49ttr fonkn Coraspnlmtt. 1Wo deem it right to state that we do not at all times identify uriixsefces with our correspondent's opinions.] Parliament, having got over the preliminary skir- mish relative to the Address — if even skirmish be not too strong a word-is getting into work with a will. I does not seem at all likely that we shall have a quiet or an apathetic session. It bids fair rather to be a useful and a practical one. Hon. members seem to feel that they are on their trial before their constituents. In a few months, in all probability, Parliament will be dissolved constitnencies will be on the qui vive, and the country will be full of election rumours, hustings speeches, and political battles. The Rouse of Lords, who have no constituencies to fear, are, as usual, taking matters quietly, the only exception: perhaps being the Lord Chancellor, who — happily for the country-has set his heart on Bankruptcy reform, a reform which, sooth to say is much needed, seeing that the estates of bankrupts are now equally divided be- tween the officials of the Bankruptcy Court, lawyers, &c., on the one hand, and creditors on the other. The revelations which the greatest authority on the work- ing of the law makes on the subject, are of a very startling character. Lord Westbury, who has made bankruptcy his study for years, states that during the past year the value of the property recovered in the Bankruptcy Court was £677,536, of which only £ 533,664 was divided among creditors, jE143,872 being absorbed in the cost of collecting and dividing the assets, while £140,000 went for the salaries and expenses imme- diately connected with the Bankruptcy Court. Thus less than 10s. in the pound, even if the sum obtained from debtors went to creditors, andmore than 10s. to officials of the Court, or in expenses." Well may the Lord Chancellor say that it becomes a question whether this monstrous, overgrown, and extravagant institution shall be allowed to remain." A committee to inquire into the whole working of the Bankruptcy system will this session report on the subject, and if this report be presented in time, we may have an amendment of the last Bankruptcy Act. The truth Is that the .Lord Chancellor has a great deal to contend against in the interested power and influence of those who profit by the present system. The whole com- mercial community are concerned in obtaining an alteration in the present law, and it is to be hoped that another session will not pass away without an alteration in this important branch of legisl ation. One by one large private firms are becoming absortted in limited liability companies. Perhaps none of these absorptions are more worth notice than that of the telegraphic agency of Mr. Julius Reuter, the German Jew who for several years past has had the sole direction of that immense machinery which is indicated by the word's "Router's telegrams." If tnere ever were a man of determined energy and per. severance it is Mr. Julius Reuter. Many years ago he commenced business single-handed (and he has re- mained single-handed till now) in a small office in Chancery-lane. He hada few agents on the continent, and commenced obtaining foreign new?, and sending it round to the daily newspapers. The papers would not take his news; but he was undiscouraged; he persevered, day after day and week after week; still his news was pooh-pood'd. But one fine morning there came to the offices of the daily newspapers, through Mr. Reuter's agency, news of a victory by the Allies in the Crimea. One or two of the papers used the news, without pledging themselves to its accuracy. The news was confirmed; and the proprietors of the daily papers began, figuratively speaking, to scratch their heads. The energetic Jew continued his work, losing a large sum every week, and still his telegrams were rejected. But there came a fine evening which brought, through his agency again, the substance of a speech by the most powerful sovereign in Europe, the Emperor of the French. To use it or not to use it-that was the question. Some journals used it, and some did not, the public (caring nothing how the news is brought so that it comes), not failing to draw their inferences as to the superiority of the management of some journals over others. This was Mr. Reuter's coup d'etat. He had gained the victory. From that time to the present he has had almost the monopoly of supplying tele- graphic news, and he has done his work welL I remember that Rothschild-the Rothschild-used to make thousands upon thousands by his pigeon ex- presses during the war. On the eve of the battle of Waterloo he went beyond this; he was on the field of battle, and the moment he found the French were beaten, he hurried off, posted at as rapid a rate as post-horses and diligences could carry him, and paid a fisherman' an enormous price to put off at Calais in very rough weather. The Jew banker reached Dover with the news in his pocket of the French defeat at Waterloo. Posting to the Stock Exchange, old Rothschild put on a sonowful counte. nance and spread the news of a French victory. He even sold out some stock, but secretly he had a number of agents who bought in, and he thus made that inde- finite sum which is called "a mint of money." Mr. Julius Reuter has never been known, and never even has been charged with doing this, though he has thus had in his possession what Dr. Johnson said Mr, Thrale the brewer, had—" a potentiality of wealth beyond the dreams of avarice." Some time ago the daily newspapers had a meeting on the subject of Mr. Reuter's telegrams; it was thought that he was going too much ahead, and getting the news too much into his own power. The question in fact was--can we do withoat Mr. Reuter ? and it was decided in the nega 1 tive. The Telegraphic News Association, which latelv started, has not at present made much way and the probability is that the limited liability company which has grown omt of Mr. Reuter's scheme will stop any other company coming into the field. The jewellers, bankers, and shopkeepers generally, in the City are becoming alarmed at the number and serious character of the robberies which have recently taken place. The meeting which has been held—at which such men as Mr. Sari, Mr. Bennett, and other princely shopkeepers, assisted, may be taken as an evidence of but a part of the alarm that is spreading. The City police, who were recently so highly praised (when Sir Richard Mayne wished to amalgamate them with the Metropolitan police), are now soundly rated for their negligence and the probability is that history will repeat itself," and the City shopkeepers will return to the system of private watchmen. Whoever invented valentines invented a pretty conceit, and one which, properly carried out, would be a very pretty and innocent pastime for lovers. But how sadly have valentines degenerated In many of our shops there are some sweetly pretty valentines in which art does its best to evoko love and to express it; but many other shops are also filled with productions possessing not one atom of wit, sense, or sentiment. Utterly disgaceful in design, they are wretched in execution and indecent in tendency. I am surprised indeed, that some of the shopkeepers are not indicted for exposing for sale pictures and "poetry" of a character that the late Lord Campbell certainly in. tended to include in his Act for the suppression of in- decent publications. These valentines cannot but do a great deal of harm, corrupting comparatively innocent minds, without in any way assisting the communion of mind with mind, as St. Valentine intended. The Rev. J. C. M. Bellew is not only one of our most fashionable clergymen, but he is one of the best readers in the world. Tastes differ on such subjects. Some may prefer Mr. Dickens, others Mr. Phelps, others Mr. Creswick; but all admit at all events that Mr. Bellew is a splendid reader, and the remark is very commonly made, What a pitythat Mr. Bellew is not on the stage What a magnificent tragedian he would have made The rev. gentleman, as all the world knows, makes a large income by reading at literary institutions, etc. A gentleman has now written to the Bishop of London, to call his attention to the fact, asking whether he (the Bishop) thinks it right that a clergyman should thus employ himself. The bishop (who never interferes for anything less than an earth- quake) has replied that as the ecclesiastical law does not take cognisance of anything of the kind, he does not wish to move in the matter. If a London correspondent may venture to say that a bishop is right, I will do so. I have heard Mr. Bellew several times. and a more delightful evening cannot well be spent, He never read, I am sure, a line, which, dying, he would wish to blot;" and why should we not have our cakes and ale," thus served up by clerical hands ? Good readers, like good people generally, are scarce, and we cannot do without Buch readers as Mr. Bellew. The quarrels of authors formed a capital theme for the elder Disraeli, and an amusing book (to authors) might be added in reference to,quarrels since the time of the learned Jewish litterateur. The quarrel between the Alhenceum and Mr. Friswellis very interesting to literary students, but is not of sufficient general in- terest for me here to refer to it at length. Having carefully studied the merits of the dispute, however, I find that the literary magnate is wrong, and Mr. Friswell right-not altogether perhaps, but chiefly and the amende of the Athenaium this week is there- fore, scarcely honorable. Referring to one point dis- puted the autocrat of criticism says, So far, Mr. Fruwell is right, and we very cordially credit him with the major part of his reference. As we wish the gen- tleman no harm, we say no more than that we hope to hear of hia being engaged on worthier work than cem- piling books of quotations." Mr. Friswell (who is the author, amongst other books of that charming work The Gentle Life") is engaged, as every literary man knows, on work of a higher character but pour moi, I confess I should like no work to lie on my writing- table better than Familiar Words," and many a literary slave of the lamp, like myself, will say the same.
