiDg bound together. 1 think j ou had better not send me any more Books that will have to be returned, except perhaps the magazine; but I will speak to the governor about that Dauer "t ia alwa?8 8ome trouble s'gning a itehind think it will be necessary to leave my books wo Sn snea^ewn here' 1 wiu d0 so if you like, but I fancy other men have generally Write when leavln^Oi i^ nld Dot allowed to paver know whin there might be no time you £ ltb my kind love^i aIe l01/:?-, Tel1 the Governor this, need be in any particular tl ^ou; the (the governor) a notion I Bhgjl not goyet awhii7 s?elDK me. I have nothing, and it would be but, of course, I know aee,at the end; there are pientVftf ^8' JSere 1 am'you to say, but I have crammed in „ other things I wanted jove U> Charles and Katy. 1 aW^Ll* 1 dare. My best letters, Did you see her last? ltWMg. your anrt her you for the German character*, and who?»J her- Thank copy them out ao carefully. With all my ,,fvwas s° kind to for your dear letters ever my own mother v™'aiLd thanks ■on .GEO. TOWNLEY our affectionate A verdict of Temporary insanity" Waa retarned.
A MILITARY SCANDAL. In June last a garrison ball was given at the Cape in honour of the officers of the 2nd .Battalion, 10th Regiment, who were leaving for J ndia (says a Cape of Good Hope paper). The Misses Lange, daughters of a highly-respectable clergyman, were invited to the ball by Major Hare, of the Cape Mounted Rifles, fre- Vionsly to the ball, Colonel White, of the Royal Engi- neers Department, aided by Lieutenants Slack and t^rmi^T S,°T unexplained cause, determined not »tt?v th« fnif s presence at the ball, and aecord- a. officer o7%S DOte Was Pressed to them a verbal invitation Sj0? r«8r«tthat, through a mistake, Lange for a ball this ev«ninJa, g,ven to tbe MisseS of the Misses Lange were nV^ ^"tant. As tbe names tions, they are sorry that the Dl v h!i ln th? ltst for ll,vit,a' to decline the hoaour of receiving tifg male UP tbey hava Wown, JWne 3d. receiving them. Kin« William's This note bore no signature, nor did it say by whom the verbal invitation was given, and for aught the ladies knew to the contrary it might hav« jforgery, but they did not deem it such, au.Ucoordinglv addressed a note to Colonel Armstrong, the com"- fiaandanfc, for an explanation, as follows «^e?r Co1- Armstrong,—Having received a written invito Slater and Stl/M '°r th6 g4rhris°!1 bal1 this evening, my tottej ?rn<l^8fclyeeI ve7 .much Br,eved at the enclosed 8Wi«m thf. officers of the garrison, and hope you will iffied wf0n 0f \U0,^ » P^ceeding. Please return the the list v told that our names were Included in Th VTS tru'y. L- 3rd June, 1804. They received a letter in reply from Colonel Arm. Coi 0n the day of the ball, as follows ^ge^and JSr^«ntghPfeftntlh4 to the Missei tbe decision of the officers of the W<iHom> altered, for the reason already assigned. Col UXam s Town» June 3d, 1864. ?are 8h!iuir?1Btr<?Dg a,f ter wards ffave orders that Sfajor 40 enter tki u P C6 r arresfc if he attempted ^lUentlv ,r<>?m W1th the Misses Lange, but sub- ^^al atn his orders- On Major Hare's Blade it £ b?n room with the ladies, Colonel White Qsmess to walk up to Colonel Chermside ~in the ball room, and whisper something in his ear. Major Hare and the ladies being fully conscious that the desire to excluae them from the ball did not arise from the great majority ef the officers to be present, determined to go thither, as they considered the invitation to be valid, there being no regular com- mittee formed, and as the note sent to them and pur- porting to be from the officers of the garrison," was not signed as it should have been, by the secretary or the presumed secretary. They accordingly went, and on arriving there CoL White is represented as having remonstrated with Major Hare while the young ladies were in the dressing-room. The remonstrance, however, appears to have rendered him more resolute in his pur- pose.^ When the young ladies came forth from the dressing-room, and under the escort of Major Hare, were about to enter the ball-room, they found the doorway blocked up by Lieutenants Crozier and Slack, two young officers who had placed themselves there for the purpose of forcibly preventing their ingress. Colonel White is proved to have addressed Major Hare on this occasion in the following terms:- Major Hare, you are no gentleman If you brln those two prostitutes" into the room. Major Hare naturally repelled the libel, and persisted in his right to enter, when, on attempting to pass into the room, one of his arms being in a sling, he was forcibly pushed back by Crozier, and, on trying a second time, this officer seized the Major by the collar, and twisted him round. It was this rancontre which led Colonel Chermside to place Major Hare in arrest. This act of Colonel Chermside, of course, induced the ladies to retire, as they were thus left without a protector. But the unmitigated slander of Col. White could not so easily be passed over, and accordingly, on its coming to the knowledge of the father of the two young ladies, he immediately proceeded against this ungallant officer in an action at law for slander, in which damages were laid at 5,QOO?,, and the case as above mentioned came on for decision before a special jury on the 15th December, the trial extending over three entire days. The defendant pleaded "Njt guilty," and the plaintiff joined issue. The evidence, however, was overwhelming, and the jury returned a verdict for 6(XM., with costs. It is said that the coun- sel for the defendant has moved for a aew trial, for which a rule nisi has been granted. The case of Hare versus Crozier, for assault arising out of the same circumstances, was tried on the 19th December, when a verdict for plaintiff, with 51, damages and costs, was returned by the jury. A previous action had been brought by Major Hare, in his own name, against Colonel White, in the Colonial Circuit Court, for slander; but Judge Bell, in giving judgment on the exception of thê defendant's counsel, held that, 50 far as Major Hare was concerned, the words addressed to him by Colonel White were not actionable. Major Hare has appealed from this decision to the Supreme Court.
MANCHESTER ART WORKMEN'S EXHIBITION. On Monday afternoon a meeting was held at the Royal Institution, Manchester, for the purpose of opening an exhibition of works of art contributed by working men, intended as a modest and interesting effort to Bhow what the working people of the district can do in matters of taste and orffkment. The meeting was held in the Lecture-hall, which was well filled with people taking an interest in the scheme. Sir J. Kay-Shuttleworth presided, and there were present the Mayors of Manchester and Salford, the Dean of Manchester, and other influential inhabitants. The Chairman, in his opening remarks, contrasted the personal liberty implied in an exhibition like this with the feeling which had too often actuated working men, and produced combinations an<i strikes. The meeting was also addressed by Mr. Alderman Heywood and the Dean of Manchester. The company afterwards proceeded to take a view of the exhibition. In this exhibition there are shown some surprising examples of aptitude and excellence in workmen, to whom it opens probably for the first time an avenue to fame in their own calling. A few may be mentioned:— There are some carvings of fruit and flowers, in Caen stone, by Mr. Green, a Manchester sculptor, which no one with an eye for what is beautiful could pass without attention. Of artistic wood carving there is a clever piece by Mr. Fasans called "The Invader"—a serpent whose stealthy approach has caused the utmost excitement in the domestic circle of a bird's nest. A beautiful carving of a dead canary In boxwood is by a workman employed by Mr. Cowan. There is merit also in a statuette, by an apprentice, carved in boxwood, of Whittington listening to Bow bells, and in limewood of a group of shrews. A lady's gilded worktable, among contributions by Mr. Moore, is noticeable for elegant workmanship and enrich- ments, a novelty in it being an idea of making it an ever- open album, by inlaying the round top withaglazed circle of portraits, or other pictorial subjects, in the shape of cartes. or copies. There are some fine carvings in ivory, some small model steam engines and machinery, some architectural models of buildings in cardwood, and other substances. Among the cardboard structures is a very picturesque representation of a millers's rustic abode somewhere in Westmor land, apparently with minute attention to local colouring and circumstances and a representation of Shakespeare's house at Stratford, weather stained and poverty sti icken as it used to be before the restoration. Photographers claim a place in the ranks of art work- men, and some of the best of them are represented in the exhibition by a tolerably large number of portraits and views. There is a small oil painting to be distinguished as the work of an operative spindlemaker, 65 years of age, who had never handled a pencil till the cotton famine threw him out of employment, but who in a year or two made so much prpgre's in the cultivation of a latent talent as to illustrate how late in life a man may dlacover what might have been his true vocation. There is a sewing machine constructed by a boy who has no mechanical teaching but his own ingenuity. Many other things are worthy of notice, but the few here given will show the nature of the exhibition. The name of the workman is attached to each, produc- tion, and this rule is followed even where the employer is the exhibitor.
