fonbaii Ctirrpsjjoitknf. We deem it right to state that we do not at all times identify ourselves with our Correspondent's opinions.] Whilst the nation was waiting in anxious expecta- tion for impdrtant news from South Africa, a steamer, was making her way over the ocean, by day and by night, bearing a terrible message. Arrived at Madeira the intelligence was flashed over Europe that Eugene Louis Jean Joseph, the only son of the Emperor Napoleon-looked upon ten years ago as the most powerful Sovereign of his time—had been assegaied by savages. The Prince had gone out with a recon. noitring party, who had dismounted and unsaddled, and were unsuspectingly refreshing themselves amid the heat of an African sun, when a few fox-like Zulus, concealed by the long grass, craftily approached, and before their presence was perceived, had time to kill three of the small band of soldiers. Two of these were troopers the third was the Child of France, the only son of his mother, and she was a widow." The sa- vages, as they did their deadly work, swiftly moved away, little dreaming, as they left the stripped and reeking bodies upon the open field, that their momentary act would cause a sensation throughout Europe. Onlyaday or two before, riding out from Mogwechana oamp, with Capt. Harrison, of the Engineers, and other officers, accompained by mounted Basutos, the Prince had a brush at a kraal held by about 60 Zulus, The native cavalry cut away, and the Prince was for some time in danger. On the following day he and others were surrounded and narrowly escaped being cut off. The Prince got clear by jumping his horse over a broad krantz in the veldt. On the 1st of June, however, as all the world now knows, he was not so fortunate, and perished at the hands of a wily and merciless foe. English visitors to Paris, and their name is now legion, never fail to spend a short time in the Hospital des Invalides. Underneath its gilded dome is the grave of the great Napoleon, one of the most splendid shrines ever raised by a nation to the memory of a military coaqueror. You go to the square of the Palais Royal, where omnibuses start for all quarters of the French capital, tell the conductor you wish to see the tomb of Napoleon, and he puts you down at the main entrance to the Invalides, in the Place Vauban. Now, the Invalides answers to some extent to our own Chelsea Hospital, for it is a residence for old and pensioned soldiers; but the associations which sur- round it strike far more deeply into the minds of Frenchmen than any reminiscences of Chelsea Hos- pital could upon the hearts of Englishmen. On 16th of March, 1856, the booming of canaon from the Invalides proclaimed to the people of Paris the fact that a son had been born to the Empress of the French, whose style and title were to be the Prince Imperial. The event was celebrated with extraordinary re- joicings the city was magnificently illuminated; and the Emperor proclaimed an amnesty to a thousand political exiles. At that time his Maj esty was in the front rank of Continental sovereigns; he had, in conjunction with England, just concluded a successful war with Russia, and at that very time the Plenipotentiaries of the great Powers were sitting in Paris and negotiating that Treaty of Peace which was called after the name of the city.,The pen with which the Treaty was signed was mounted in gold and presented to the Empress. Everything locked bright and prosperous with the Empire then, and the hopes of Napoleon for the birth of a son had been realised; thereby, to all human appearance, consolidating the dynasty by securing a direct successor to the throne. That the father should die in exile after a disastrous war, and that the son should be stabbed to death by a savage in South Africa, was a dream which never could have entered into the imagination of man to conceive. Queen Victoria, in immediately telegraphing to the Empress Eugenie as expression of her deepest sym- pathy in the awful trial which has fallen upon the Imperial exile, has again shown how much she can feel for the sorrows of those upon whom great troubles descend. It seems difficult to believe that her Ma- jesty has been reigning over Great Britain nearly twenty years before the Prince Imperial was born all her old counsellors have passed away. It is like re-opening the chapter of a long past age now to read the account of the Queen's Coronation on the 28th June, 1838—now forty-one years ago (a long time to look back on)-when the young sovereign, then only 19 years years of age, went from Backingham Palace to Westminster Abbey, amid the indescribable enthusiasm of the people. Up Constitution Hill, along Piccadilly, through St. James'a-street and Pall Mall, past Charing Cross and down Parliament-street, the cavalcade passed to the venerable cathedral church of St. Peter at Weetminster, between living walls of cheering crowds. The great officers of State, the Archbishop and the other prelates, the choir, the clergy, the multitude itself, have all gone; but the Qaeen remains still the ruler of a mighty empire. When the Dean of Westminster took the crown from the altar, and passed it to the Archbishep, who reverently placed it on the Queen's head, from every part of the crowded edifice there arose the enthusiastic cry, God save the Qaeen I" The peers and peeresses put on their coronets, the bishops their caps, and the kinga-of-arms their crowns; trumpets sounded, drums rolled, and the Tower and Park guns thundered forth a royal salute. It was about a quarter to four in the afternoon when the royal procession passed through the nave at the close of the ceremony; and in returning to the Palace the Queen wore her crown and the royal and noble personages their coronets. Among many foreigners of distinction present, Marshal Soult, the French Ambassador, was particularly noticed and applauded. In the evening the Queen enter- tained a dinner party, and witnessed from the palace the discharge of fireworks in the Green Park. The Duke of Wellington also gave a grand ball at Apaley House. The theatres and nearly all the other places of amusement were, by Her Majesty's command, open gratuitously for the evening. A chronicler of that time assures us that the immense concourse of people which