IMPERIAL PARLIAMENT, In the House of Lords, on Feb. 9, the Lord Chancellor, in laying some returrs on the table, called attention to the bankrupt y law-, and said that when the report of the com- mittee of the House of Commons considering the question had been presented he should apply himself to the task of amending the la Lord Hought< n moved for a return of the numbers of unions or parithe; that hive availed themselves of the Act on the 29th July, 1864. enabling them to receive from the Metropolitan Board of Works the sums of money expended in relief of the casual poor of the amount of money hitherto so expended, and of the unions where the guardians have provided new wards, or other places of reception for this class of poor, since the passing of the above-mentioned act. Earl Granville said there would be no objection to making the returns. Their Lordships then adjourned. In the House of Commons more than an hour was occu- pied In the delivery of the bills which have undergone the ordeal of a scrutiny before the examiners on standing orders. When they had b, en gone through. The Speaker said that Mr. Hugh Adair and Mr. Hassard having consented to act as referees In private bills, he had appointed those two gentlemen, with Mr. Jt ckards, his counsel, to act with th., Chairman of Ways and MeanL Mr. Forster pointed out many objections to the present number of gentlemen appointed to serve on private com- mittees, and proposed that each committee should consist of three members Instead of four. After some discussion the House divided on the question whether the number should be three or four, and the result was that Mr. Forster's proposal for three was negatived. Mr. Moffatt moved for the appointment of a Select Com- mittee to enquire Into tha working of the New Bankruptcy Act He prefaced his motion by observations upon the un- satisfactory operation of the Act, and upon the enormous, expenses attending It. He suggested either an entire change in our Bankruptcy Law, bringing it into more conformity with that of Scotland, or its abolition. The Attori ey-General did not object to the motion Mr. Roebuck referred to instances of harsh proceedings under the Act against officials. The motion was agreed to and the Commiti ea appointed. In a Committee of the whole House, Mr. HadfleM obtained leave to bring in a Bill to render it unnecessary to make and subscribe certain declarations as a qualification for offices and employments, and for other purposes. Lord R. Montagu obtained leave to bring: in a Bill to amend and better to administer the laws for the protection of waters in rivers and streams in England and a Bill for facilitating the more useful application of town sewage in Great Britain and Ireland. The House then adjourned. In the House of Lords the L^rd Chamberlain brought down her Majesty's answer to the Address of their lordship's house, in reply to the Speech from the Throne. The other business was of no puolic.interest. In the House of Commons, Mr. Barnes named the 21st instant as the day on which he should move his annual bill for the extension of the franchise. Sir G. Grey replied to questions on the subject of Govern- ment powder magazines, and the necessity of taking mea- sures to guard againtt accidents arising from fires in theatres and other public places of amusement. Mr Card well said it was intended to discontinue trans- portation to the Australian colonies within the space of three years. on the motion for supply, Sr J Walsh asked for infor- mation relative to the circumstances which have led to the notice given by the Government of the United States of North America to terminate the convention under which England and the United States mutually engaged not to fit on'j naval armaments upon the Canadian lakel; also re- specting the abrogation of the Treaty of Commerce between the provinces rf.British North America and the United States by the late Lord Elgin an <2 moved for the papers and correspondence connected with these subjects. He said he looked upon the notice to terminate these treaties as tantamount a'most to a declaration of war. Lord Palmerstnn deprecatedjthe discussion of these ques- tions as not conducive to the public interests at the present time. There were two arrangements between Great Britain and the United Stales. One was tbatof the year 1817, under which the two parties agreed to limit their naval force upon the Canadian lakes. Tn November last an intimation was received from the United States Government that they Intended to put an end, which they had a right to do, to that agreement; but the papers showed that the in- tantion was only t, mporary in Its nature, and was founded on certain transactions which had taken place on the rakes. The abrogation of th., arrangement was not con- sidered a final decision, but one that was open to revition The Housa was not justified, therefore, in looking upon it In the light in which Sir J. Walsh retarded it, namely, ai an indication of contemplated hostilities between the United S;ates and this coun'ry. It could not be denied that events had occurred on the lakes, which the United States had a right to complain of, and if the measures they had recourse to were simply -.Alculated, as they said they would be, for the protection of their citizens and commerce, he thought they were perfectly ju.tifled In adopting them. The motion for papers was withdrawn, and the house having gone into committee of supply, on the motion of L ^rd Palmerston Mr. Dodson was voted to the chlir as successor to Mr. Massey, amid cheers from the Ministerial henehe.. The other notices on the paper were then disposed of, and the house adjourned. In the Housa of Lords, on Feb. 13, Lord Houghton moved for a return of the number of unions or parishes that have availed themselves of the Act of July, 1864, enabling them to receive from the Metropol tan B)ard of Works the sums of money expended in the relief of the casual poor, of the amount of money hitherto so expended, and (f the unions where the guardians have provide i new wards or other places of reception for this class of poor since the passIng of the Act. The motion was agreed to, and their lordships adjourned In the House of Commons, Mr. Sheridan gave notice that on an early day he wuid move for leave to bring in a bill for the abolition of the duty fire insurances. Mr. Forster asked the Attorney-General whether, In pur- suance of his engagement of last session, be was prepared to introduce a bill, at an early period of the present session, to alter the law of forfeiture on conviction of f ;lony. The Attorney-General said it was his intention to intro- duce such a measure). Lord Stan'ey asked the Secretary of State for India whether he would lay papers on the table showing the present state of affairs in Bhootan, especially with reference to the recent acquisition of territory in that conntry. Sir C Wood was understood to say he had no objection to the production of sucn papers as he had. Mr. Lawson inquired whether the Home secretary had taken any further steps to stay the execution of Pelizzioni, the convict now under sentence of deatb. Sir G. Grey said he had giv In no directions on the subject and had received no applications. A memorial had been sent by the Italian Minister, which had been referred to the Judge. Mr. Bright inquired whether it would not be well to take action without any application, as another Italian had con- fessed the murder. Sir G. Grey said he was not aware that another Italian had confessed the murder. He did not think the discusslpn of such matters in the Home tended to the ends of justice. | JSir George Grey obtained leave to bring in a bill to con- solidate and amend the law relating to prisons. The object of the bill, he explained, was to etsure greater uniformity in the treatment of prisoners, and in the general discipline of prisons. The bill also contained clauses relating to the construction and maintenance of prisons. It would be printed for distribution in the course of a ftw days. In the event of the bill being read a second time he should suggest that it be referred to a select committee. Sir R. Peel obtained leave to bring in a bill to extend the powers now vested in Justices of the Peace, to grant licenses to deal in game, and the House adjourned.
GLISTELLAIKMS HOME, FOREIGN, AND COLONIAL, THE BRITISH CAPTIVES IN ABYSSINIA.—Mr. George Percy Badger, in a letter to the Morning Herald, says:— I have received advices direct from Massowab as late as the 26th of December last. Mr. H. Rassam was still there, and up to that datfe had received no raply from King Theodorns. The rumour that two of the captives were dead, and that Mr. Rassam's messengers had been imprisoned, appears to be unfounded. The most reliable authority from the interior represents the British captives as having been placed in the hill fort of Makdala, together with 600 native prisoners, during the king's absence to repress an insurrection in Shoa. Prior to his departare Capt. Cameron had been well supplied with provisions by royal order. The mis- sionaries and other British captives shared in Cameron's rations; otherwise they subsisted on charity. Mr. Kad and the German artisans are reportad to have interceded for the release of the prisoners. Theodorus at first consented, but subsequently withdrew his promise, itatiog that he could cot relene them until he had received a reply from the Queen of England. There is something inexplicable in this statement, because the king knows full well that Mr. Rissatn has been waiting at Massowah for the last four montns with a letter from her Majesty. The upthot of the latest informa- tion leaves the ultimate fate of the British captives as un- certain as ever. Lng Theodorus may release them at any moment, or he may refuse to do so until some further at- tempts have been made to propitiate his offended dignity. NEWSPAPER STATISTICS From the" News, paper Press Directory" for 1865 we extract the fol- lowing on the present position of the newspaper press —There are now published in the United Kingdom 1,271 newspapers, distributed as follows :-England, 994 Wales, 41; Scotland, 140; Ireland, 132; British Isles, 14. Of these there are 48 daily papers published in England, 1 ditto in Wales, 11 ditto in Scotland, 12 ditto in Ireland, 1 ditto in the British Isles. On re- ference to the edition of this useful dictionary for 18i6 we find the following interesting factR-viz., that in that year there were published in the United Kingdom 799 journals of these 37 papers were issued daily— viz., 15 in London, 10 in the provinces, 7 in Scotland, and 5 in Ireland; but in 1865 there are now established and circulated 1,271 papers, of which no lew than 73 are issued daily, showing that the press of the country has largely extended in the interval, and the daily issues standing 73 against 37 in 1856. The magazines now in course of publication, including the quarterly reviews, number 554; of these 208 are of a decidedly religious character, and by which the Church of Eng. land, Wesleyans, Methodists, Baptists, Independents, and other Christian communities are duly represented. SECOND SIGHT.