AN EXECUTION IN JAPAN. Two men said to have been implicated in the murder of Major Baldwin and Lieutenant Bird were executed on the 16th inst., and it-is hoped that through their revelations the other murderers may be detected. The authorities endeavoured to keep the matter quiet to prevent a crowd, but it somehow oozed out on the preceding evening, and a large number of foreigners assembled. A correspondent of the North China Herald gives the following concise sketch of the proceedings The door opened, and a man bound with cords and blind- folded was led through the crowd, and made to kneel down on a mat placed before a hole dug to receive his blood and A f f ew his clothes down off his neck and gave a few prelimtnary brushes with the hand upwards' nn^fthPTethe.hair.a11 one W. The executioner was blade ind hn^0°1Si'Dldiers' who had purchased anew sword 1h? asked permission to do the duty, and thus rynis weapon. After securing the linen round the handle, ana carefully wetting the blade, he took up his position de- liberately on the left side of the victim, and. raiding the sword high above his head with both hands, let It fall with a swoop which severed the neck completely. The head was held up for the Inspection of the shief officer present, who signified his approval—"I have seen,"—and it was then thrown into the hole. Thegther man was carried In, and they appeared to find some little difficulty in getting him to kneel in a convenient position but whetihU knees had been properly adjusted and his neck laid b £ fre, the other executioner, who had also petitioned that he might iill the. otifce, advanced, took his place by the prisoner's side, and, drawing the sword over his head with an elegant flourish, inflicted the blow as effectually as his predecessor. These men are believed to have been members of an association sworn to assassinate foreigners whenever occasion offers. They were traced through having entered the house of a countryman, and extorted money and food by threats, exclaiming that they were on their way to Yokohama to punish foreigners. The proclamation posted up by the authorities after their death, mentions this crime as the ground for their execution, saying nothing about the murder but it is understood that they, together with others: of their fraternity, were concerned in it.
— A DREADFUL DEATH ON THE CUMBERLAND MOUNTAINS. The following parallel case to that of Gough, whose* melancholy death on Helvellyn forms the subject of one of Sir Walter Scott's most affecting ballads, has just occurred in the neighbourhood of Wastwater Liake th*??* B«tler, a gentleman about 25 years of age, the ™ t ?atler- of Cotton-house. Rugby, Vfre- rAn summer, came at the Hotel FwtiSL^ hisKh8WHCk- made ihe Der went water notei, rortinscaie, nis head-quarters which ha lAf* n! th« ^or5few da*s Borrowdale and Wast- dale-head, ln the last-named place he remained at the house of a farmer named Rttson, thence making frequent excursions. On the 4th he ascended ScawfeU, the highest mountain in Cumbarland, hut losing himself on his return remained with some shepherds all night, and returned to Wastdale-head next day. On Wednesday, th 7th inst., he went out at 11 o'clock in the morning for the purpose of ascending the Great Gable, a very steep mountain, 2 925 feet high, near Eunerdale Lake, saying that he would be back in about three hours. Seeing nothing of him afterwards, Mr. Rttson concluded that he had gone back to Keswick. Several days having passed away without Mr. Butler returning to the Derwentwater Hotel, Mr. Bell, the landlord, became appre hensive that some accident had happened to him, and wrote to Mr. Rttson on the subject of his non-appearance, and the latter, on Wednesday last, with some other mountaineers started In search of their missing guest. They traced the mark of his snow-shoes to that part of the Great Gable Fell facing Wastwater and Ennerdale. On coming to a precip. ft.nna 1^«t- ".nn1r. h,,¡. "J. F avoi iiucbo wauas, jiuui wo appearance of the Bnow it seemed as if something had rolled down the mountain side. As it was not safe to descend in this place a retriever dog was sent down the steep, and when he had gone some 200 yards below he halted and barked. By a cir- cuitous route the men gained the spot, and there found the corpse of the hapless traveller covered with snow, only a the of hu p,ald ProtudlD8. They carried him back to health^'Vhlch he hadoTjl> left 8 week before in robust vu fo^r excellent spirits. Upon examination his skull lip gone ^dreadfully fractured, and a part of liis upper platform of Tif d aPPa.rently lost his footing on the slippery peiui, faliino „ mountain, and rolled down with terrific im- at some dbtan^B mCe His hat 811(1 stick were found thusiastic admire*. deceased*gentleman was an en- face as a visitor»M| English mountain scenery, and his wick and the oim.j lli"ln the neighbourhood of Ke*- been cast by his awful deathtrlCt*' °Ver which a gloom has
THE LATE CARDXNAL WISEMAN. The remains ot this dUtim*, ■ u hpen lving iu state at the late rS,,ed ecclesiastic has York-place, Baker-street, Lon^^Vi^Eminence, ceremonial was only to be obtained bv tTok it would seem, however, had been eivi, ^hlch St indiscreet liberality, a, .with an SSd to obtain wi. » Saturday so dense as to necessitate the services of several of the D division 01 to regularity and prevent undue confusion. pT^j^nding the pressure, a number of the Roman o aristocracy, and many Protestants who had sueeeeded in gecurin^ tickets, arrived in their carriages, ^battled with the crowd for their respective turn of On entering the hall the public were directed to the grand staircase leading to the drawing room, w 1c had been darkened and hung with black, and was lighted by a considerable number of candles. At tne vestibule, was a large carved representation of the Saviour on the cross, and in the centre of the apart- ment, resting on a bier, was the coffin containing the remains of the deceased prelate, attired in the full dress of bis order as an Archbishop of the Romish Church, even to the gold-embroidered shoes, chain, and the insiguia of his ecclesiastical office, with the bands crossed on the breast, holding a ciucifix; while on his fingers, outside his gloves, the backs of which were embroidered in gold, with the glory and "I.H.S. were the archiepiscopal jewelledjrings, symbolical of his being wedded to the Church. The deceased Cardinal had on his head the small scarlet cap which both the Pope and Cardinals usually wear, except on State occasions. At the head of the coffin which was lined with white and yellow satin, was an exceedingly large and richly embossed mitre in figured white satin. while at the foot were an elaborately ornamented cross and crosier. On one side of the apartment, in its darkest recess, there had been erected an altar, at which there were constantly kneeling and praying a number of nuns, who appeared occasionally to relieve each other, and who in their turn visited and touched the cheek and kissed the hand or crucifix in the hand of the deceased Cardinal. The Roman Catholics could be easily dis- tinguished on account of their observance of a peculiar ceremony. On passing round the bier containing the corpse of the Cardinal nearly all of them either touched with their hand, their cross, or their rosary, the face of the Cardinal, and also attempted to kiss the hand. With regard to the appearance of the Cardinal in death, those who had known him in life could scarcely believe they were looking upon the remains of a man of so much bulk, and, generally speaking, of so robust an appearance as he had up to his last illness exhibited. Even the body itself seemed to be much reduced, whilst the full features of the face had apparently dwindled away, exhibiting a large amount of prostration and of and long and extreme suffering. On the right side of the head and temple was a large plaster, some two or three inches in diameter, and a smaller one passing right along the right eyelid. The circumstances which had led to the necessity of these disfigurements during his illness had evidently the effect of rendering the countenance less pleasing than it poRsibly otherwise would have been. The coffin was covered with crimson velvet, on its lid a massive and elaborately-engraved brass plate. The coat of arms, with the Cardinal's hat and pendants, surmounted ar dbore the following inscription :— Emus. et Rmuø. Dominus Tit. St. Nicholaus Prudentiaiue, S.R.C., Presb. Card. Wiseman, Primus Archlepiscopus Westooonasteriensis. Natus die 2 Augusti, 1802, Consecratus die 8 Junii, 1840, Obiit die 15 Februarii, 1865. Orate pro eo. Which, being translated into English, reads thus :— The Most Eminent and Most Rev. Lord Nicholas, Titular St. Prudentianro, S. R. E, Priest, Cardinal Wiseman, First Archbishop of Westminster, born 2nd August, 1802, con- secrated 8th June, 1840, died 16th February, 1865. Pray for him. Every English Roman Catholic bishop was invited to the funeral, at Kensal Green, together with a dele- gate from every Chapter in the kingdom, and the heads of all religious orders and congregations in the Church.