filled London during the day conducted themselves with the greatest order, and no accident of any moment occurred. The report of the Select Committee on Electric Lighting bears testimony to the value of electricity an an illuminating power. The Committee, after refer- ring to the evidence given before them by eminent scientific men, and noticing some of the practical ex- periments already made, arrived at the conclusion that, compared with gas, the economy of the electric light for equal illumination has not been conclusively established. In some oases the electric light had the advantage butifor the ordinary purpose of domestic supply it has not made sufficient progress to enable it to enter into competition with gas. The system of electric lighting is, however, developing with remark. able rapidity, and the Committee are of opinion that upon that development no legislative restrictions should be placed. At the same time extensive establish- ments such as theatres, balls, or workshops re- quire no legislative powers to enable them to generate electricity for their own use. But if under existing statutes, corporations and other local authori- ties have not power to take up streets for the laying down of wires for lighting—a point as to which there is some difference of opinion-ample authority should be given them for that purpose. It is recommended that local bodies should be fully empowered to use the electric light for purposes of public illumination, and that the Legislative should show its willingness, when the demand arises, to give all reasonable powers for the full development of electricity as a source of power and light. According to the conclusions of the com- mittee, the power of supplying the light should rest with the elected representatives of the people who desire the supply—a principle which is the very root and basis of our system of self-government. Economists have frequently asserted that the food supply of Great Britain is unduly and unnecessarily limited owing to the large quantity of waste land which is allowed to go uncultivated year after year. Be this as it may, there are in other directions supplies of food easily obtainable of which we neglect to avail ourselves. An abundant harvest may be gathered from the sea without sowing of seed or care in culti- vation. Fish abound around our coasts; there is a plentiful variety, and their capture is attended by comparatively little difficulty. As articles of food, fish are in high favour, and markets for them are readily to be procured. If they were to be supplied in greater abundance, and could be offered at reasonable prices, they would more frequently appear on the table of the less wealthy classes. Unfortunately, but little attention has been paid to the question of how best to utilise the fish harvest. Even as matters stand, the occupation of a fisherman is at times re- munerative enough; and, with the exercise of but little study, care, and attention might be made even more profitable. In the report of the Inspectors of Fisheries, which has just been issued, it is stated that off the western coasts there are large and productive banks which abound with valuable fish. Amongst these are several kinds which are not generally looked for, and are but little known, but would prove a useful addition to our store of food. The Com- missioners suggest that the question is one well worthy the consideration of the Government, and ask that they shall be tarnished with the means of making the neces- sary investigations. The request is a reasonable one, and there appears such a probability that researches in this direction are likely to prove profitable, that it will in all likelihood be at once complied with. The return of the French Chambers to Paris is an event of great interest in France. When early in 1871, the National Assembly met at Versailles to con- clude a peace with Germany, which ceded Alsace and a considerable portion of Lorraine, Paris had under- gone a four months' siege, and was ill prepared to receive its legislature. The Assembly, remembering how the riaJa. of Parliament had time after time bees invaded by Parisian mobs, decided to fix the aeat of government at Versailles, about twelve miles from the oapital-a distance the traversing of which would cool the courage of the most sanguinary crowd. But the British Parliament might as well meet at Windsor as the French at Versailles; and it is not to be wondered at that the inhabitants of the French capital have never been content with the new arrangement. Precautions will be taken against such attacks of lawless multitudes from Belleville and Montmartre in those Btormy times of revolution, as during the past ninety years have so often visited Paris. The French capital has no such stately building as our own Palace of Westminster for the reception of the country's elected representatives. In London theJtwo chambers sit under one roof, but in Paris the occupation of separate buildings will be necessary. The longest day has passed, without that material improvement in the weather for which we have so long waited. A careful study of the almanacs will show that for some considerable time towards the end of June there is no appreciable difference in the time of the sun's setting in the latitude of London. The dif. ference is to be found in its rising; still there is the solid substantial fact that each week now will find the sun a shorter time above the horizon, and pouring less heat upon the earth. So far as the metropolis was concerned, the longest day was thoroughly autumnal in its character, quite in accord with this strange and broken season. Torrents of rain, a cloud-banked sky, and a howling wind-it was the old story just when the days were at their longest and should be at their hottest and brightest. There has been but little sunshine to bring on the bay har- vest and, as to the wheat, the farmer sees first the blade and then the ear; but the time when after that the full corn in the ear shall gladden his vision seems at present a long way in the distance. It is just twelve months since, in the closing days of June, a wave of tropical heat passed over the land a week or two of it now would be worth millions of money to the agricultural interest.