-The late Dr. Norman Macleod, of Glasgow, travelling in the south, happened one day to sit beside a gentleman who had just returnnd from India. Though of a Highland family, and heir to a Highland estate, this gentleman threw out some sarcasms on his own countrymen, and spoke of their superstitions (says Mr. Carruthers in his Lecture on the Hebrides"). For example," said he, there is the second sight; what can be more absurd or pre. posterous than that illiterate men should pretend to ?nd should be believed?" The old V»« 4 an<* looked grave. There are," serond .mo*f ahsurd things in the world than 1 T7 tel1 y™, in confidence, that;, IndeecP '^fea gift way myself-" E "J v. • ^stance, I never saw you before, and[you have ]ust returned from abroad; never- theless, I have a vision in which you are an actor before me at this moment." Here the doctor shut his eyes after the approved fashion of the old seers. I see you and a tall elderly gentleman, who is unfortu- nately blind, walking by the side of a Highland lake with a house and a wood near it. The blind old gentleman is delighted to meet you and to welcome you home." "That 0 is very remarkable," rejoined the other, very remarkable, indeed. My father is a tall blind old gentleman, and there is a lake close by our house, on the banks of which we were talking together." A short silence succeeded. At length the gentleman ventured to say, How, my dear doctor, did that remarkable vision come upon you?" /.1U tell you how it came upon me,* said the old minister, with a sly twiakle in his eye; "I saw your name and address on your portmanteau, and I know your father and hia property." And so the vision broke up amidst hearty laughter on both sides. A HORSE-FLESH BANQUET IN FRANCE. A Paris correspondent writes concerning the hippophagfc banquet in Paris -The dinner took place in the great Salle hemicycle. Horse soup, horse boiled aux choux, horse en boef a la mode, horse roast, horse pate de foie with truffles, were successively eaten and discussed. At dessert, M. Henri de Quatrefages, chairman of the horse-flesh committee, drank to the memory ef the illustrious Geoffroy de Saint Hilaire, who first suggested the idea of turning that noble animal to the vile use of feeding mankind. M. Gustave Geoffroy Saint Hilaire, the director of the Jardin d'Acclimatation, returned thanks for the honour done to his father. M. Jules Delbruck, next addressed the company, putting the thing in a moral point of view which struck me «« v/ngmm. iic ociis-l uuav, vvucictts uuw uursco wertj abused and made to work while breath was in them, once accepted as an article of food pains would be taken by their possessors to preserve them from injury, and a speedier end would be put to their life of tcil by the necessity of killing them before they had attained a great age. This, however, was victoriously refuted by the next speaker, the director of the Veterinary School at Alfoet, who pleasantly assured the guests that in order to prove that a horse was good for food to the last he himself had supplied the chef of the Grand Hotel for the dinner they had just eaten with pieces of (ised-up old animals, with scarcely any flesh on their bones, the youngest of the lot having attained fourteen years and others twenty, and even two-and-twenty years of age. The effect of this speech on the assembly reminded me of Alexandre Domas while travelling in Russia, who having been offered a bear steak for his dinner accepted the novelty, and after eating the whole, remarked on its excellence to the master of the hotel, who replied, "Ah, he was an awful beast, and hard to catch but our best shot killed him last night. He had eaten the young man's father, whole in the morning. How SOME FRENCHMEN EARN A LIVING.— Necessity—the mother of invention-has been fertile in expedients in the twelfth arrondisement of Paris. There is the maggot-breeder for the fishermen of the Seine the money lender who charges cent. per cent. by lending from sunrise to sunset; the poor rcveilleuse, who goes from house to house, through the winter ni^ hts, to waken sleepers who must be at the markets and there is the "guardian angel," whose business consists in seeing drunkards home from the wine-shops, at the rate of ten sous per drunkard Behind all these quaint bread-winner?, there are crowds of men and women, who depend on public or private charity. RANCID BcTTER.—The following is the copy of a letter addressed to the Scottish Farmer What Is the reason of butter not keeping ? Salt evidently won't keep it from getting rancid beyond a certain time. The vast quantities that are annually condemned by the cus. toms at Leith and elsewhere clearly demonstrate the fact. Now, why should such a larze amount of food be wasted, and why a still larger amount be eaten in an unwholesome condi lfn ? Fiom a lengthened experience in the use of butter I have no hesitation that it Is the quantity of milk left in it which spoils. I extracted some milk from some sweet butter six weeks ago, and it remains perfectly sweet yet without the use of salt. This same butter would not keep beyond ti rae days without going bad. I extracted the milk effectually by placing the dish in hot water, the butter on it; and as the butter dissolves, the milk falls to the bottom, and the pure butter remains on the top. You can separate them simply by pouring off the butter. After it is cold and has set, a very little aalt would preserve it for a length of time. I an certain h would never become rancid. SINGULAR CRITICISM.—Mr. Haiii Friswell, a well-known and most industrious author, recently com- piled and published a book under the title of Familiar Words." The work consisted of popular quotations, to which were added references to the respective authors. The Athenctum indulged in a long adverse criticism of the bojk, pointing out several verbal in- accuracies and one or two alleged omissions. Mr. Friswell replied by showing that the quotations said to have been omitted from bis book were really included in it; and that, as to the supposed errors, many of them were mere printer's mistakes, while others were not erroneous at all. Notably within the latter category was the attribution to Thomas Moore of a song entitled My Heart and Lute." TheAthenceum declared that the song was not by Moore, but part of an opera called Lodoiska," by Kemble. Mr. Fris- well referred to an edition of Moore's works in which the song was to be found. The critic contemptuously rejoined that this particular edition was spurious, and that the song was not in the authorised edition of Moore's poems revised by himself and published by him iu 1841. To crown the whole, Mr. Friswell refers to that edition, and there finds the song! PUBLIC GULLIBILITY.—In an article on an em* ployment agency case which came before a London police court a few days ago, the Daily Telegraph says:— Expose a sham insurance society, and you do not find that it ceases to issue policies, or that it misses dolts who are eager to part with a prsmium for a plecs of papkir turn a hull's eye upon the astab'Uhmem of an enameiler, and you do not see that the Regent-street Medea ceases to have imi- tators, with second hand herbs, and a rustier cauldron prove that the Cashmere shairls which widow ladlei have f r Fale are manufactured expressly for the great miUkei or dishonesty, and still they will And purchasers brand as sorry knaves the creatures who "have a go d thing" for next Derby, and there will yet be shop boys robbing the till to back a racer, which they would not knof frum a cart hors?; coucluilve!y establish the rascally character of a registry, and the doers will jet open o receive tbose whom experience cannot warn, and who almost seem to court the extortion cf which they are afterwards the victims. A DISAPPOINTMENT. —A noble Lord, high in office, recently issued invitations to his friends tor an entertainment at his country seat in shire (says the Court Journal). London coeks, London waiters, and London musicians were despatched to the noble Lord's country mansion. Everything was in readiness for the reception except "My Lord," and much anxiety was shown by the domestics at his non-arrival. At length the hour came for the visitors; Carriage after carriage drew up, when, to the disappointment of all, no host was there to reecive them, and the servants in the absence of the master, were not in a state to explain the mystery. It is said that public business detained the noble Peer in town. THE TELEGRAPHIC ALPHABET OF THE CELLS. —We have all heard of alphabets for the blind and the dumb, but few of our readers, we presume, ever heard of one for jail birds-the regular frequenters of our prison cells-where knowledge is gained by them under somewhat ingenious difficulties; but such is neverthe- less a fact, as ascertained by us from an ex-turnkey. When wanting to gain information from a brother in distress, as to name, what incarcerated for, hovr long in "jug," &c., the mode adopted is as follows :-To call the attention of his next cell neighbour, a few knocks aN given on the wall until responded to by the latter. Then commences the Alphabetagram," as we shall call it. Should the name be David, for instanee, the informer gives four distinct raps, so as to answer for A B C D. Then follows a pause, denoting that the last letter begins his Christian name; then giving anather knock, with pause as formerly, A is then found to be the second letter and so on until the con- versation is finished. SJ the schoolmaster, however much abroad, is very often to be found confined amongst very promising pupils under locks and bars at home. EXTRAORDINARY INVESTIGATION. -The follow- ing extraordinary advertisement appeared in the In- verness Courier of Thursday last To the Editor of the Inverness Courier.— I>ores Free Manse, Feb. 7, 1865 — Sir,— Two females from Lochend called on me this ni.ht with a view to the Duplication (,f the accoillpanymg documeu t a3 an advertisement in the Courier. I hereby give my coneurretice to the Liresiid proposal. Have the goodness to send the document to Dr- Campbell, that he may iuaert one or two words which are wanting in his Ofertl- flcate, which must have been writteu.- Yours very truly, A. Macpherson." "A rumour having been circulated tending to affect the charncterofth. fair sex of Locbend, in reference to the body of a child lately found in Loch Ness, the inhabi- tants of the district deemed it expedient to get their character adjusted by Dr. Campbell, from Inverness, who on Monday last met all the young and unmarried temal es ot the place in the vestry et the Free Church, and certified as to their character being free from reproach. A reward of 51. is hereby offered to any pa ty who can give correct infor- mation to the Rev. Mr. Macpherson, Dores, of any one attributing the perpetration of the crime to any of the females within the bounds of Lochend.