On Monday, very quietly, and with total absence of ceremonial observances, the body of Cardinal Wiseman was removed from the house he had lately inhabited in York-place, to the chapel of St. Mary, in Moorfields. A crowd, principally composed of the humbler class of Roman Catholic communicants, gathered before the door as early as three o'clock in the afternoon, expect- ing that the removal of the corpse would take place sometime that evening, and perhaps early. It was nearly half-past eleven, however, before the plain hearse, drawn by four horses, moved from the door, and midnight had struck when the sad burden was deposited in the body of the chapel. Encased in a leaden coffin, the remains of the lamented cardinal—lamented sincerely and affectionately by the poor mourners who stood in the cold rain near his doorstep, and who spoke in low voices and with tears upon their cheeks when he was atlast borne forth—reposed in the centre of the darkened drawing-room till the arrival of the undertakers and their assistants. The great waxen torches had burnt down into mere clots, and one or two had flickered quite out, leaving only a light which, being certainly "dim," may not unfitly be also spoken of as "religious." A female domestic watched, and sometimes knelt and prayed, by a chair a little removed from the bier; and as the priests in attendance entered the room, they also knelt, but closer to the leaden coffin, on which a bunch of white and red camellias had been placed. One face, that of Dr. Searle, the Roman Cathqljc canon, who was so frequently the companion in public of the cardinal—and who is almost as familiar to the sight of persons admitted to the private views of the Royal Academy—was noticeable as, an his entering the chamber of death, he turned his keen gray eyes sternly and almost forbiddingly on the little knot of undertaker's men who stood in the vestibule, waiting to carry the leaden coffin down the stairs, and place it within the oaken one which stood in the entrance hall ready to receive it. This outer coffin, which was of very large dimensions, being fully seven feet long, and thirty-two inches across the widest part, is of polished oak, richly adorned with gilt handles, and studded with embossed nails. When the coffin of lead had been deposited within it, the transference of the cardinal's remains to Moorfields was proceeded with as quickly as the occasion would pro- perly allow. Arrived at the chapel, it was carried in- to the middle of that sacred building, and was placed upon a bier, draped with violet cloth, the b )rder of which was richly embroidered with gold lace. A few priests and acolytes stood by, and candles were held aloft, and a crucifix was also raised, but no religious service was then performed. The head of the corpse was turned towards the altar, this position denoting the high ecclesiastical dignity of the deceased. Over the coffin was spread the Bowyer pall," arich cover- ing which is well known to Roman Catholics as belong- ing to Sir George Bowyer. The cardinal's red hat was placed near the foot, and its long silken appendages fell down low on either side. On Tuesday m H-ning a solemn requiem for the re- pose of the soul of the late Cardinal Wiseman" was performed at the Church of the Immaculate Concep- arfm^ T B.erkeley-square. The church, which is that of the Jesuits, was draped in black and the splendid music of Mozart, written on his death bed was performed with great solemnity.
The Kilkenny Moderator gives the following outline of the Cardinal's lineage:— His father we have always understood—and the name would seem to corroborate the inference—was of English blood. His mother was unquestionably of Irish descent, as she was a member of the old family of Strange or Strang, of our own county of Kilkenny —a family whose old feudal chief residence, the Castle of Dunkitt, still exists, but in ruins, crowning a rocky eminence over the Blackwater river, at a short distance above its confluence with the Suir, neai VVaterford, and forming a romantic feature in the picturesque scenery of the southern portion of oui county. The Stranges, although a Kilkenny family kept up an intimate connexion with Waterford, and the house settled in the latter city. Peter Strange reo Waterford in Parliament in 1559 and it lb.34 Richard Strange, Esq., of Dunkitt, was returned as its representative. This gentleman would appear to havj STn wurthe* of.Ma'y Strange, the wife of Johr Mac-Walter Wash, the famous poet of the Welsh Mountains in the seventeenth century; and if so, h< hu £ band of a remarkable woman, Jobanm btrange, who according to the traditions of the districi was endowed with prophetic powers, and foretold tht visitation of the Cromwellian regime in Ireland. On* ot the Irish poems of her son in law, John Mac-Waltei ]v^u1 .se1fin liken her to Cassandra of old, as beinj a ea to nave her predictions disbelieved till it was to< late for her countrymen to profit by the warnings sh4 Had given. His relationship to the Stranges of thii county was always acknowledged by Cardinal Wise man, and when he came to our city seven or eighi i Je? £ S rCVhe a special visit, as a near relative [ mil r -f 3" James Butler, who was a member o tWotamily if we do not much mistake, his mother') siscert
;1; ————. PRISONERS of WAR in the SOUTHERN CONFEDERACY. We have been furnished (says the Manchester Examiner, with an interesting letter from a soldier named "Edwii Holmes, relating his adventures whilst a prisoner of war Ir the Southern Confederacy. The letter is addressed to hi. brother at Rolmflrth, Yorkshire, and is dated from Slacl County, Illinois. The following is an extraet:— %m once more at liberty to write to you, after mj longtm prisonmeiit in the Southern Confederacy and 11 the hands of the rebel chief. After I last wrote to yot from Kentucky, we got orders to march to Tennessee) and arrived at Athens on the 12th September. Twc .days after, having received further orders io march or to Cleveland, in KastTennessee, as look out," in com1 pany with the 1st East Tennessee, and the 8th MiobJgar Cavalry, (three companies being from our brigade), we started, and after marching all night, arrived ^t'.ou? destination, sleeping by the way, near to the C0^~K house, until dawn. Then we found ourselves about 25 miles from General Bragg's head-quartww> we remained at Cleveland about three days, receiving the utmost kindness from the authorities. On the day of our intended departure, we wert startled to hear that rebel forces were near at hand firing on our right, and about 5 o'clock in the morning we were despatched to bring in any rebel who might stray across our path. Our captain gave orders t( "double quick," and away we went over the fields, expecting a fight—and while so doing the rebels, whe came in great force down the roads, got m o our rear, cutting us off from the rest of our troops, our companj being the last in the field. As we wanted to join oui troops, there was no alternative but to cut our waj through the rebel lines but their forces coming upor us so suddenly, and in such overwhelming numbers this we found it impossible to do. By this time, YOt must know that we were receiving their shot and fir. on every side, but we replied to the ring m rapic succession, and marking our success by killing 15 0 the rebels, of the wounded, who were carried off th< field rapidly as they fell, I can form no idea as to th. number, but there were a great many. On our sid. was one killed and one wounded -that one being my self. Our captain was completely overpowered by I number of the rebels, to whom he was compelled t< surrender, after fighting bravely for about half an hour was the victim in the other case. Having been carried off the held I was attended b: some faithful Unionists of Cleveland, who dressel my wounds; the rest who were captured with m, being sent on to Richmond, Yirginiaj whence, afte having been confined two weeks, I was despatched t, Dalton, Georgia. Here I was kept in the hospital little more than a week, after which I was again trans ported, this time still further south, at last finding my self at Cassville, where I remained a prisoner til January this year. Whilst at Cassville I sufferei dreadfully from the wounds I received in the skirmis] with the rebel army, and was even worse than before the wounds having broken out afresh, after partial! healing—the ball just missing my knee joint, havinj entered in a very ticklish part of the leg. On the 25th January, my wounds being mucl better, I was again placed in the rebel cars, on the wa to Atlanta, Georgia. During this time I was not ii prison, but under guard, although I was compelled t walk with the aid of crutches; and I left Atlanta a tb« _eiu7i0^ February, when I was once more placed ii an cars> on my way to Dalton, in expectation c tn f«v«ge ^.Prisoners; but unfortunately I was nc o w n -edAm,that and was consequently i J In Atlanta again, where I remained unde guard r a month. At the expiration of that period by the a.d of the rebel "cars" I was transported t Campbumpter, Andersonville, Georgia. Theee wei my first steps en route for rrison life. About eigl o'clock, I arrived at these dismal gates, which in moment were open, and I was amongst 5,000 poor I Union soldierfi-and of all the sights I ever saw in all my life this crowned all. They were dirty, ragged, shoeless, and half-naked fellows; no blankets, no tents, and nothing but the cold sands to sleep upon; half starved to death the men were, and were not even provided with soap to wash themselves with. I never received such treatment as this before. The rebels ° 11 j 'j4 treating us as prisoners of war, but I called it treating us worse than criminals, but I had to share the same fate the rest of my fellow soldiers bad to submit to. We were, too, exposed to all kinds of weather, hot or cold, wet or dry, and in prison we remained till the 8th Sept., when they run us off to Charleston, South Carolina, for fear of our being recaptured by General Sherman, he being then on the roads approaching Atlanta. We were at Charleston two days, when we were forwarded to Camp Florence, 100 miles back into the country, where we were again placed in prison-a worse one even than the first. •S-Ur JaHona were one pint of corn meal per day, without Bait or anything else. This brought us very low in nesh. The bad treatment and starvation, having nothing but corn meal for food, caused our men to have the scurvy very bad, some suffering extremely from it, and when it worked its way inwardly it was certain death.. 1 have witnessed more since I was taken prisoner than I ever did before; and since last May, up to the 8th of last September, whilst I was prisoner at Andersonville, no fewer than 16,000 of our brave troops perished, solely by bad treatment and starvation received at the hands of the rebels. After a man has. gone through all this, who could up- hold such a government as the Southern Confederacy? But on the 27th of November I was paroled out with the sick and wounded, and three days after we were delivered into our own men's hands and I am once more under the glorious good old stars and stripes of a free country, and in the midst of an enlightened people. I am now with my family at home on furlough my wound better, but I am somewhat lame. Idont expect to do any more fighting, although I shall have to report to the army on the 16th of this month. These are all the details I can give you for the present.