THE LOSS OF THE AVA. Farther details have been received by the Indian mail of the loss of the British India Steam Navigation Company's steamer Ava, which while bound for London with a full cargo, was totally lost by collision at 2 30 a.m. on May 24, about 65 miles south of the Sandheads, near Calcutta, with the ship BrenhUda, from Algoa Bay, in ballast. The Ava was run into nearly amidships and had a large hole made in her side. She filled rapidly and went down in less than twenty minutes after the collision. Of about 150 persons on board, 53, including ladies, children, and passengers, and part of the crew, and all the officers of the ship except the captain, doctor, and purser, were saved by the boats of the steamer and received on board the Brenhilda. The remainder, numbering 70 persons (by another report between 80 and 100), including, as far as can be ascer- tained, the whole ot the deck passengers, the captain, and the greater part of the native crew, are missing, and it is feared have gone down with the vessel. One of the boats was smashed by the collision and one stove in by the sea. The Brenhilda hove to after the collision, but she had drifted to some distance from the Ava, and the first boat, containing the passengers, was nearly two hours reaching her. During this time the boat in question was half filled with water, partly owing to the heavy sea and partly owing to the plug being knocked out in baling. The other two boats remained near the scene of the disaster until daylight and suc- ceeded in rescuing several persons from the water. The chief officer also returned with the first boat manned by a crew from the Brenhilda but nothing was then to be seen of the Ava and those who were on board when she went down. The Ava went down by the stern after her deck had blown up with a leud report and her masts had fallen, the foremast falling across the bridge. A few minutes after the ship was struck there were 14ft. of water in the engine-room. The Brenhilda has arrived in port at Calcutta with the survivors from the wreck, much damaged about the bows, and is reported to be kept afloat by her collision bulkhead only but, as no survey has yet been held, no details can be given. The Tiimes of India gives the following list of the passengers who were saved For London-Mr. and Mrs. Lawrie, Miss Hart and ayah, Mr. L. J. Petricher, and Master Bertram Hilder. For Colombo-Mr. Burbridge and Mr. P. R. Shand. For Madras—Mr. Martin and Mr. G. Anderson. Captain H. T. Dickinson, who had been a commander in the company's service for 16 years, waB one of their most popular and best known officers.— Monday's Times.
FLOWER SERVICE IN MAYFAIR. In London, on Sunday afternoon, there was a special flower service in Berkeley Chapel, which was filled to overflowing with a large and fashionable congregation of mothers and children. As they entered, all passed up the centre aisle and presented their flowers at the altar rails, and the chancel was speedily filled with flowers, piled on the altar and on either side. An address was delivered by the incumbent, the Rev. Teignmouth Shore, Hon. Chaplain to the Queen, on the text, The flowers appear on the earth; the time of singing of_birds is come." Among the congregation were the Princess of Wales and her children, Princess Louise, Princess Victoria, and Princess Maud, Princess Mary and her children, and Princess Frederica of Hanover, all of whom presented bouquets. After the service the flowers were sent to the sick children in the various hospitals of London.