-Lochend, January 25, 1S65." I hereby certify I have examined a number of young women of Lochend, and have no reason to believe that any of them have been recently colfin ed.-W. A. Campbell." THE Loss OF AN EYE,—An action for 30,000 francs damages for the loss of an eye has been tried before the Civil Tribunal in Paris. The wife of a grocer, named Lebrasseur, at Senlia, entered a toy bazaar in the Rue de Chateau d'Eau in April last to purchase a child's percussion gun, and while the shop- man was explaining the manner in which it was used, tbe trigger fell, and the cap going off5 a portion struck Mdme Lebrasseur, who was standing six feet off, in the eye, the consequence being to render her partially blind. The tribunal, however, considering that the misfortune had been beyond the control of the shop- man, gave a verdict in his favour. IMPORTANT TO WESTERN AUSTRALIA.-The official corresponience between the Colonial Office and the Governors of the Australian colonies concerning the discontinuance of transportation to any part of the Australian continent was laid before Parliament on Wednesday. In his principal despatch on the subject Mr. Cardwell concludes by saying I have now the tatlsfactlon of acquainting you that, upon a full ar'd careful review of the question in all its hearings, her Majes'yg Government have determined not only to issue the regulatious for the disposal ot tond in the new distiict, coup'ed with a provision that no convict labour shall be Introduced into it, but also to propose to Parliament in the ensuing session measures which, if adopted, will in the short period of hne years render it unnecessary any longer to con- tinue transportation to Western Australia. RF SOURCES OF THE SOUTH,- The Confederate States have in the field to day 300,000 veteran soldiers. They have a Lee, a Beauregard, a Forrest, a Johnston, a Taylor, a Wheeler, a Smith, and scores and scores of brilliant and successful captains (says a New York correspondent.) They have ammunition, ordnance, stores, and supplies sufficient to last them 20 years. They have a brave, patient, and gallant people deter- mined on victory, and counting as gain all sacrifices for their country. They have 3,000,000 of obedient and faithful domestics, the most laborious and disciplined agricultural population on the continent. They have the most generously fertile lands which lie between the two oceans. They have inexhaustible mines of coal and iron, inexhaustible deposits of nitre and sulpher. They have the finest gun and powder factories in America. They have the experience of four years incessant and terrible war; and they have that at their hearts which nerves even cowards to action, and which in people like them is the promise of victory. VERT TALL TALK !—In a debate in the Con- federate Congress, on laying a special export duty on cotton and tobacco, Mr, Marshall said :— He would take the men of the country by the nape of the neck and put them into the army. He would rather see every city in this country in smouldering ruius, and every house in ashes, rather than yield one jot short of the inde- pendence of these States. They ought to rise to the height of this occasion, and set aside all constitutional delicacy. They must pnpare for the spring campaign. As for himself, he was just beginning to get mad. (Applause.) He would rather live on beech-nuts in the woods, and the fish of the waters, but he would never yield. (Great applause.)— Mr. Orr, of Mississippi, thanked Mr. Marshall for the noble and lofty sentiments he had uttered. A GENEROUS SOLDIER.—Captain Annequin, an old soldier of tbe First Empire, and nephew of L^^bvre, Duke de D,*ntzic, has just died in rii rf.3' marshal formerly employed his nephew in ? • lng jQact°f generosity, which is worthy of 2* one day to the Tuileries, the of an ante-chamh "J"1 8eated humbly in the corner t amber, and apparently a petitioner wait- ing for an audience. The futures of the stranger We ? wlal^l 8ad?ess' while his shabby cloth- ing trayt?d distressed circumstances. Lefebvre, moved at the sight, fixed his eyes on the old man, and then, all at once, recognised him. He rushed to the aged suitor, and exclaimed—" You here you here, captain ? How glad I am to see you again But"— Pardon me, sir," answered the old man, but who is it that speaks to me ?" Parbleu, captain, I am Francois Lefebvre, formerly sergeant in the Guard, just as you are the Marquis de Belcour, my brave cap- tain." From that day the Duke de Dantzick did not lose sight of the marquis, to whom he would never be anything but Sergeant Lefebvre. He also attached his nephew, Captain Annequin, to the person of his former officer. One day Captain Annequin brought to I the marquis an invitation from Marshal Lefebvre and j me aucness to mane a snort; stay at their country seat. 1 The journey was long, and a whole night was passed in travelling but towards the morning the travellers alighted, and were received by the marshal. Cap- tain," said he, do you know where you are ? This is the Chateau de Belcour, where you were born, and here you may peaceably end your days." Then, taking ft .obJ'ect from the hands of his nephew, he added. Here is my sergeant's knapsack; I have always kept it as a memorial. In your turn, captain, keep it for the sake of Catherine (his wife) and myself. I found in it the baton of Marshal of France you will find in t it the titles of this estate, which is now, as it formerly I was, your own." Captain Annequin, who had been charged with the negotiations relative to the purchase of the property, often related the story. PERCENTAGES TO SERVANTS.—A firm in London sends the following letter for publication, with the en- tire permission of the Duke of Sutherland Stafford House, Jan. 26. Sir,—It has come to my knowledge that the custom of giving the percentages on the amount of tradesmen's bills, or other equivalent perquisites,* very JeJlerally. prevails. I wish, fherofore, to direct your attention specially to the subject, with a view to its discontinuance, so far at least as my establishment is concerned. This practice is alike unfair to the master and to the ser- vant-unfair to the master, because to enable the tradesman to pay this tax he must add the amount to the price charged for his goods, and unfair to the servant inasmuch as it places a temptation consfantly in his way. Viewed in this light it can only be looked up n as a eus- tom which every right-minded tradesman will willingly aid in abolishing, and, therefore, I have resolved to dismiss from my service any servant who may in future be detected receiving percentiges or an equivalent. Nor will I after- wards obtain goods from the tradesman who gives tbem.-I I am, your obedient servant, SUTHERLAND. A SALUTARY PRESCRIPTION!—A rather amusing case came before the correctional police in Paris the other day. The delinquent was a sturdy rogue, who was pulled up for begging. The judge asked him how it was such a stout fellow found no employment. "The pursuits I am engaged in, M. le President, render manual labour out of the question." Indeed what are those pursuits?" 44 Why. the fact is, I am engaged in writing my memoirs." "Ciel," retorts the President, "and you hope they will afford you a Ii ving?" "You and I, M. le President, are old enough to have seen more extraordinary things than that." His smartness did not avail the sturdy beggar, and he was sent to prison, where," the President senten- tiously observed, "he might find materials for another chapter." COMMITTAL OF PRIZE FIGHTERS.—On Saturday two men, known in pugilistic circles under the eupho- nious names of Abe llicken and Bos Tyler, were charged before the Windsor magistrates with breaking the peace at Accot on the 24th of last month bv engag- ing in a prize fight. The fight was for 251, a side, be- tween the first named and a pugilist named Bob Furze, Tyler acting as second to the former. The approach of the police put an end to the encounter. Both the defendants expressed themselves sorry for what they had done, and were committed for trial at the Reading Assizes, bail being accepted, themselves in 201, each, and one other surety of lOl. each. COME TO LIFK AGAIN TOO sooN —A young lady a member of a Protectant sisterhood, who is in the habit of visiting the poorest of the poor in the parish where she resides, called recently on a family who dwelt in a filthy cellar (says the Court Journal). She found the woman and children" drowned in tears," and learnt that the husband was lying dead in a corner of the room. Seeing the body laid out, and moved by the grieJr of the afflicted family, she gave the woman a sovereign and took her leave. She bad not gone far when she remembered that she had left her handker- chief behind, and hurried back to the scene of death and misery but her disgust and indignation may be imagined, on suddenly entering the cellar, to find the "dead man" full of life and spirits, "tossing" her sovereign and laughing at the trick so successfully played on the too confiding" sister," who, however, very soon put an end to his ill-timed mirth by de- demanding back her money and leaving the house, even then more in sorrow than in anger. A PARTING !—God bless that burly guard at Euston-square, any way, (writes Sala, in his "America in the Midst of War.") who, when I had parted on a November night in '63, from all that was dear to me in the world, and had flung myself in a very limp and boneless manner in the corner of the carriage of the limited mail bound for Holyhead and Queenatown- God bless that guard who thrust his head in at the window and whispered, "Excuse me, sir but you've another three-quarters of a minute before the train starts, and you can get out and give the lady another hug." The which I did. I am sure that guard must have been a family man, and had given somebody a hug before he went on duty that night; and I hope that all his journeys may be as prosperous as mine have been. A NEW READING OF AN OLD PROVERB.