THE FEDERAL ARMY. The pay of private soldiers in the Federal army in 1861, with bounties, was 400 dols. for three years, which under the old rate of exchange was nearly 100^ The high prices of drinks, clothes, and other articles reduces it to one-half that amount, and makes it a good deal less than the pay of the British soldier. There is, however, anltem of abeut 30 dols. a year for clothing, which makes the pay nearly as good. Soon afterwards an increase of 141. was given to the soldier. In Sep- tember 1864 the pay for three years was augmented to 868 dols., or about 174?., according to the old value of money. In December of that year a corps of veterans was formed under Hancock, which receives the highest pay ever known-viz., not less than 61, a month. New York boasts that she paid to Volunteers in the State not less than 13,000, OOM. in greenbacks last year. The officers are calling out for some increase to their pay to establish their equilibrium.—The ■firtm correspondent in writing upon the subject of the army, says I '1^ce Mfty the Northern generals are reported to have lost by the casualties of the battle-field, of the camp, of the swamp, of the hospital, and of the nefarious trade of bounty- at least 200,000 men, and have not been supplied with as many as 50,000 to till the gap. The Government threatens conscription to frighten the great cities into re- i<w • eflort» to procure volunteers, but hesitates to en- force it lesl armed resistance to its authority should be the Wr^SeJ.uence- ^or is the financial situation more promisiopr. i W days prior to the 15th of January—a period which Will tbe immense preparations for the capture of mtiH jton~the exPenses of the Government exceeded Ave in tw *lars a day, or upwards of three hundred millions jt~ m°nths, and it is a very low estimate wiiich places n«r 5„,lnary expenditure at less than one thousand millions laritv J?1, ■. Ttle army is not paid with anything like regu- bv iVvV,? ,a°t well-known but not hitherto published except u hostile to the Administration, though now Tribune & ,so faithful and honest a supporter as the samrHoi^1 !?h sounded the alarm on the subject so lately as for f 2 ,ln deprecating the outlay of 20,000,000 dols. bevond tiff ?? £ and defences on the Canadian frontier as veteran y of the nation to lavish at a time when its that in,, were unpaid. Our heroes in the field," said nlttancMtn l'are vaillly asking for their hard-earned some brfi»n^iee^ and clothe their needy wives and children service fmi ave no dollar for their last six months' became becoming mutinous and unserviceable, can find 1^7 .1 nobody deals with the Government who to the in** J* er customer, beeause payment is withheld debtednesa and often made in certificates of in- evervthinff'*»» Jmust sold at a heavy discount; national credit8! aS draSs for wanfc of money, because the of the Govfirntw dubious. Three months ago the friends II this to bP would have declared such an exposition or contradioti^ a^le' but it now passes without challenge SS& °r even a word of comment. If it were effervescence if tZ °nt^"Rias™ of. people to its ancient volunteers in *v. oads ofNew England were to swarm with York and thn ^ni?.cred cause of the De8ro> and of New Union thou eh tuuu'?.i?c'ale8 m lne 8acrea cause of the removed, there culty ag re8ards men would be money which m11 remain the immense difficulty of MroLm cot o^d 1°, elo^y ^Tea' exchange Calif?,corn mfty bring gold from Europe in atanffily as ever L?8*, 8upply the PrecioU8 metal as •unnlv ba anffmAni j all these commodities, though the dav to day wui nnfd from month to month, or even from v«/r such a war aa Pr0Vide m«ans to carry on for another loans than have vnt h Waged ln the last without greater y.et been centracted, or more abundant < recommend^ any saue financier has dared to j 1
DARING ESCAPE OF A PRISONER. A Sheffield paper gives the following account of the desperate escape of a prisoner by leaping from an express railway train:— On Saturday morning police-constable Walsh was proceeding by railway with six prisoners in his charge to Wakefield. Three of the prisoners had been com- mitted by the magistrates for different periods of im- prisonment, and the other three had been committed for trial at the ensuing sessions. One of the prisoners committed for trial was Thomas Anderson, an old offender, who was charged with stealing lead from the General Cemetery. The six prisoners, of whom Anderson was one, were all chained together by a convict chain," fastened to the wrists by means of handcuffs. As the train was passing through the Koyston tunnel, which is about a mile in length, Anderson took advantage of the dark- ness to break the chain, one of the links of which was, as he had quietly observed, defective. Immediately on the train emerging from the tunnel the atten- tion of the constable was drawn to the prisoner by the manner in which he was staring fixedly at him. Walsh bad just risen to his feet to move > towards Andersop, when the latter suddenly threw open the door, which he had taken the precaution to un- fasten while in the darkness of the tunnel, and leaped out of the carriage- ia moment the train was shooting down the incline at express speed, estimated I at from 40 to 50 niiles Per hour Taken aback by this j astonishing freak, vvaisn order to prevent the other 3 prisoners from slippfng their manacles off the chain, I attached his handcuffs to the end link, a precaution 1 which was, Per^aPs' 8?^fluouSi as none of the other 3 prieoners aP^a^ltof ^eany desire to imitate Ander- k son's original mode of taking his discharge. However, t by this arrangement WaJsh 8a d timef made h-g pri'_ j soners all safe foir delivery at Oakenshaw, 3 where he instantly locked them up in the pointsman's r box, theu' thr^offhu, .oats cap, and ran at full SPeepe1d d 0f the place where Anderson had s t8 Awived at that point he saw the spot where the pri- 3 soner had ahghted distinctly marked out in the snow and tracke<1 m by his footsteps ia the same tell-tale t covering of the ground. After crossing two or three ^rfsht of th"8 ^hlCh diuided them the constable f caught sight of the prisoner, who waa at that time about a Ta«. fd hvl"116 °ff- T was now rather dK rved thJ \0D £ P"r8Ult- Tfa°ugh the prisoner ° ffn recSn;a v- aWe ln PUr8Ult he seemed at f n0^ in Shi ? ^lm' M ue .Was ^.that time bareheaded ? v, 1 sleeves» but on, *"8 closer approach he S iftkf 4 y,0Ulh who was coming along the ) V?16' ^ho heard the shouts of the offi- 1 fotftii hlmself in front of the runaway, but failed erson intimidated him with threats 1 T~e Presen?e ?f the third person, how- SJlt th? ?ffect of delayinS the fugitive for a few r with him durin& that period Walsh almost came up 1 01 two after this, Anderson, seeing that 3 „ impossible, faced round, turned up his coat > Tore that he would not be taken, and dared the 1 t0 c°me on. Walsh, although breathless from ST."?8?,m,Ies chase over the snow at once accepted 1 Challenge. The prisoner parried the first blow, > from the second a poke in the* stomach rWVtaff he felL After this he was soon tamed, as Walsh was in no humour to stand any nonsense, and punished the man so severely as to reduce him to > a state of comparative helplessness. The prisoner, > who was bleeding freely, declared his complete sub- mission, and when Walsh secured him and was about to j take him to Oakenshaw he was in such a state of exhaustion as scarcely to be able to walk. When I Anderson rallied a little he gave as a reason for the j. course he had taken that he knew he should get from y seven to ten years if his case went to trial, and that he resolved to go to a place which shall be nameless J rather than go before the judge. He says that he at first was stunned by the fall. He thinks he laid for 'r ten minutes among the snow in the trench at the side of the railroad, and when he first attempted to rise he r felt like a drunken man. It is wonderful, considering j the express speed of the train at the moment of his escape, that he was not killed on the spot