The Royal Party, who attended the above service, graciously remembered the little sufferers at the hos. pital for Sick Children, Great Ormond-street, and desired themselves to distribute the flowers which were to be sent to that institution, for which purpose their Royal Highnesses visited the hospital on Menday. The young Princesses and Princes undertook the work of distribution, and a beautiful bouquet was presented to each patient, to the great delight of the recipients. By special permission the large wards bear the names of her Majesty and the Princesses, being named respec- tively the "Victoria" Ward, the "Alexandra" *'Alice," "Helena," and "Louise* Wards. In the "Victoria" Ward is placed the "Mayfair Cot," which is supported entirely by contributions from the children of Berkeley Chapel, Mayfair, and this cot and its occupant were specially noticed by the Royal visitors. The visit being strictly private and unan- nounced, only the ordinary attendants were present.
INDIAN ELEPHANTS FOR AFRICA. The following extract Is from the letter of an English lady resident In Zanzibar to a friend in England, received on the 21st inat., describing the landing on the mainland of Africa, from the British India Steam Navigation Company's steamer Chlnsura, the four Indian elephants the property of the King of the Belgians, The letter is dated Zanzibar, 2nd June I haft just finished a long letter all about the elephants, dear beasts. I can't tell you how interested we are in them, and how thankful we are they are safely landed. We never thought the first could get alive to shore. It swam more than a mile in distance, and waa in the water for more than an hour. Lrog after it waa half way it would keep turning round and trying to come back to the ship. I cannot describe to you tne excitement there waa on board. I fairly cried once with anxiety and excitement. It would have been too horrible to see it drowned. He tried to climb up the ship's side once. It was pouring with rain, which made things seem more dismal; we were all wet through, but nobody cared, We had to get our experience aa we went on, aa no one knew any- thing about elephants or landing. We managed the other three much better, and made the captain take the ship nearer in ahore; Captain Carter has stayed over there to take the elephants to Dar-es-Salaam, a distance of four miles, and will stay to see them com- fortably settled. I think the way this business has been managed reflects great credit on all concerned. It was all to be done in such a hurry, nobody knowing the beasts were coming, and the mail steamer having to rush-off again."
THE GROUND GAME QUESTION. The Marquis of Hertford has sent a reply to the tenants on hia Ragley estate, Warwickshire, who re- cently applied for permission to kill hares and rabbits on the farms "in any way they thought proper." His lordship says that, looking to his tenants' interest as well aa his own, he must decline to allow shooting, except on apeciaroccasiona; but if they will assist him in preeerving the feathered game, he will do his best to kill down hares aa well as rabbita. The tenants already possess the right of destroying rabbits with ferrets and nets, and to that privilege he will add that of destroying hares in any way, except lihooting or with dogs, after a fortnight's notice has been given that damage is being done to the crops, His lordship adds that, as he cannot see the justice of calling upon occupiers of land in the neighbourhood of towns like Stratford on Avon and Alcester to pay for sanitary improvements from which they derive no benefit, he will take those rates on himself,-The Times.
FROM THE BRITISH MUSSUM,—Firot Visitor lloquitor) Mummy, eh! Ye-es, no doubt about that, 1 snould say. Poor old chap pretty quiet new, ain't he ? Ye-es, he don't look as if he'd ever be much in a hurry about anything again.—Second Visitor (loq.) No. Yet it is quite certain at first he must have tw prmH fvr tfcme.—Jwiy,
THE NEW EDDYSTONE LIGHTHOUSE. The visit of the Prince of Wales and the Duke of Edinburgh to Plymouth for the purpose of participa- ting in the laying of the foundation stone of the new Eddystone Lighthouse on Saturday in last week has ended in a postponement of the ceremony. On Friday the waves broke over the reef in such a manner that the workmen found it impossible to make the neces- sary preparations, and the violence of the wind continuing during Saturday morning, the idea of making even a trip around the Eddystone, recommended as a sufficient ceremonial under the circumstances, was abandoned. Their Royal Highnesses, however, were so deeply interested in the matter that they preferred waiting for another and more favourable opportunity for laying the stone itself, and promised to fix a day in August next for discharging the deferred duty. Arrangements had been made for a flotilla of yachts and steamers to accompany the Trinity boats, and undoubtedly, had the weather proved favourable, there would have been witnessed one of the most charming spectacles ever seen in the vicinity of the tempest-beaten Eddystone reef. Thousands of persons had collected at various points for the purpose of observing the departure of the many gaily-decked craft that studded the mouth of the Hamoaze. Their Royal Highnesses, disappointed in their pro- mised trip to sea, took the opportunity of going to Oreston to inspect the works, where blocks of stono used in the construetion of the new lighthouse are being prepared, and for the purpose of examining the plans of the new tower.