— While a slater at Perth was plying his vocation the other day on the top of a house in that neighbourhood, a garrulous female took occasion to lecture him for choos- ing such a dangerous trade, adding that theleast puff of wind might send him unprepared into eternity. Oh but you do not ken, gudewife," quoth he of the house- top, "that I am fulfilling the Scriptures ?" Fulfilling the Scriptures, James that's impossible, for there's no Ie word o' a slater in the Bible that e'er I read or heard o\" I am nevertheless right, though," was the reply; did ye never read in the Bible, that it is better to dwell in a corner of the house-top than with a brawling woman in a wide house?" THE TOMB OF THE PRIJSCB CONSORT. — The Royal mausoleum of Frogmore, where the mortal re- mains of the Prince Consort lie interred, is slowly but gradually approaching completion. Over the doorway, within the portico, and facing the visitor as he ascends the noble flight of steps by which the mauaoleum is approached, is the monumental inscription in bronze. The letters are in Roman characters as follows :— "Alberti Prlncipls quod mort ale erat Hoc in ST-pulchro deponi voluit Viuda meet ens Victoria ftegina A.D. MDCCCLXII. Vale Deaideratifsime I hie demum Coiiquiescam tecum Tecum in Chris to consurgam." ENGLISH VERSION. Of Albert the Prince, here in this Sepulchre What part hath mortal been Is laid by his lamenting widow Victoria the Queen. A.D. 1S62. Farewell, most deeply mourned for, till at last In this same place she rest, Until the time she rise from it with thee, With thee In Chiistls blest. PRESIDENT LINCOLN'S RERARN TO A WRIT OF HABEAS CORPUS,—TWO persons named Ho^an and Pugan, detective police-officers, having been in custody in the United States for many months on a charge of robbery, writs of habeas corpus were obtained last month commanding the keeper of the old Capitol prison at Washington to bring the men into court and state the cause of their arrest. The officer, however, handed to the court a return stating that he did not produce the men by reason of the following order, en- dorsed by the President on each wnt The within- named Hogan (or Dugan) was arrested and imprisoned by my authority. This writ of habeas corpus is sus- pended, and the officer having Hogan (or Dugan) in custody is directed not to produce his body, but to hold him in custody until further orders, giving this order in return to the Court.-A. LINCOLN, Jan. 23, 1865." THE DUKE OF NEWCASTLE'S WILL.-The will of the Most Noble Henry Pel ham, Duke of Newcastle, of Clumber, Notts, and of Portoaan-square, has been proved in her Majesty's Court of Probate by two of the executors and trustees-viz., the Right Hon. Wil- liam Edward Gladstone, P.C., and the Right Hon. George Warren Baron de Tabley, power being reserved to Lord Robert Clinton (the testator's brother) to prove hereafter. The personality was sworn under 250,0001. The will is of considerable length, and there are six codicils. His Grace has charged his estates with liberal annuities for his younger sons, as also for his Grace's brothers, Lord Robert and Lord Thomas Clinton, appointing his son, the present duke, residuary legatee. To each of his executors acting he has left 2001., and to his valet a legacy of 200Z. AN INTERESTING DISCUVERY-A French paper states that the grave of one of Fernand Cortez's com- panions in arms has been discovered in a convent situate between Y anhuitlan and Etla, in the State of Oajaca, Mexico, The following is a translation of the inscription in the Spanish language on the monument:— Here rests the body of Don Manoel Nuno, Captain of the Guards of his very high and very powerful lord the Marquis del Valle, Governor of Mexico, and Cjmmander of the King's forces in this part of the world, died the llùh of July, 1544. Captain Manoel Nuno was the brother of Nuno del Mercado, who founded the handsome city of Oajaca. He accompanied Fernand Cortez in all his expeditions, and died three years before him. Fernand Cortez assumed the title of Marquis del Valle, in memory of the beautiful and fertile valley situated in the State of uajaca, which he inhabited during several months, and where he recovered his health, much impaired by the iangue he had undergone in accomplishing the con- quest of Mexico. Charles V. confirmed the title of Marquis del Valle which Fernand Cortez had assumed. HEROIC DEVOTION OF MEDICAL MEN.WE have been greatly shocked to learn the mortality which has of ia e befallen the medical practitioners of Greenock, caused by a virulent epidemic of fever raging in that M V ? Lancet)- No less than four physicians, rs. Maclosky, Paton, Conway, and Dowie, have fallen victims to this disease since November last. The terrible and painful information reaches us in connection with the death of the last-named gentle- man. Dr. James Dowie, who was little more than f; Jtf!? ? the 8011 of Dr-E- T- Dowie, of Greenock, ] *?een appointed surgeon to a parochial d strict. The last day Dr. Dowie was out of the house hs saw no less than twenty-eight caies of fever. He persisted in going about to the very last. With the premonitory symptoms upon him, and after taking a warm bath, he persisted, against the advice of his friends, in going out to see one of his fever oases, because he had promised to do so. He seemed aware from the commencement-as often happens in bad fever cases, especially among medical men-of the severe nature of the attack, and remarked, as he was putting off his clothes,that "God only knew whether he should put them on again." He died on the sixteenth day of the disease, to the overwhelming grief of his family, of which he wa3 the eldest son, and the deep regret of a large circle of friends, to whom he wa!s greatly endeared by the kindly heartiness of his nature. THE QUEEN'S ENGLISH.—Passing over tauto- logies, Buch a3 44 recurring again," and other minor faults, which could easily have been avoided, let me draw attention to a few of the more gross faults which the composition exhibits (says a writer in the Illustrated Times in criticising the Queen's speech). Her Majesty remains steadily neutral between the con- tending parties, and would rejoice at a friendly recon- ciliation between them." Now what of sort of recon- ciliation could that be which was not a friendly one ? And between whom but the contending parties could a reconciliation take place? I suppose the mess made in tu jP?f^°rap^8 bating to India is to be attributed to that imperfect faculty of speech" about which Sir Charles Wood was rated by Mr. Grant Duff last session but surely Lord Palmert-t >n or Mr. Gladstone might have saved their colleague from the absurdity of saying that subscriptions collected in India had been applied to relieve the sufferings caused by the prompt t assistance -endered by the officers of Government on the occasion of the late hurricane on the coasts of Bengal and Madras. Besides, the destruction of life and property was the" calamity" that was to be re- gretted, and cannot be said to have occasioned itself. Had there been no destruction of life and property," would the late cyclone have been a calamity ? In the other paragraph about India certain outrages are com- plained of, but it is not stated by whom they were perpetrated, or against whom the measures for com- pelling redress were taken. Bhootan, it seems, is the delinquent, but that State is not even mentioned in the message. A BISHOP ON DISSENT.-At Pentrebach, the other day, the Bishop of LlandafF said be believed that had it not been for the Dissenter?, the country would now be in a state of heathenism. Still he believed that Dissent was an evil. Some Dissenters preached what he thought to be true, and others preached what he thought to be false. For instance, he would not, like the Baptists, exclude children from the ordinance of baptism. Again, he did not believe with the Unitarians, who denied the divinity of Christ and the doctrine of the atonement; of course, as a Churchman, he could not do so. He did not, again, believe in Congregationalism, because he believed the Church of England's system of government to be founded on the New Testament, and that their system of church government was that of the church universal. Yet he believed that a very great deal of good had been done by Evangelical Dissenters. Even supposing that Dissenters preached the whole truth, the fact of their being divided was itself an evil.
ACTION FOR LIBEL.-DAMAGES £ 1,000. In the Court cf Qieen's Bench, London, the caqe of Woodgafe v. R'deout has been tried, all d was an action to recover from the proprietor of the Morning Post damages in respect cf a libel in a I. aling article published in that paper. The defendant pleaded not guiity :— Mr. Bovill, Q.C. (whose voice was scarcely audible), was understood to say that the libel complained of appeared in the Morning Post of the 23rd of January, 1863. It was of a very serious character, as it affected the position and prospects of Mr. Woodgate, who had been represented as having fraudulently conspired with another person to obtain possession of certain property. The article imputed to him that he was a worthy member of the noted firm of Quirk, Gammon, and Snap, and that he, as a solicitor, had violated the con- fidence reposed in him by his clients. Mr. Woadgate had now been in practice as a solicitor for upwards of forty years, and being a member of one of the most respectable firms in the profession, had been entrusted with the conduct of the affairs of numerous noblemen and gentlemen. He was sprung from one of the oldest families in the county of Kent, and was originally intended for the bar, but eventuaily he became a partner in the well known and highly respectable firm of Messrs. Curry, Home, and Woodgate. In the course of his professional avocations he became con- nected with the Egmont family, and ultimately, through the recommendation of the Right Hon. Spencer Horatio Walpole, was appointed solicitor to the present Lord Egmont, who succeeded to the estates of the family in 1860. It was considered desirable to endeavour to recover back certain estates and posses- sions which had formerly belonged to the family. Under the will of the late earl, made in 1860, the present earl found himself deprived of the Irish estates which had been bequeathed to Sir Edward Tierney. Proceedings were taken to upset the will, and to regain possession of the property. The case was originally commenced in England, and a suit was also going on in Ireland. In this country the case was discussed before Vice-Chancellor Wood, and a trial also took place at the Cork Assizes in the summer of 1863, on which occasion the plaintiff's case having been concluded and the defendant's case opened, negotia- tions took place, which led to the following result: T< oAA^e est;a,"ei'> which were of the value of about h vr °r a year, were to go to Lord Egmont, who, however, on his part, agreed to pay a lar^e sum « ^0tl^ for improvements which had been effected, subsequently an Act of Parliapaent was obtained to give effect to the arrangement, and under that Act Ijord Egmont was now in possession of the estates. gentleman who acted for Lord Egmont was Mr, Woodgate, the plaintiff in the present action, and hi* exertions were crowned with success. During the progress of the suit any movement on the part of Mr. Woodgate, in regard to attacks which had been made 011 IJ8 c^aracter. was almost impossible, as no one could say what effect such a step might have on the ^resti of his clients. Mr. Woodgate therefore, ^ou,h suffering grievously from the imputations which had been cast upon him, abstained from taking any proceedings until the litigation was finally deter- mined in July last year. He then felt himself at liberty to seek for some satisfaction from those who had assailed him in the course