I A LAWYER'S PERSONAL LUGGAGE. f In the Court of Common Pleas, in London, the cause of s "Ptietps v. tne London and North Western Railway Com- 9 pany" has been tried:- a The plaintiff in this case was a solicitor, practising near Maidstone, and he sued to recover damages in 1 consequence of delay in delivering his luggage to him ) on two occasions whilst journeying in Wales. > Mr. Huddleston, in opening the case, said that if he were to employ the j argcn of some of their friends who f took most notes of proceedings before the judges, 1 he should begin by saying, This is a case interest- e ing to persons travelling by railways," but he preferred r simply to ^tate the facts. On the 26th of July, o 1863, the plantiff went from Euston-square, in London, a to Montgomeryshire to attend a county court, both i- in the character of attorney and also of wit- • ness. He took with him his ordinary personal luggage ij in a portmanteau, which had his initials printed on it. jj The portmanteau also contained a deed, which the h plaintiff had to produce in the county court, and 65?. in money. The plaintiff saw his portmanteau at Shrews- 7 bury, and again at Oswestry, but at the journey's end ? it was not to be found. The plaintiiF visited various stations searching for the property, and afterwards 11 came to London, where he found it. The whole y journey occupied ten days, and all the expense a and trouble were thrown awav, because the cause 1 £ ou/d not be disposed of without the deed, and ■t had to be postponed. On the 28th of May, 1864, the 11 plaintiff again went the same journey, and upon the of same business, and singularly enough, the portmanteau, >t with the deed in it, was missing at the place where the n plaintiff stopped. On this occasion the property was ir not delivered to the plaintiff until the following after- I, noon, after the county court judge had risen, and the o cause had been again postponed. The plaintiff con- 'e sequently had to make a third journey into Wales, and it t on this occasion he took care to keep the deed upon a his person, and it arrived in safety. The plaintiff esti- amrnh^^i"8.1088 by the delay on the two occasions recover^ ls"' -this amount he sued to th On defendants it was not denied that &:ycSii?f ?■? ??' "personal luggl^f," wb..), the Som'Sn, were bound to carry without exw* chapo.„ -rf" contended that the damages remQte recovered in this action. For the plaintiff it was argued that deeds "td papers were as much luggage of an attorney as samph^, ^ere of a commercial traveller, or instruments of a surg* They were necessary adjuncts to his profession. Mr. Justice Byles reserved the questions of law for the judge, but left it to the jury to say what amount the company should pay if they were liable in respect of all the property, and what if they were liable only for what was admitted to be personal luggage. The jury found for the plaintiff, and assessed the damages in the first event at 441. Is., and in the I second at 201.
A FEW HINTS ABOUT COTTAGE BREWING. The discussion on the repeal of the Malt-tax has cooked several letters on Cottage Brewing," amongst others, the following, from a Cambridge Brewer :— I have read lately several letters urging, as a reason for repealing the duty on malt, the opportunity it would give for cottagers to brew their own beer, and giving 20 gallons per bushel as the quantity of good ale to be produced, also extolling this beverage as something far superior to that to be obtained at the village public or beershop. Perhaps you will permit me to show that there is much fallacy in these assertions. I have had the opportunity of tasting and examining the ale brewed by cottagers and tradespeople In various parts of England. As a rule it is, while in the state of mild ale now generally preferred, Invariably thick or cloudy, and, from ignorance of the principles of fermentation, beyond the power of art to render transparent, the yeast being fixed in it. If such ale were offered to the most ignorant clown in this locality by the publican, he would indignantly reject it as being thick as swill, and likely to bring on cholera. Then, as to the quantity mentioned, it is considerably in excess of that drawn from a bushel of malt by the licensed brewer for ale at Is. a gallon (subject to discount) the gra- vity would be so low as to render acidity inevitable in a few days in warm weather, particularly under cottage manage- ment, causing it to be rejected, and rendering home brewing the reverse of economical. It is also usually assumed for fact that brewer's beer is adulterated. This I deny, it being evident to all practical men that malt and hops without drug of any kind, setting aside the risk of heavy fines if detected, are the most ad- vantageous. In conclusion, as a brewer I cannot think the repeal of the duty likely to be detrimental to my interest, but knowing the facility with which a large sum is now raised, and that some substitute must be found to maintain the revenue, I hope those happy enthusiasts who think the repeal would enable the cottager to put the big pot on, once a month, to brew barley broth as he would pea soup, may have to wait a long time for the realization of their dreams.
CARDINAL WISEMAN'S SUCCESSORS Much interest has naturally been excited amongst the members of the Roman Catholic community resi- dent in the metropolis and the adjacent districts in reference to Cardinal Wiseman's successor in the "Archbishopric of Westminster." It is not of course necessary that the person nominated to administer "the chief see in England" shall be a cardinal at the time of his nomination, although it is very probable that the ecclesiastic selected for the archbishopric will very soon afterwards have the cardinalate conferred on him. Amongst those best qualified to judge upon such matters the names of three gentlemen are men- tioned, and there seems to be little doubt that one of them will be selected to guide the spiritual interests of the metropolitan Diocese of Westminster." The names are those of the Hon. and Right Rev. Dr. W. J. H. Clifford, the Hon. and Rev. Monsignor George Talbot, and the Very Rev. Dr. Henry E. Manning. Dr. Clifford is at present Bishop of Clifton, a dis- tinguished member of the Roman Catholic hierarchy in England, and (according to Debrett's Peerage) a brother of Baron Clifford, a count of the Holy Roman Empire. The Bishop was born in 1823. Monsignor Talbot is Chamberlain to the Pope, and is reputed to be a man of great learning and tact. He is a brother of Lord Talbot de Malahide. Dr. Manning was for many years a distinguished clergyman of the Church of England, and Archdeacon of Chichester. He waseduca- cated at Balliol College, Oxford, and graduated in 1830. He took a first-class in classics, there being in the same class with him Mr. Henry Wilberforce, of Oriel Col- lege, a brother of the Bishop of Oxford, now a lay- man of the church of Rome. Dr. Manning resigned his ecclesiastical preferments in the Church of England in 1851, on joining the Roman Catholic Church, and is now the head of a religious order settled at Bays- water, entitled "The Oblates of St. Charles Bor- romeo."