-The Times gives the following interesting particulars of the visit of their Royal Highnesses to these works:— At a quarter to one precisely their Royal Highnesses left, both appearing in uniform—the Prince of Wales in an undress military costume, and the Duke of Edinburgh in the uniform of an admiral of the Royal Navy. Their Royal Highnesses were accompanied by the two young Princes, Albert Victor and George Frederick, in cadets' uniform, and Admiral A. Farquhar, Commander-in-Chief at Devonport; Ad- miral Sir Henry Keppel, Admiral Sir Richard Collin- son, deputy-master of the Trinity Corporation; Captain Fairfax, H. M.S. Britannia; Captain Stevenson, R.N., Equerry to the Prince of Wales Lieutenants the Hon. A. Curzon Howe, Equerry to the Duke of Edinburgh, and Francis Cecil, Flag-Lieutenant at Devonport. All the officers wore service mourning for the late Prince Imperial. On the arrival at the trial platform at Oreston it was explained that the stones seen there were parts of the fourth and fifth courses of masonry, which were all fitted together as they will be at the rock. The Prince appeared to be deeply interested in the manner in which the dovetailing was effected. The illustration of what is known as the Lewis' mode of lifting the stones absorbed a deal of the time of the distinguished party. This is the method always adopted during the progress of fitting. The operation consists of boring a deep hole in the stone, and then there are introduced three large wedges, which are driven tightly in. In the tops of the wedges are large rings, to which a loop may be attached, and the stone is in this way swung by means of a crane. The whole system was illustrated by one of the largest of the stones, and, to the satisfaction of each member of the party, before the stone was hoisted the young princes stepped upon it, were swung round, and then let down with it to the bottom of the platform. This experience they evidently enjoyed. The Prince of Wales remarked as to the arrangement in dealing with such heavy stones, It is simplicity itself.' 'After some little time had been spent in the vicinity of the trial platform, the party were taken to witness experiments with the rock drill. Its utility is mani- fold, for, besides the boriug of stone for lewising,' a number of holes can be drilled in a line for the purpose of making the operation of splitting the stone easier. Its action was fully explained, and as nothing is so satisfactory as ocular demonstration, a very large stone was drilled in several places. The block chosen was a piece of granite several tons in weight. In a very few minutes sufficient holes were bored, and the ordi- nary cleaving gear was then applied and fitted to the holes, and the granite was immediately cloven in the presence of the Royal party. Considerable surprise was excited at the marvelleus rapidity with which the work was accomplished, and admiration of the pro- cess was expressed, not only by their Royal High- nesses, but by a crowd of spectators. "The party were then conducted to the end of the pier, where another very important invention was ex- plained. Without suction hose it would be almost im- possible to proceed with the work. This hose is em- ployed in pumping the water from the dam constructed at the reef for the purpose of facilitating the work, and its mode of operation was graphically shown. One of the most interesting pieces of mechanical skill re- mained, the cement tester,' which is in great re- quisition, and by means of which the character of the work and the strength or weakness of every point are accurately gauged. It may be imagined that this is regarded as a crucial item in the construction of an edifice the stability of which must be of the most unquestionable kind. The machine is not a large one, and when exhibited it was placed at the innermost end of the quarry, to which the Royal party for the second time proceeded. Stationed on a large granite block was a very simple- looking machine, and around this all the party gathered while is was in motion. The young Princes were more interested in it than in anything that had previously been shown them. A piece of Portland cement 1^ inch thick was placed in the machine and a handle turned. The number of pounds pressure on a square inch could then be accurately ascertained, the amount being in. dicated by a gauge. For some time the handle was turned alternately by one of the young Princes, and when either stopped the number of pounds pressure was declared. Aa the pressure increased the handle was taken by Mr. Edmonds to prevent the possibility of an accident to one of the Princes, who then watched the gauge, with keen interest. It might seem almost incredible that cement should hear so great a strain, but there was no crack until the pressure had reached 1,; 26 pounds, and the party were then informed that a similar piece of cement had broken on the previous day after a strain of only 1,100 pounds. The Royal party were also shown the entire plans of the building, together with the model of the basement, with the brick dams that have been built there. "After the experiments were concluded their Royal Highnesses once more boarded the Galatea yacht, steamed round the Agincourt, and made for Mount Wise, where they landed, accompanied by Admiral Keppel and Captain Fairfax; they then took a special train for Dartmouth, where they remained the guests of Captain Fairfax. In the evening the Galatea left for Dartmouth to attend on their Reyal Highnesses."