of the litigation, and he consequently commenced the present action against the proprietor of the Morning Post in respect of an article which appeared in that newspaper, and which imputed to him that he w&s a worthy member of the firm of "Qairk, Gammon, and Snap," &c. The first part of the libel refered to this firm, and though it would not be necessary to travel over the whole of the incidents of 41 Ten Thousand a Year," he might be allowed to allude to some which related to the tirm in question. Mesa". Quirk, Gammon, and Snap were fabled in that novel as attorneys, who were impli- cated in endeavouring to obtain from the family of the Aubreys the estate of Yatton. The means said to have been adopted by them was to bring forward a fictitious heir, and to fabricate the evidence establish- ing his claim to the property. The scheme succeeded. They then disclosed ti Tittlebat Titmoue, the sham heir, the real state of affairs, and obtained from him an annuity of 2,0001. a year, and afterwards proposed to betray, their own client Titmouse to Mr. Aubrey for the sum of 2,000Z. The proceedings in the case of Egmont v. Darell" had been under discussion before Vice-Chancallor Wood for no less than nine days. The case had been closed on either side, and on the 22nd of January the Vice-Chancellor announced his determina- tion of reserving his judgment. Ou the 23rd, the fol. lowing day, the libel which formed the subject of the present proceedings appeared in the columns of the Morning Post. The learned counsel then read the article in extenso, and continued Now that article re- represented that Mr. Woodgate exceeded Quirk, Gam- mon, and Snap in rascality. It imputed to him that he made a claim of 1,300J., and that being repudiated, he conspired with Mr. Parkinson, the gentleman who drew up the disputed will, to wrest the property from the Darell family. It likewise imputed to him that- being the solicitor of Sir Edward Tierney, and after- wards of Sir Lionel Darell, he had ciscloeed informa- tion which had been communicated to him in his pro- fessional cipacry. The learned counsel then com- mented at considerable length on the evidence adduced in the case of Egmont v. Darell, and went on to re- mark that it was false to say that Mr. Woodgate was ever concerned as solicitor for Sir E. Tierney or Sir L. Darrell, nor did he at any time obtain from either of them any information which was brought forward in the Chancery proceedings. After some fur- ther comment on the details of tho article, the learned counsel concluded with an appeal for damages. The Right Hor. Spencer Horatio Walpole, Lord Egmont, and Mr. Woodgate, the plaintiff, were examinsd at great length in support of the plaintiff's case. The defendant did not call any witnesses. Mr. Bovill having summed up the evidence on the part of the plaintiff, K Mr. Lush addressed the jury for the defendant. He contended that whether or not the allegations con- tained in the article in the Morning Post were true was not at all material as regarded the present inquiry, for those allegations had at any rate been made in a court of justice, and the editor of a public journal had a perfect right to express his own opinion on a matter of public concern, in the shape of a fair comment on what had taken place in a court of Jaw. The idea that the article complained of had been written by anybody in the interest of the Darell family was pre- posterous and absurd. It was the production oi the ordinary contributors to the paper, and was written *™m information derived from the accounts of the Chancery proceedings, which had been published in the paper itself: and the writer was justified in making tne statements which he had done, as they were legiti- mate conclusions from the evidence in the case, and therefore this article was privileged, as being a fair comment on a. matter of public concern. It was the interest of every member of society to maintain the th i w^.c^> he was bound to say for the honour of Th r 8o'icitors rarely, very rarely, violated. 6 7^° j ^ifcf Justice then summed up, and the ] ury retired to consult together. On their return into court, at the expiration of a few minutes, they returned a verdict for the plaintiff, damages 1;000J,
FAULTS ON BOTH SIDES. A meeting, the result of which will, in all probability, be of much importance to the future conduct of the build- ing trades, was held in the Town-hall, Birmingham, on Friday night; the Mayor (Mr. Henry Wiggin) pre- sided. I he object was to elect delegates to attend a conference for drawing up rules for the future govern- ment of tbe trade. I here was a numerous attendance of both masters and men from each of the different branches. The Mayor, in the course of a very temperate and judicious speech, amongst other remarks, said-—I need hardly say I have very gladly accepted your invitation to preside over this meeting, and I am sure nothing will give me more pleasure during my year of office than to be the means, however humble, of bring- ing about a right feeling and a better understanding between employer and employed. It is not my inten- tion to go through the history of the disputes which have arisen in the building trades during the last two years you know them much better than I do. But from what I do know I am bound to say that I think there have been faults on both sides. On some points the masters have been in the wrong, and on other points the workmen have been in the wrong but you have now taken, I believe, the right way to settle the dispute, and the only way, to my mind, in which it can be settled—that is, by friendly conference and mutual concession. Both sides must make up their minds to concede something in order to come to a satisfactory and lasting agreement, and this mutual concession must be attended with a determination for the future honestly to keep faith with each other, and to respect each other's rights, privileges, and feelings. Let it never be forgotten, both by masters and men, that neither of you can act alone. Your in. terests are so bound up together that if one butters the other must suffer also. It is the duty of masters to treat their men with justice and consideration, and it is the duty of men to regard their masters interests as their own. It is almost impossible>for me to avoid some reference of the question woicttP-has been upper- most in this dispute—the question of strikes and I ask that you will give me a calm and patient hearing while I state to you my opinion. I hold that every man, either singly or in combination, has a right to ask for his labour the very highest price he can pos- sibly obtain; and 1 hold, also, that if the necessity arises, he is perfectly justified in ceasing to work until he can sell his labour at what he considers a fair and proper price. But while I thus clearly hold the right of the workman to get the best, price for his labour he possibly can, I hold, with quite as much clearness, that he has no right whatever to hin- der or prevent any other workman from selling his labour at a lower rate if he chooses to do so. While trade unions may be perfectly lawful and just in prin- jiple, you have no right by threats' or intimidation to jompel any man to join them, or to impose their rules upon men who do not choose to join them. On this point I will read to you the words of a great friend of the working-classes and a great friend of liberty, Mr. John Stuart Mill. He declares that trades' unions are both permissible and useful, but he also says that 44 among many trades' unions it is among the rules that there shall be no task work, or no difference of pay between the most expert workmen and the most unskilful; or that no member of the union shall earn more than a certain sum per week, in order that there may be more employment for the rest." These rules, he says, are most harmful to the men themselves, as well as to their masters and the public, and then he adds:—44 Hardly anything worse can be said of the worst laws on the subject of property and industry than that they place the energetic and the idle, the skilful and the incompetent, on a level, and this it is the avowed object of the regulations of these unions to do. Every society which exacts from its members obedience to rules of this description, and endeavours to enforce compliance with them on the part of em- ployers, by refusal to work, is a public nuisance." Having said so much to the men, permit me now to say a word to the masters. I still hold that, like the men, they have a perfect right to combine for their own protection against unreasonable and unj ust demands; but I am strongly of opinion they were decidedly wrong in imposing the discharge-note upon their men; the effect of which, had it been introduced, would have been to prevent all future com- binati ns of the men,-a right which I hold they are perfectly justified in exercising so long as they do not interfere with other persons who have no desire to join a combination. However, this is now at an end. Finding the public were against them. the masters frankly and honourably withdrew the discharge-note, and both masters and men have come to that wise conclusion of trying to settle their disputes by friendly conference. This resolution has received the approval or every true friend on both sides, and I have now only to ask you, in giving effect to it, to do so with good temper, with mutual forbearance, and with a firm determination to come to a lasting settlement of the points at is-ue between you. The meeting having decided by an immense majority that it is desirable for the future to settle all disputes between masters and men by arbitration, The Mayor said that this great principle having been adopted, it would be necessary to appoint the delegates, which would be done in this wise each branch of the men would decide what number of delegates they would appoint, and having named them, the men belonging to each class in the meeting would decide as to the desirability of their appointment. The masters would then nominate from their body an equal number. This plan was adopted, and delegates were selected from among both masters and men by the carpenters, bricklayers, plasterers, and labourers, and it was resolved: That the employers and the operatives severally agree to conform to and carry out all rules which shall be agreed upon by (he delegates or decided by the casting vote of the ctiaiiman or. umpire. Mr. Dwid Murray (Branson and Murray) moved a vote of thanks to the Mayor. The Mayor, in responding, said he believed that the present movement was the commencement of a new era in the relation between master and man, and the final blow to strikes in this country. He hoped the time was now come when all trade disputes would be settled in a more rational and sensible manner than heretofore. The present meeting was a great credit to all parties, and presented the only means of satis- factorily settling the difficulties that might occur.