DEATH OF FIELD.MARSHAL VISCOUNT COMBERMERE. Field-Marshal Viscount and Baron Combermere, of Dombermere, G.C.B., G-.C.H., K.S. I., Constable of the Tower of London, died at Clifton on Tuesday. The deceased, Stapleton Stapleton Cotton, son of I Sir Robert Salisbury Cotton, M.P. for the county of Chester, was born at Llewenny-hall, in Denbighshire, in 1769, and educated at Westminster School. On the 26th of February, 1790, he entered the army. He first served as lieutenant in the 23rd Welsh Fusileers. He was afterwards promoted into the Dragoon Guards, in which he served in Flanders under the Duke of York. After commanding at the Cape of Good Hope he served in a short but active campaign under Sir Thomas Craig, after which he proceeded with his regiment to India. He then served in 1798 and 1799 against Tip- poo Sultan. He was engaged in the battle of Malla- velly and in the siege of Seringapatam. In 1808 he returned to England, and after commanding for a time the 16th Dragoons in Ireland, and serving on the Staff in England, he proceeded in 1808 to the Peninsula in command of a brigade of cavalry, At the head of this corps he distinguished himself during the campaign in the north of Portugal, including the operations at Oporto and the battle of Talavera. In 1809 the local rank of Lieutenant General was conferred upon him, and early in 1810 he was appointed to the com- mand of the whole allied cavalry under the Duke of Wellington. He remained in that position until the termination of the war in 1814, and distinguished him- self at the head of that force ;in covering the retreat from Almeida to Torres Vedras, at Busaco, Villa Garcia, Castraj on, ± uentes d'Onor, and S ilamanca. In the last mentioned battle he was severely wounded. He also served at El Bodon, the Pyrenees, Orthez, and Toulouse. On his return to Eng- land after the battles of Talavera and Salamanca he received the unanimous thanks of both Houses of Parliament, in conjunction with the Duke of Wellington, and in consequence of his brilliant ser- vices he was elevated to the peerage on the 17th of May, 1814, as Biron Combermere. In 1817 he was appointed Governor of Barbadoes, and Commander of the Forces in the West Indies. He was appointed Commander-in-Chief in India in 1822, and it was while he held that that he won fresh distinction by the capture of Bhurtpore. On the 27th of May, 1825, he attained the rank of General. In the following year he was advanced to the dignity of Viscount for his ser- vices in India. He was appointed to the Colonelcy of the lbt Life Guards on the 16th of September, 1829, which he continued to hold at the time of his death. He was made a xiela-Marshal on the 2.wi of October, 1855. Viscount Combermere married, in 1801, Lady Anna Maria Pelham-Clinton, the eldest daughter of the third Duke of Newcastle, who died in 1807, and by whom he had no surviving issue. He married secondly, on the 18tb of June, 1814, Caroline, the second daughter of Mr. W. Fulke-Greville. She died on the 25th of January, 1837, leaving three children. One of them, Caroline, married the present Marquis of Downshire. The deceased matried thirdly on the 2nd of October, 1838, the only child of Mr. Robert Gibbons, of Cork, a lady of an ancient Irish family.
EXTRAORDINARY CASE OF ALLEGED STARVATION. An inquiry which has created considerable Interest has been held at Tottenham. A woman named Elizabeth Purnell, aged sixty-nine, the servant to a clerk in the Bank of England, was alleged to have met her deatu in consequence of starvation — Mr. John Costall Thompson said he was a clerk in the Bank of England. The deceased lived with him as general servant for the last three years. She had a cough in the winter, but she was not asthmatical. His family consisted of his wife and six children—three boys and three girls. His salary was 200/. a year, after paying insurance, income-tax, &c. He allowed deceased^; very thing she required, but his wife drank to a terrible degree, therefore he was obliged to lock ( up the things to prevent his wife disposing of them. He used to give deceased things. He gave up his time to his family, and gave them what he could. Deceased used to go about without any shoes and scarcely any clothes on. She was always giving notice. She had 13l, wages since she came to live with him. He gave her 6s. or 7s. a few weeks ago. She was not paid all the wages due to her. There were perhaps 41. due. She always had enough to eat. Charles Thompson, a little boy, said that deceased always had enough to eat. She used to spend her money in buying tea and sugar for herself. John Thompson, in answer to questions, said that he was 13 y ears of age. His father had told him to answer that there always enough to eat. There was meat twice a week. The other day there was rice and treacle. There was dry bread and milk-and-water in the mornings and evenings. Mr. Watson, Surgeon, said that death arose from disease of the heart, and was accelerated by want of necessaries and by exposure. Hannah Armestead said that she was a grocer. She knew deceased for three years. When she first came she was a clean and respectable person, but latterly she became wretched-looking. She repeatedly told witness that she was three-parts starved, and that her master had taken off her beer because he could not afford it. She said that when her master dined out he left 6d. for his wife's and deceased's dinner, rice for the children, and 6d. for the eldest girl's dinner. She had no shoes and scarcely any clothes; she was so cold that she would be unable to pick anything off the counter, and witness gave her a bun, &c. Mrs. Thompson, having been cautioned, said that she was not going to criminate the. father of her chil- dren. There was meat four times a week; the boy John Thompson was not to be believed. Of course there was no meat on Fridays or on fast days, in Lent, &c. Witness never fasted she kept no fasts. She never sold deceased's stays for a penny. She saw the stays on the fire-place, worn out. She was paid her wages irregularly. She got boots when the family got them. A Juror: You know, Mrs Thompson, she never had any boots. 3 T Witness Oh, she never laced them up. I shared evervthing with her. I am rather stout, but I had not the lion's share. We could not get her to buy clothes. She could have left if she liked, but she would not leave me. She could not go to Bristol without her money, but Mr. Thompson would have given it to her. The Coroner having summed up, the jury returned a verdict that deceased died from disease of the heart, accelerated by want of the necessaries of life and by exposure; and the jury are of opinion that John | Costell Thompson and Mary, his wife, are severely censured for not having supplied the deceased with necessary food while she was their servant. -=-. The Coroner said that some sympathy was felt for Mr. Thompson on account of the drunken character of I his wife. Mr. Thompson said he had consulted counsel (Mr. Bartley), who had informed him that there was no remedy in such a case. He did all he could for de- ceased. She would not buy clothes. The verdict was very unfair to him.