Despite the continued heavy weather in the Channel on Monday, the Trinity engineers with a party of workmen left Plymouth for the Eddystone Reef, and managed to land through the surf and get some work done. They found that, although the waves of Satur- day dashed as high as the lantern gallery of the present lighthouse and swept ceaselessly over the masonry at the new structure, nothing was disturbed. The work will be pushed forward with all energy, but that por- tion where the foundation stone is eventually to be laid by the Duke of Edinburgh some time in August, will be left vacant.
In noticing the postponement of the ceremony of laying the foundation stone The Times, in a leader, gives the following interesting account of the existing structure and of the two preceding ones, which have occupied the Eddy- stone reef:— We may regret that an interesting ceremony has thus been frustrated, or at least postponed, but there is almost a grim appropriateness in the protest of the elements themselves against the effort to replace the great work of Smeaton, itself the unsurpassable model for all subsequent structures of the kind, and built, as its designer declared, not for an age or two, but for a possible perpetuity." It is no dis- credit to Smeaton, indeed, that it has been found necessary to build a new lighthouse. His tower is almost as sound as when it was finished a hundred and twenty years ago, and if its rocky base were as firm there is no reason why it should not still stand for centuries to come. Unfortunately, however, the base itself is undermined, and there is reason to fear that the eoninued action of the waves, perpetually rushing to and fro, at times with the utmost violence and carrying with them shingle, stones, sand, and other materials whose impact gradually wears away the hardest rock, may finally endanger the lighthouse by rendering its foundation insecure. This source of danger was discerned, soon after the lighthouse was built, by Smeaton himself he reported that there was a cavern in the reck which formed the base of the tower, and that if necessary it could be filled up by properly-cemented masonry at a cost of JE250. The work was never undertaken, and the rock has since had to sustain the buffets of the waves and their ahock on a tower so firmly rooted to it that it almost forms a portion of its own structure. Hence the result which Smeaton foresaw, and would have provided against. The House Rock is pronounced to be no longer secure, and the lighthouse placed upon it is con- sequently in jeopardy. Accordingly it has been de. termined to build an entirely new lighthouse on another portion of the reef, about a hundred feet to the south- east of the present structure. The new tower will be much larger than that of Smeaton, and its l^ht will be raised fifty-five feet higher, thus giving it a much wider range, and placing its extreme limit well within the circuit commanded by the nearest adjacent light to the westward at the Lizard. Thus Smeaton'a great work will at last be superseded, though certainly through no fault of his. But his name and memory will still be perpetuated in the new lighthouse. Not only will its form follow his model with but slight alterations, but the principles of structure determined by him both in rooting the tower to the rock, as it were, by constructing the lower courses of masonry in becchings or steps cat out from the living rock, and in dovetailing all parts of the artificial structure together, so as to give them the strength and tenacity of a solid mass, will be faithfully carried out. Thus the Princes who were on Saturday to have laid the first stone of the new lighthouse on the South Reef did no less homage to Smeaton by visiting the works in which his ideas are still beiag carried out with all the appliances of modern mechanics than if they had been able to go to the actual site of his labours. It I,, not the banded tower on the House Rock which anxious gazers on the Hoe or Penlee Point have seen braving the heaviest gales for many a year that makes the true glory of Smeaton. It is the fact that wher- ever it has been necessary te build a lighthouse on a distant rock at sea his plans and mode of structure have been uniformly followed, and always with suc- cess. The Eddystone Rock, as it is commonly called, is in reality a dangerous reef lying about fourbeen miles south-west of Plymouth Breakwater, and almost in a line between the Lizard and the Start. Thus before it waa marked by a light it was a source of constant terror to mariners navigating the Channel. The first attempt to fix a light on it was made towards the close of the 17th century by a Mr. Winatanley, a private gen tleman with an ingenious turn for mechanics' VTinstan- ley seems to have been a sort of English Vaucanson, who tortured his friends with mechanical practical jokes, such as an arm-ehair which clasped its occupant with a pair of iavisiblc arms, or an arbour in his garden which floated unawares into the middle of a canal. He built two towers of wood on the Eddy- stone, the latter polygonal in shape and 100 feet high, with a stone has solidly fixed into the rock with iron stanchions. Winstanley's tower, which was cer- tainly not wanting in elegance and just proportion, has often been compared to a Chinese pagoda, but its model seems rather to have been the graceful towers with which Wren adorned the City churches-at any rate, it is easy to discern in Winstanley's design the prevailing taste of the time. He had evidently, however, not sufficiently c? s force of the waves in a storm at the Ed JyBtoae, which Smeaton deolares to be greater than that of any sea in any part of the world of which he had read and, though he produced an