DEATH OF THE DUKE OF NORTHUMBERLAND. The most profound sorrow was occasioned in all the Northumberland towns last Sunday by the sudden death of the Duke of Northumberland, which took place at a quarter to 3 o'clock in the morning, at Aln- ou- ^ast^e- Nearly all the churches in Alnwick, Shields, and other places tolled muffled peals, and men of all parties look upon the Duke's death, in the midst of his benevolent labours, as a public calamity. The Duke bad been in failing health for some time, his disease being gout in the right hand but it was not until Saturday night that dangerous symptoms ap- peared :— The deceased, Algernon Percy, Duke and Earl of Northum- berland, Etrl and Baron Percy, BtU-on Lacy, Poynings, Fitz Payne and !Bryan, Latimer, and Warkwortb, atso Baron P,udloe, of Prudh,.e Caitle, in the county of Northumber- land, in the peerage of Great Britain, and a barnnet, was the second and youngest fon of Hugh, second Duke, by his second wife, Frances Julia, third daughter f Mr. Peter Biirreil, and aunt of Lord Willnughby d'Eresby. He was b >rn December, 16th 1792 consequently had just entered hit 73rd year, The deceased nobleman was educated for the navy, which service ha entered in March. 1805, on board the Tribune frigate, commanded by Captain Robert Bennett, he was a'terwards midshipman in the Fame, 74, in which ship he was actively employed on the coast of Catalonia in 1809 and, as midshipman of the Hydra, commanded a gun- boat in ooperation with the patriots on the coast (,f Anda- lmia in tha following year. As acting captain of the Cale- donia he took part in a partial action wi h the French fleet off Toulon in 1813, and was prtstnc at the taking of Genoa in 1814. After obtaining his post rank he went on half-pay, and was not subsequently afl iar. He obtained his commission as lieutenant m December, 1811; became commander in March, 1SL4; captain in August, 1815; rear-admir-1 on the reserved list in November, 1§50; vice-admiral July, 1857; and admiral in October, 1862. In August, 1816, he was created a peer by the title of Baron Prudhoe, of Prudhoa Castle, a barony which bec,)mes exduct by his death. He passed maty years in travelling abroad, a d for a long period devoted himself to investi- gating the remains of ancient Egypt and the Holy Land, at a tim when Biblical chronology was less studied than at the presentlday. The Duke succeeded to the family honours and ptincbly esrat s on the deatn of his brottoer Hugh, third Duke, on the 11th of February, 1847. Bla Grace was married on the 25th of August, 1842, to Lady Eleanor Gr, svenor, eldest daughter of the Marquis of Westminster, bu". leaves no issue. His Grace was a Conservative in politics. He accepted the office of First Lord of the Admiralty on the formation of the Etrl of Derby's first Administration in 1852, and remained ia the Cabinet until the break-up of the Govern- ment iu December of that year. The late Duke was made a Privy Councillor on taking (ffice, and the same year (1852) was made a Knight of the Garter. He was constable at Liunceston Castle, and, as Buch, was an officer of the Duchy of Cornwall. For a short time in 1852 ha was special Deputy Warden of the Stannaries. In 1841 he was created an honorary D C L. at Oxford. From his first succession to the dukedom the deceased nobleman took an active part in the control and improvement of his extensive property. The comfort of his cottagers and the poorer class on his estates was his first consideration, and he ex- pended an enormous sum in rebuilding their dwellings on the most improved plan. He also interested himself deeply in their spiritual welfare, and erected no less than 10 new churches at his own cost in popuiou, but neglected districts, a lasting prjof of his princely munificence. It is said that within the last ten years his Grace expended more than half a million of money in this praiseworthy manner alone. At an enormous cu-i he restored and beautified Alnwick Castie, the fine old feudal residence of the noble House of Percy. The late Duke was a Fellow of the Royal Society, of the Society of Antiquaries, of the JLtoyal Geographical Society, and a member of the Royal Astronomical and other learned socleties; He was also a munificent supporter of many of the cdiautable institutions of London and elsewhere. By the death of the Duke without hsue the titles and greater ro tion of the estates devolve upon George Percy, second Eirl of Beverley, whose father, Algernon, first Earl, was second son of Ilatrh, first Duke of Northumberland. He was bJru in June, 1778, and was married in 1801 to Lousia Harcourt thiid daughter of the late Hon. Aichibald Stuart-Wortley Mickerzie, and is father of Lord Lovaine, M.P., at. I Lady A'hertoa, &c. He WilS a Lord of the Treasury from May, 180A, to February, 1806, and was Captain of the Yeomen of tue Guard from 1842 to 1840. Tae present Duke is descended, by the female linp, from the noble House of Percy. I'he heiress of the llfch Earl of Northumberland, who succeeded to the baronial honours only of the family, married Charles 6th Duke of Somerset (the"prnui Duke" and their son, the 7tti Duka, having been summoned to Parliament as Baron Percy, was created E»rl of Northumberland, with remainder (having no male issue) to S r Hugh Smithson, who had married his daughter and sole hrir. Sir Hugh, who succeeded to the earldom of Northumberland in 1750, was created Duke of Northumber- land in 1766, and assumed the name of Percy on succeeding to the earldom.
THE USE OF TRACTION ENGINES ON THE HIGHWAY. A deputation, representing the agricultural and mining interf sts, waittdupi n Sir George Grey at the Home Office on Friday, for Ihe purpose of asking him whether it was nc,t practicable to have a ra ent order rescinded which provides that, traction engines should only travel on the high ways at night. Lird Kinnaird, M P., introduced the deputation Lord Kinnaird said that Sir George was aware that a very large and influential meeting was held the day previous of those interested in the use of traction en- gines. He (the speaker) had had the honour of pre- siding over that meeting, and would read the resolu- tions. They set forth that the order which enforced traction engines travelling at night would virtually pro- hibit their being used at all. Sir G. Grey said that, with regard to the Act, it was a recent one, and the 5th clause imposed upon the Secretary of Stats the duty of issuing such an order where it should appear that the passage of these en- gines along the highways was dangerous and incon- venient to the public. Where he had received appli- cations from magistrates or persons competent to form an opinion that these engines were dangerous and in- convenient, he had generally referred the application to the chief constable of the district alluded to, and if his opinion confirmed that of those who forwarded the application, he had felt bound under the clause of that Act to issue the order restricting those engines to travel by night. He had not prohibited the engines travelling, but only restricted their being conveyed from one place to another to certain hours of the night He wrote a letter to a farmer s club in Scotland who had asked him to revokean order which had heenissued respecting Wakefield, in the West Riding of Yorkshire. but of course this club had no knowledge of the particular district. In this case he (Sir George Grey had received an application from eight magistrates of the district;, and they represented that the use of locomotives at all hours of the day was in- convement and dangerous. That opinion was con- firmed by the chief constable of the district. A memoria WM presented from the Steam Ploughing Company, asking for a revocation of the order whica he issued, lie sent this to the justices, who, upon fall consideration, adhered to their opinion, and they were supported by several other persons. Under thes i circumstances h« felt that it was impossible to rescind e restriction. The deputation now said that he mIght impose regulations, but he doubted whether the words prohibit or restrict" meant imposing regula- tions. This subject had been agitated in the news- papers, and he had received some letters upon the subject. It had been said that these engines could be made to move without noise or sending forth smoke, but he did not pretend to give an opinion upon this matter. Of course, if they could devise any means by which they could get rid of this inconvenience and danger, the whole difficulty was at an end. An order could be revoked if it could be shown that the grounds on which it was granted no longer existed. He did not think the Parliament would allow the unrestricted use of the highways. He had been asked to prohibit in one case because a farmers wife had met with her death and this had excited great fee ing in the district. The magistrates were very urgent that he should prohibit, but he did not think that it was a reasonable thiug to do, and he gave the order for restriction, and he had not heard of any inconvenience or danger since it had been issued. He thought they should direct their attention to the question whether they could devise any means for prevention. Lord Harris said that this restrictive order was virtually prohibitive. It was almost, if not altogether, impossible to move these engines at night. <> Sir George Grey thought that if they could not re- medy the evil, their application should be made to Parliament and not to him. If he received positive evidence of danger and inconvenience, he did not tbin!' that he could do otherwise than act. Sir J. Hay, presented some memorials, which set forth the arguments that had been used by the depj1* tation. He happened to know that the eight magis' trates who signed the application in the second instance were not the same as those who signed the first. Sir George Grey I agree that it its desirable that not the least restriction should be put upon the use Of these engines which is not absolutely necessary. The question is—What is the least restriction ? Sir J. Hay: We say that they could travel at cer" tain times of the day with proper precautions. I agree I with Lord Kinnaird, who has suggested that when one of these engines was travelling along a highway* m-should be kept one hundred yarls in advance; and if he saw a carriage or horse approaching, that be should signal to the man who had charge of the engine to stop. A penalty should be attached for non-com* pliance with these orders. Sir George Grey A penalty is rather for Parlift* ment. Lord Kinnaird thought what Sir George Grey had said showed the necessity of getting an amendment of the Act. He was of opinion that Sir George Grey, in' stead of applying to the chief constable for confirma' tion, should apply to other of the magistrates. Sir George Grey said that if he received any pro" posed regulations from owners of machinery, he would submit them for the consideration of the magistrates* just as he had the memorial of the farmers' club. Other gentleman having addressed the Home Secre", tary, Sir George Grey remarked that Parliament had as" sumed the danger, and therefore it was for them (the deputation) to show that the danger and inconvenience did not exist. He should be very glad if they could prove it. The best thing they could do would be to obviate the danger. If regulations were sent to hiiO he should forward them to the magistrates of any dis* trict respecting which a restrictive order might be asked. Lord Kinnaird thanked the Home Secretary, and the deputation withdrew. a.