ROMANCE AND CRIME IN AMERICA. We have become so familiar with bloodshed that solitary murders do not excite general attention; yet the homicide which occurred in the Treasury building at Washington on Monday last presents certain features which justify brief notice, (writes an American correspondent). The assassin in this case is a woman, the victim a man, and disappointed love the exciting cause. The following are the particulars:— Andrew Burroughs, formerly residing in Chicago, Illi- nois, was the son of wealthy parents, and moved in the best society of that" fast" American town. His brother, Dr. Burroughs, is the President of a Baptist seminary at Chicago, and the murdered man was a Church mem- ber in good standing. Circumstances led him to visit the town of Burlington, in Iowa, where, after a resi- dence of a few months, he formed the acquaintance of one Louise Harris. This person is the daughter of an Irish labourer, and possessing an active mind and some graces of person and being an attendant at the same church with Burroughs, attracted his attention. He was, it seems, frequently ot service to her in shielding her from the persecution of her parents and rela- tives, who are strict Catholics, and he also assisted her in her efforts to obtain an education. For Burroughs, this young woman conceived a most voilent and passionate attachment, which she did not scruple to express. If the story of his friends is to be believed, he invariably assured her that marriage with her was out of the question, for social if for no other reasons and he also informed her that his engagement with another was an absolute bar to their union. She seemed to be convinced by his assurances of the folly of her course, and some time afterwards informed him that she was about to be married to a person named Delvin. Burroughs came to Washington and obtained a clerical position in the Treasury department. This was about two years After a little time he revisited Chicago, was married, r and with his bride paaeed a few days at Burlington, f jailing upon Miss Harris, in company with his wife, j luring his stay. Himself and wife were greeted with 5 ;reat apparent kindness; and a short time after he re- y turned to Washington he received a copy of a news- ] paper containing a notice of the marriage of the woman 1 Harris with the Delvin above mentioned. He had, ] therefore, every reason to believe that the unfortunate 3 and misplaced affection of the female in question had passed away. On Monday last, however, as he was in the act of passing from his room in the Treasury build- ing to the street, he was confronted by the woman Harris, who, without saying a word, twice discharged a revolver at him. Both shots took effect, and the un- fortunate man died in a few moments. His assassin was immediately arrested, and is now in prison. On being apprehended she gave her name as Delvin, which would seem to confirm the report that she had been married to a man of that name. Afterwards, however, she declared her name to be Harris. In explanation of the deed she says that Burroughs had promised to marry her, and continued to correspond with her until within a few weeks of his death, and some months after his marriage with another person. She says that she came to Washington without any definite plan of action, save to see the man she loved that in passing through the street she saw some pistols exposed for sale in a certain shop that she bought one because, she says, many of the ladies of Chicago carry pistols, especially when travelling;" that when she met Burroughs in the hall of the Treasury building, she "felt suddenly lifted up;" her "arm was extended stiff as iron," and she saw him fall." She adds, I knew nothing more until I was called back as 1 was leaving the building." She strenuously denies that any improper intercourse ever took place between herself and Burroughs, so that there is no claim that this is one of the every-day cases of seduction and desertion. The same correspondent from whom we have quoted the above also says Probably the most startling development of the affair is its exposure of the practice indulged in by many women in America of carrying deadly weapons. Not only the "ladies" of Chicago, referred to by this woman, but numbers of the sex in this city and the larger towns are guilty of the dangerous and altogether unwomanly habit. It is an absolute fact that women moving in respect- able circles, and with untainted reputatioIU1, sport delicate little ivory-handled revolvers and repeaters; and justify themselves in the practice by the truthful assertion that not only after certain hours of the night, but during the day in many portions of the country, and especially in this city, no woman is safe without some protection of the kind, or the guardianship of a well-armed member of the opposite sex. In how great a decree this demoralising fact is due to the influence of the war is a problem worth the consideration of our social philosophers.
ERUPTIONS OF ETNA AND VESUVIUS. The following is an extract from an Interesting letter from ¡ Messina, describing the eruption of Etna The only news I have is that our neighbour Etna" is in a most violent state of eruption. It broke out on the night of the 31st January, after having been in an unsettled state- almost the whole time I have been here (about eight months.) In Messina the eruption was ushered in by a most fearful thunderstorm, which, with the roaring and bellowing of the mountain, made n almost continual peal of thunder. This lasted the whole night and was followed during the whole of the next day by a perfect hurricane of wind, which at even- ing was succeeded by another thunderstorm, not so violent as the first but which lasted without intermission for 36 hours (two nights and one day). On Saturday morning, the 4th, I started to see what was to be seen. I could not get away for long enough to go to Etna itself, as that takes two days, so I went to a place called Taormina, which is only 15 or-20 miles from Etna as the crow flies, and is distant from here some 30 miles; but 30 miles in this country is not like the same distance in England, but is a tedious shaky journey of seven hours. We arrived at our destina- tion about sundown. Our post of observation is in itself a thing worth seeing, and particularly constructed for our purpose, viz., the ruins of the Greek amphi- theatre of Taormina, situated on a high hill over- hanging the sea, and built originally for the express purpose of obtaining a fine view of the volcano. From it you see Etna better than from any other point, and the eruption is this time altogether on thie side of the mountain, so that we saw all that it is possible to see from a distance. Firstly, there are three craters, all new ones, and situated as if ex- pressly for giving an effect from this point of view, as they all face this way and are all close together, the centre one being much smaller than the other which gives the effect of an enormous j of fire, with a background of snow, these crate^8 S 1 only about two-thirds up the mountain, e' notwithstanding the internal heat of the mountain, is, as always, covered with snow, /rom these three craters tne lava is pouring out, and flames shoot up to an enormous height, each fresh spurt seeming higher than the last, the sameasm watching a fountain the water always seems to get higher and higher. These cra- ters keep up one continual upward shooting of flame and red hot stones, which they throw to an enormous dis tance. The lava pours out in many small and insignifi- cant streams, and one main river of fire, running down the gradual slope of the mountain. This river is variously estimatedatfroml2 to lo miles in length, but all agree that it is at ieaat 10 miles and it still continues gradu- ally and slowly, but surely, flowing on, carrying total and certain destruction to all it finds in the wourse. If it continues a little longer several villages will be de- stroyed, but at present its ravages are confined to vine- yards and forests, with a stray house or two. During the day this stream can be traced from a distance by the smoke only, but at night it is one unbroken river of red glowing fire, and as such I saw it. Trees on either side from time to time to ignite with the heat, and in a few seconds only are reduced to a cinder. The blazing trees add much to the effect, burning with bright white light against the lurid red of the running lava. The whole effect is so totally beyond my powers of description that I shall not attempt it. The night was bright and cloudless, though the moon was perhaps too bright, being nearly full, though total darkness could hardly have increased the wonder of the sight, which is much added to, by the roaring of the mountain, which seems like distant thunder. We stopped at Taormina, watching till eleven o'clock, and then I went back to Messina, where I arrived at five a.m. on Sun- j day morning. The beginning of next week I hope to m £ nf<&e, to get to Etna itself, and see close by day what 1 beheld at a distance by night. As long as the eruption continues one cannot too long defer a visit, pjy f of being too late, though the natives think it will probably continue for several weeks more.
It would also appear from tbe following, that a similar eruption has occurred at Mount Vesuvius The first symptoms indicating another eruption of Mount Vesuvius were observed on Sunday, the 29th ult, when a tremulous motion of the soil was expe- rienced at Giasse, Piedimonte, and Linguagrossa, situated nearly at the foot of the mountain. Now and then a deep rolling sound was heard the temperature, which had been very warm for several days, suddenly fell, and the sky became overcast. On the following days all these symptoms increased in intensity, and on the 31st a crater opened with a deafening noise at a distance of about 12 miles from Piedimonte. On the 1st there were heavy falls of rain accompanied with thunder, the wind blowing from the north, and rolling sounds underground increasing. Since then four craters more have been formed, all on the eastern sid. of the mountain. The lava has selected the bed of ft dry torrent for its escape, and, owing te the irregulat nature of the soil, has since divided into six streamlets, which occasionally meet again and separate as before according to the obstacles, in the shape of hills or rocks, which they meet on their way. The motion of the lava is much slower than it was in 1852 a house that vei^L OI1'y a distance of six metres from it was not P*b»»Te?'< A P°rtion of a forest belonging to Prince ■ ^as been burnt, together with a park adjoin- 7 j v, to Marquis Del Tosca, and two vine- yards have beq destroyed. But the lava now threatens a village of 400 inhabitants, called Santa Maria Levena, and Piedimonte, further down, is not safe. Meanwhile the authorities are on the alert, all the cisterns have been emptied along the probable course of the lava, because on its approach the water would be converted into steam, and become dangerous to those who might be engaged in saving their property. All the cottages threatened with destruction have been abandoned.
The eruption of Vesuvius is remarkable as taking place simultaneously with that of Etna. From my last intelligence the flames were not very high (writes a Times' correspondent). It is painful to record that an English gentleman, who had arrived with his family only the night before, in descending the mountain on the Pompeii side fell over a precipice 300 feet in depth and was so severely injured that his life is despaired of. Vesuvius and the whole line of mountains round the Bay are covered with snow, forming a remarkable contrast and a grand spectacle. On the night before the erup- tion broke out there was a most terrific thunderstorm. Here, as in Naples, we have had mild spring weather, with a deluge of rain up to the present moment, but during the last few days the cold has been bitter. On the railway between the two cities there is much snow, beginning at Capua and terminating at Ciprano, on the Roman frontier. Naples is so full that persons intending to go down from Rome have been advised by telegraph that there is no accommodatiou in the hotels or lodging houses. At the great ball given by Prince Humbert last week in the Royal Palace, there were present 3,600 persons another is to be given on the 27th, which will be equally crowded, as no line is to be drawn between those who have been and those who have not been presented. Rome also is crowded and very gay, and though the carnival cannot be as brilliant as that of Naples, it will probably be more interesting from the novel circumstances under which it takes place.
