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A VIEW OF THE PRESENT STATE OF SHEEP FARMING IN CARDIGANSHIRE, WITH SOME HINTS FOR IMPROVEMENT. THE Cardiganshire hills are in general dry, though in some places there are considerable tracks of boggy land. They are however all covered with green eatable herbage over the tops or summits. The farms are very unequal in size, many of them being freeholds, but mostly let out to tenants at will, and rent from sixpence to one shilling per acre. Te- nant seldom have all the stock on the farm, but some neighbours will have a stock of sheep grazed for the half of the wool. It is a common calculation that the half of the wool should pay the landlord's rent and give the tenants profit, the proprietor of the stock having all the other part of produce for his risk and money sunk. The owners of such stock generally have some low-lying farm, where they take a part of it through winter, and send them up to the hills in summer. The tenant commonly takes in all that he can get from all quarters, cattle aDd horses, summer, at a stated price, and sheep at one shilling per head. The management of the stock is rather singular. Parties begin the year by gather- ing all the stock from the low country, and sometime in May cut the lambs. In June they begin the shearing and wash, the same way as is done in other countries. The shearing is a difficult task to the shepherds. The sheep of one hill are mostly all brought in at one time. The shepherds have no dogs that will turn a sheep; and the latter being remarkable for wildness, it is often difficult to get every man's sheep with his own mark, and every kind of one man's is put into separate marks. This requires a great deal of time; but it is seldom many mistakes happen. After shearing is over, there is little more attention paid to them until about Mich- aelmas, when all the wethers, turned of three years, are sold to the English butchers and graziers. The lambs are never weaned, nor any of them sold that are thought to live through winter. The old ewes are likewise all kept, however old, if they are only thought to live and brinff lambs. Thnco hf»rt»trvh t a from the low country are sent off as soon as the farmer has his stubbles cleared, or, as soon as it is thought they are better down than on the hills. There is no such thing as smearing, dipping, or pouring; but all the sheep are brought in, and get the winter mark. The rams selected for those ewes that stop on the mountains all winter are commonly of the strongest, coarsest kinds those that are taken to the low parts are commonly of the finest kinds. But, both on hill and in valley, they are allowed to tup the ewes at pleasure, which is generally in the month of October. There is then no more done but looking after them through winter. In this they are at a good deal of pains but in time of storm never think of providing anything for them-they may either live or die. In the very greatest snows they never get any hay, nor are driven to any low country for support; OR which account there are very serious losses, particularly among the lambs and the oldest of the ewes. In the course of a few good years, by keep- ing all the lambs and old ewes, the land becomes over-stocked then, when even a middling bad year comes, there are no lambs, and there is a great loss among the old sheep. They call this bad luck and such luck they are almost sure of every three or four years. They likewise shear the wool off the lambs in August-the very clothing that nature has pro- vided as a protection during winter. It is then no wonder that more rents cannot be given. If the farmers in the South of Scotland were to practise the same plan, they could not give more than one-third of the rent that they do under their present system. The management of the land is equally bad with the management of the sheep. The very wettest parts are never thought of being drained no artifi- cial shelter in the most exposed parts; no burning of dead stuff in the moors, nor any inclosing, everything allowed to continue in its natural state. The English or Scotch sheep farmer taking a sheep- walk in Cardiganshire, has considerable difficulties to overcome with the adjoining farmers. When a stranger is about to take to the farm, the hue and cry gets up with them all around, We'll eat him without salt," and they commence by getting all the horses, cattle, and sheep they can get in the neigh- bourhood to graze at so much per bead, and push them over the boundary line on to the stranger's, to eat his land up and hunger his stock out of the place. This is the plan generally tried to send a stranger out of Cardiganshire. The following simple but useful improvements are recommended. Stock the land light, say two sheep to three acres, at an average, but in high situations less. Keep no additional stock in summer, only what is bred on the land. Keep no ewes above 41 years old. however small the number may be on the land. Keep no more lambs than what will keep up the stock to the above number of two sheep to three acres. Instead of shearing the wool off the lambs, give them a good salve with Bigg's sheep dipping composition salve them in the ensuing spring also. Do not let the rams go to the ewes before the 22nd day of November. Salve or smear them for a trial, Try the sheep with hay in time of storm they will eat it in Wales as well as in other countries. Burn all the heath and dead grass that will burn in March and April. Carry off all the surface water by open drains. These improvements are simple, but useful, and will at the very first treble the disposable pro- duce of the farm; which is equal to trebling the value of the estate. » HOLLOWAY'S OINTMENT AND PiLM.—For bad legs, bad breasts, and scorbutic or scrofulous sores this is a genuine specific. The grateful and earnest testimony of thousands who have experienced their unrivalled power over these complaints, and who have been raised from prostrate helplessness and a condition loathsome to themselves and others, ren- ders it quite unnecessary to enlarge in this place upon its extraordinary virtues. The parts affected should be bathed with luke-warm water, and when the pores are thereby opened the Ointment should be rubbed in at least twice a day all round the com- plaining parts. It then penetrates to the seat of the disorder, and effects a thorough and permanent cure. These preparations are composed of rare balsams, as mud as they are efficacious. .<r.


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