HAVING NOTHING TO DO! A moat curious scene occupied public attention during several hours yesterday in the Rue de Rivoli (writes the Paris correspondent of the Morning Star). The late tremendous rains have converted the streets of Paris into a vast sea of mud. Early in the day » steam carriage, placed on a truck, and drawn by fout horses, not only stuck fast in that part of the Rue Rivoli which is opposite the tennis-court ef the Tuile- ries, but the wheels of the truck sank half way into the gravel. Although it was pouring rain at the timp, an immense crowd assembled; sergeants de vilIe sprang out of the earth, as it seemed to me, and instantly set about shouting orders with frantic vehemence. Gendarmes stationed themselves at the entrance of the Place de la Concorde, waving defiant gestures to coachmen who vainly endea" voured to pass, and cries of "A droit!" "A ■ gauche rent the air. For five mortal hours--I believe I should be correct in stating six-this scene went on at last, by dint of stopping a sufficient number of carts, and pressing into the service the horses belonging thereto, forty were harnessed to the truck, boards haying been placed under the sunken wheels, and amidst a storm of invectives the luckless steam engine was dragged out of the quagmire into which it had fallen, and proceeded to its destination. Meanwhile the thought struck one how remarkably little the thousands of spectators could have had to do who had braved the teeming rain for so many hours. No philanthropic motive caused them to remain, as, with the exception of a considerable amount of gesticulating and shouting at the unfortunate horses, not an individual, except General Fleury, who accidentally passed and gave most efficient orders, did any one thing towards assisting in the difficulty.
EPITOME OF NEWS. BRITISH AND FOREIGN. Victor Townley, who, it will be remembered, murdered Miss Goodwin, and afterwards eectped the gallon* by a singular quirk ia the then existing state of the law, committed suicide in his prison on Sunday morning. He was returning from chapel, when he leaped over the stair- case and fella considerable height, receiving a concussion on the brain. He lingered insensible till eight o'clock In the evening, when he died. A wmderful escape is reported from the bighlands. One of Lord Bentlnck's keepers was buried out of fight in < deep snow drift on Sunday, the 29:h ult. He remained there sever-ilhourg when fortuna'ely another keeper pasting dis" covered his mishap through seeing his dog wandering about, and helped him out. He was much exhausted, but had sus- tained no serious injury. Artemus Ward says—" You ma differ as much as yu pleze about the stile of a young lady's figger, but I tell yu confldenshsuiy, if she has forty thomand pounds, the Agger is as near rite as yu will get it." It is rumoured that the Admiralty have decided, as disarmaments appear to be general throughout Europe, to reduce the number of Coastguard men by 2,000. The Duke of St. Alban's, it is said, was recently captured by Of me brigands when travelling through Italy, ani after detaiaing his Grace sonce days, they allowed bim to go at large on receiving £ igo as ransom money, aftet receiving which they bad the nerve to request the Duke to intercede on their behalf with the King of Italy for a free pardon, and authorizing his Grace to be their "captain," tney promised not to pursue their present m)de of living. The proposed Roman Catholic College at Oxford has been abandoned, A singular accident has just occurred during a battue in «n> environs of Cracow. A young deer endeavoured to escape by leaping over the head of a gamekeeper, when 1M foot became entangled in the man. drapp, Both he and the animal came to the ground together, an, the deer in its struggles to get free broke the collar bone and dislocated the arm of the keeper. It finally got away. The porpoise which was placed in the Zoological Gardens in London, on the 29th of December was founci dead in its salt-water pond on the morning of Wednesday, the 8th inst. Having apparently become quite comfortable in its new quarters, it sudenly declined its food on the pre- ceding day. There i. some reason to fear that it had got frozen in during a night of unusual severity. By every mail comes Abe's last," as regular as P.rtmj:t m's last under the head of births. Abe this time on being informed that Fort Fie her was silenced and that there was now only on3 passage to Wilmington, smiled a long, skeary emile-one whi h crept quiet y over his face from his hair to his forehead, thence to his eyes and ears, anon to his n-se nd lips, and so d,)wnwards, and remarked that passage I slull call Davis'a Strait." At the last meeting of the Committee of Manage- ment of King's College Hospital, in London, an old friend and liberal supporter of the charity, who requested that his name should not be mentioned, attended and handed to the chairman the munificent sum of 5041., beincr lfi n«w life governor's donations of 30 guineas t ach, in aid of the current expenses of the hospital. ^Thames Police-court in London, a young, f fair-hairi-d woman came before the sitting maais'r^te, and said she had married a man, who said his name was Crnnor. S4ehadsir;c^ discovered that his name was O'Connor, and she wished to know if the mirriage »a» legal The magistrate paid the marriage was perfectly valid, and that her husband and no other person could set it aside on the ground that his name was O'Conmr instead of Connor. Mr. Meade, an Englishman practising as a photo- grapher at New Yi rk, has committed suic!de by taking poi- son at an hotel. Be left letters addressed to his wife, to his eht drm, fa her, sister, and a frl-nd named Graham, In one left-r he a'tributes his miserable condition to indul- gence in drink. He begs his wife and children tovidthis giave aud decorate it with flowers, and to pray for him. The progress of the Divorce court is as remarkable as ever, and it has been suggested that the newspapers should adopt the same system as the Cslifornian papers- nameiy, to have in the births, marriag-s and deaths columns an additional list, headed "divorced." In London, rt Tattersall's, last week, a lady's riding horte, wa3 sold for six hundred guineas Tne auctioneer described it as the haudsome3t horse in the world. A young lady was told by a married lady that she had better precipitate herself off the Niagara Falls into the basin beneath than marry. The young lady replied, "I would, if I thought I could find a husband at the bottom.' Her Majesty's state carriage is now nearly a century old. It was built for George III. its beautiful panels were paint d by Cipriani, and its cost is said to have amounted to the enormous sum of 27.000Z. A funeral from the top of Dairy, in Galloway, had to be postponed for five days, owing to the roads being blocked up with snow. An English firm has offered, it is said, to advance 600 millions of reds to the Spanish Government, on the guarantee of taxes to be collected in advance. The committee of the St. James's Chess Club have completed theii*arrangements for playing a chess match by electric telegraph between London and Dublin The London players will meet on Feb. 22, at thtir club-room, and the wire will be brought into the club-rooms, both in London and Dublin. Twelve Eeparate games will be played simulta- neously. Government has declined to sanction the raising of any mora volunteer corps. 6 Henry Ward Beecher asked Park Benjamin, the poet and humourist, why he never came to Brooklyn to hear him preach. Benjamin replied, Why, Beecher, the fact is, I have conscientious scruples against going to places of public amusement on Sundays," The Orkney Herald says:—"A curious mistake occurred in the Illustrated London News of Saturday week. The engraving, which is intended to be a portrait of the late Dr Baikie, the African explorer, is in reality the veritable portrait rf Dr. Rjbert Baikie, HEI.C.S., now resident in Edinburgh." Upwards of 52,000 copies of the Bishop of Orleans pamphlet in defence of the encjclicil le'ter were disposed of in less than a fortnight, producing about 78,730f., the profits of which are to be devoted to cusritable purposes. r The^Empress Eugenie has just lost, before the i supreme tribunal of Madrid, a trial which has lasted some years. Her Majesty cla med the inheritance of the Count- ship of Miranda, and the Immense estates attached to the title, but the Malpica family also alleged its rights, and a decision in favour of the latter has been given. Another corner haa been chipped off the national debt. The actual surplus revenue of the kingdom ftrthe year which ended on September 30th, 1864, was 2 587 6711 and one-fourth of this sum, 646,8922. has been set aside for the reduction of the debt. An argument worthy of the Chancellor of the Ex- chequer, and quite to hn ta.te, though a little cannioal, comestous fr^mNewZealand, where an English efficerhas remonstrated with a chief on the native propensity for can- nlbaliS^Jf /epIy was- "Iti3 well for Englishmen to^e- commend the consumption of beef-they have beef in plenty -but New Zealanders have no beef but men." ofYnob^EarlT ^C'Juyrt'JournaJ) that the daughter CJthnl r. r<h ,lastT1week became a member of the Roman theatrifiu Before her marriage her talent in private h^r a k was sometliing quite extraordinary and secured ot- v, admirers the tear and the smile were equally at her command. The Dublin papers report a case of great Protestant intolerance. By one of the rules governing the Adelaide Hospital, it seems Roman Catholics are rigidly excluded from participating in the benefits of the charity. At the annual meeting, held last week, a Protestant gentleman moved that that rule be expunged, not only on the general ground of Christian benevolenc, but on the ground that every hospital supported by Roman Catholics in the city admitted all clastts of patients, never enquiring whether they were Protestants, Roman Catholics, Turks, Jews or Atheists. The motion was negatived by a large majority.' Liverpool expects a Royal Visit. There is a pio- babili y—<o it was stated at a recent Town Council meeting -that either the Queen or the Prince of Wales will be present at the approaching inauguration of the Prince Consort's statue there. Mr. Lyulph Stanley, a son of Lord Stanley, has given promise of following in his father's footsteps, by a lecture, which he delivered at Manchester, on Friday night, on the American war. Unlike the party with which he has already identified himself, however, his sympathies are enti ely with the North—the result, no tfoubt.^of the ac- curate information which he has permitted .'himself to acquire by a recent tour through both the Northern and the Southern States. As a speaker, it is said Mr. Stanley 'a jroung man of great promise." 9 e