APPLYING TO THE WRONG PERSON. There is a good deal of talk in military circles of a rather awkward affair in which the Chief Secretary for Ireland plays the principal part (writes the London correspondent of the Liverpool Albion). Some time ago, during a passage across the Channel in one of the Holyhead steamers, Sir Robert found himself in con- versation with a gentlemanly-looking man, who repre- sented himself as holding a commission in the army, and gave the name of S-. When landing, Mr. S- found himself in want of a little ready cash, having nothing but large notes about him, and he applied to Sir Robert, who lent him £ 3. 10s., which, of course, was to be repaid in a day or two. The money not reaching the right hon. lender, he made inquiry, and found there was a Mr. S- quartered at the Curragh, and presuming that he was the borrower, sent him a polite reminder of the obligation. Mr. S- at the Curragh, a gentleman of property who had not had the honour of meeting Sir Robert, and who had not borrowed 31. 10s. of him, thought that the whole thing was a joke, and treated it accordingly. But the matter soon reached the ears of the Com- mander at the Curragh, and of Sir G. Browne, the Commander of the Forces in Ireland, and the Mr. S.- who did not owe the money became exceedingly annoyed. Sir Robert had acted bona fide, but had made a mistake. Mr. S required an apology which, it is said, the right hon. bart. refused sogive. It is turther stated that Mr. S- was dis- posed to call Sir Robert out," and waited upon a Friend" with that object. The latter, however, pointed out to him what the possible consequences of such a proceeding might be. He reminded him that when the O'Donoghue sent him a challenge, Sir Robert named the Prime Minister his friend, and suggested that, if a message were sent in the present case, the right honourable gentleman might name the Com- mander of the Forces, in which event the consequences to Mr. S. need not be more particularly indicated. No one can suppose that in the first instance Sir Robert was guilty of more than just such a mistake as a gentleman of his temperament, and one so prone to rushing at hasty conclusions, might very easily [all into. But surely his dignity would not suffer by an apology to the gentleman whom he had erroneously supposed to be a defaulter in the amount of seventy shillings, borrowed money!
AN AMERICAN MURDE The Cleveland Leader (Federal States) of the 4th inst., gives an account of the murder of a wife, father, and mother, by a young recruiting officer named David L. Bivins, who had been stationed at Grafton, and wished to release himself of his wife, as a preliminary to getting married a second time under advantageous circumstances He went to his former home near Cold water, Michigan (where his young wife resided with his father and mother), on the 1st of the present month. During the absence of Bivins in the evening his wife was sud- denly seized with the pains of childbirth, and as his father was spending the evening at a neighbour's, the old lady went out to find him and send him for a doctor, leaving the sick woman entirely alone. During her absence, the husband entered the house, and, un- moved by the delicate condition of his wife, deliberately killed her. While thus engaged his father and mother entered, and the villain shot and killed both. He then hid their bodies in the cellar, set the house on fire, and hurried to the railway station, for- getting a horse and sleigh, which he left standing in front of the burning house. He took the night train, then due, from Coldwater, arriving in Grafton on Wednesday. Meantime the horse, frightened by the conflagration, had broken away and got home to his stable; and the fire had been extinguished, and the bodies-recognised as being these of murdered persons—discovered. A fragment of broken strap tied to a post in front of the house led to the discovery of the stablekeeper who had hired the horse to the murderer; lis identity was thus esta- blished, and on the following day he was arrested in Grafton, when he boldly and fully confessed his crimes. He distributed among the crowd who gathered around him a number of his autographs, written as follows David L. Bivins, murderer of his wife, father and mother." He jocosely bade cood bye to his acquaintances in Grafton, inviting them to come up and see him, and telling them they would find him playing checkers with his nose on the gaol windows." This so incensed the crowd of spectators at Grafton Station that they were for lynchirg him on the spot, and were with difficulty prevented from doing so. He was placed on board the Toledo train and taken back to Coldwater. He is in no danger of meeting his deserts there, as capital punishment is prohibited in Michigan by special enactment.
THE MARKETS. MARK-LANE, MONDAT. The arrivals of English wheat fresh up to our market to-day were very moderate. The condition of the produce exhibited a decided improvement from last week, yet the trade both for red and white samples ruled far from active. Factors, however, were firm iu their demands, and last Monday's prices were steadily supported. At the close of business the bulk of the supply had been disposed of. Only a moderate supply of foreign wheat was on the stands. Generally speaking, the trade was quiet, and millers showed but little disposition to operate extensively, either in American or Continental produce. In the transactions effected, however, the full prices of Monday last were obtained. Floating cargoes of grain were in average request, and prices ruled Arm. There was a moderate supply of English barley on th6 stands, and the show of foreign produce on offer was tolerably large. Good and fine malting qualities were in demands, at full quotations. For grinding barley there was a fair de. mand, at quite previous rates. Otherwise the barley trade was quiet, on former terms. In malt only a moderate business was transacted, at previous quotations. The maiket was moderately supplied with oats. Both for English and foreign qualities there was a good demand, and prices advanced quite Is. per qr. from Monday last. In some instances the improvement was n. ûd. per qr. The supply of beans on sale was very smalL Last week's advance in prices, conBt2^nl wel1 mai&tained, and in some mstances rather exceeded. Peas ruled firm, at fully late rates. The market was scantily supplied. In flour about 811 w,as transacted, at full currencies. The supply of barrels on sale was smalL METROPOLITAN CATTLE MARKET, THURSDAY. The show of foreign beasts in to day's market wss mode- rate, of sheep and calves limited. Siles progressed steadily, and the quotations had an upward tendency. The arrivals 01 beasts fresh up from our own grazing districts, as well as from Scotland, were tolerably good, and for the most part in prime condition. Nearly all breeds met a slow inquiry, and in some instances prices were a shade lower than on Monday last, However, the best Ssots and crosses produced 5s. 4d. per 81b. The supply of beasts from Ireland was very middling. The show of sheep was very limited, but in full average condition. About one third of the supply was out of the wool. The mutton trade was active, at an advance in the quotations of fully 2d. per SIb. Do vns in the wool realised 6a. 4d. per 81b. Some half bred tegs with prime skins changed hands at 6s. 6d, and even 6s 8d. per, Sib. The top figure for clippel sheep was 5s. 2d to, in some cases, 5s. 4d. per 81b. The few lambs on offer readily produced 7s. to 7s. 4d. per 81b. Calves were in short supply, and good re- quest, on higher terms. The top price was 5s. 2d. per 81b. Tile pork trade was firm at enhanced quotations. POTATOES. Moderate supplies of home-grown potatoes are on sale at these markets to day. In most qualities a steady business is doing, at our quotations. Last week's Import was 30 tons from Jersey 40 Caen 100 sacks Boulogne 5 baskets Rot- terdam 117 tons from Antwerp. Yorkshire Regents, 80s. to 100s.; Flukes, 120s. to 140s.; Kent and Essex Regents, 80s. to 1oos.; Scotch Regents, 70s. to 80s.; Rocks, 70s. to 80s.; Dunbar Regents tOs. to 110s.; Foreign, 55s to 65s. per ton. WOOL. The trade for all descriptions of English wool continues very quiet. The amount of business transacted since our last Is small, at the recent fall in prices. In the value of colonial wool, in the private contract market, very little change has taken place; the market, on the whole may be considered steady, notwithstanding that buyers operated cautiously in most descriptions. Tha first series of public sales for the year will probably be commenced on the 2nd proximo. The arrivals at present amount to 46,9J9 bales, consisting of 6,308 bales from Sidney; 16,390 Port Phillip; 403 Van Diemau's Land; 4,613 Adelaide; 53 Swan River; 142 New Zealand and 19,000 bales from the Cape of Good Hope. Advices from the Australian colonies state that the new class of wool waa good, anu that at the leading ports of shipment a fall in prices of from id. to 2d. per I b. had taken place in the prim current at the commencement of the aeaaotu