elegant structure, he took no pains to adapt it to the situation it was to occupy. He knew and declared that the sea often flies to a height of 200 feet above the rock—a fact which Smeaton confirms from his own observa- J^.he nevertheless surrounded his tower with all kinda of projections on which the water could act with overwhelming force, and he actually gave it a spacious open gallery, through which it was said that a six-oared boat could be washed by the sea and carried without injury to the other side. Nevertheless, Winstanley h&d lull confidence in the sta- bility of his tower, and often expressed a wish that be might be in it "during the greatest storm that ever blew under the face of the heavens." r waa fulfilled to the letter, for he was in the lighthouse during the great historical storm of Novem- ber, 1703. This was the storm referred to by Addison in his poem on Marlborough's Campaign, "such as of late o'er pale Brittania passed," and described by Macaulay as having ravaged England with the force r 8t *nci'an hurricane. In this storm the lighthouse was destroyed and Winstanley perished with it. The next attempt to build a lighthouse on the Eddystone was made a few years later by Rudyerd, a runaway Cornish boy, who had established himself as a silk mercer in Lon- don. Rudyerd's tower was a truncated cone of stout timbers bolted together and strengthened at the base by solid courses of stone ingeniously fastened to the rock. It was not as yet thought practicable to use stone exclusively, but Rudytrd's tower was strongly built, and his woodwork was ad- mitted by Smeaton to be well designed, and to exhibit a remarkable specimen of the shipwright's art well applied to its special purpose. He was very success- ful, too, in his method of bolting his masonry to the rock. He appropriated, if he did not invent, the lewis," a contrivance for fastening bolts in stone, and still used for similar purposes, as will be seen from our account of the Princes' visit on Saturday to the preparatory works in Plymouth Sound. After lasting for over forty years, Rudyerd's tower fell a victim to the usual fate of wooden structures, and was destroyed by fire in 1755. Shortly after the destruction of the second Eddy- "tone lighthouse, John Smeaton, at that time little known, save as a mathematical instrument maker and a skilled mechanic, was employed to design a new one. He has left on record a copious and instructive ac- count of his work, both in its origin and its execution. Discarding the misplaced elegances of Winstanley, he adopted the cone of Rudyerd for his model, but im- Eroved on it by giving it a gradual curve from ase to summit, so as to offer the least resist- ance to the waves and to turn them harm. lessly upwards. He was led to this idea by a contemplation of the manner in which an oak tree rises from the ground, and he also determined to graft his tower on the rock after the fashion in which a lateral branch is inserted into the parent tree. This conception necessarily led to the exclusive use of stone, which was Smeaton a second innovation. His third and greatest principle of all waa the method of dove- tailing each stone of the structure into its neighbours and into the solid rock at the base, so that no one could be moved unless all the others gave way. This prin- ciple has since heen followed in all similar structures, so that Smeaton may be said to have invented at one stroke the final and perfect method of building towers to resist the utmost force of the sea. His one mistake seems to have been made in the heavy cornice sur- mounting the tower and supporting the gallery of the lantern. When the sea breaks upon and over the lighthouse the waves are found to exert a powerful lifting force on the cornice, and it is only at this point that Smeaton's structure has ever shown signs of giving way. Until the cornice was reduced a few years ago, the sea in heavy gales used to force itself through the masonry, and to penetrate to the interior of the tower immediately beneath the cornice. In some light houses recently built, and notably in that on the Wolf Rock, constructed by Mr. Douglass, the consulting engineer of the Trinity House, to whom the building of the new tower at the Eddystone has been intrusted, this defect is remedied by again carrying the curve of the tower out- wards after it nas reached its smallest diameter above the middle of the structure. Thus the wavea are gradually carried outwards by the swelling curve, and the force of their impact on the cornice is dissipated. In the new lighthouse the same principle will be followed, and the upper portion of the tower will also be constructed on an elliptical section, so as to give the smallest surface of resistance in the direction from which the sea is known to run with the greatest force. These, however, are minor details of structure, and the great fundamental principles laid down by Smeaton, and embodied by him in a building which has braved the gales of over a hundred years, will be faithfully carried out in the new lighthouse. When the new building is finished, Smeaton's tower will be taken down to the level of high water. But though his building will have dis. appeared, his name will still remain imperishably connected with the Eddystone. He first showed what it was possible to do, and how it could best be done; and he did so with few of the mechanical appliances which his successors can command in modern times. Thus, whether his tower or another constructed on the same principles sheds its beneficent light from the Eddystone, he will always deserve to be remembered as one of the few to whom it is given to create a new art of the highest service to man and to bring it at once to perfection.
THE AERONAUTICAL SOCIETY OF GREAT BRITAIN. A meeting of the member* of the above society was held on Monday evening in Loudon, in the Hall of the Society of Arts for the reading and discussion of papers and for the purpose. of general business Mr. J. Glaisher, F.R.S., occupied the chair, and in opening the proceedings said that during the past year the Government had been actively engaged in balloon experiments to see how far it was applicable during times of warfare; but like most other Government inquiries the results had perhaps, wisely been kept secret. However, in its present shape, ballooning for purposes of warfare was scarcely applicable, for if it be necessary, as stated, to generate hydrogen gas wherever the balloon was used, several tons weight must be carried by the balloon. In a country like Zululand, therefore, where there were so many difficulties in connexion with transport, it would be impossible to carry such a weight. The French Government had also during the past few years been carrying on experiments in connexion with balloons; but the results had not been made public. He thought that the direction in which the develop- ment of ballooning would in the future be found to be of great service was for photographing different places for war PurpOS68, it having been proved perfectly poslible to successfully use a camera from a balloon. Mr. Moy then read a paper on the general science °; M^autics, in which he described a flying machine of his invention. A paper was also read by Mr. Philips, describing an instrument made by him for testing captive vanes or wings. Mr. Breary, the hon. see. of the society, then addressed the meeting on "The present state of the Society of Aeronautics." He stated that in his opinion the most important thing the society ♦if 8O*V0 was whether a weight equal to that of a man and the additional power neces- sary to propel him could be sustained by any ma- terial which man could produce light enough and strong enough. Any machine to be safe should have ?u L buoyancy to rise from the grouud, as it would then have power in itself to control the descent. He always had had the greatest confidence that this problem would one day or other be brought to a suc- cessful solution. At the conclusion of his paper Mr. Breary exhibited the actions of two flyine-machinea made by him. both of which flew some dozen yards across the hall, and then fell to the ground. Mr. Lingfield then explained to the members the principle of a very large aeronautical machine, 40 feet long, belonging to himself, and after a few words from Mr. Spencer the proceedings terminated.
THE BRISTOL BUILDERS' STRIKE. As the masons and carpenters, refusing the overtures of the masters, remain on strike, the members of the Bristol Master Builders' Association have determined to avail themselves of the offers of large bodies of workmen from several towns in the north. If the present foremen continued service with shops full of non-unionists, the men belonging to the unions would decline to work under them in the future. The change of foremen is a serious step for the employers to take; but at a general meeting of the association it was determined upon, and the following resolution was adopted "Thatthe operatives now on strike having rsfased the reference to arbitration offered them, this meeting is of opinion that the notice of reduction shall be maintained, that steps shall be immediately taken to fill all •hops with men willing to work at the reduced wages, and that the com- mittee of the Bristol Matter Builders' Association be a com- mittee for that purpose." A large sum of money was subscribed at the meet ing for the purpose of introducing non-union work- men from distant towns. The workmen, on the other hand, have posted notices calling upon all operative masons to keep away from Bristol during the dispute, and the struggle bids fair to be very determined on both sidee.
WASTE LANDS IN AUSTRIA. A good example has just been set by Austria to the various Governments in Europe, and to our own in particular. The Inspector-General of Austrian rail- ways has, by command of the Government, just addressed a circular to the boards of directors of all the railways in the Empire, urging upon them the advisability of cultivating osiers on the waste lands adjoining their lines, both as a source of income which was by no means to be despised, and as an encouragement to the wicker and basket- making industries of the country generally. He pointed out that, of the 800 or more different kinds of willows with which botanists are now ac- quainted, there are three in particular, one or other of which would do well on the different soils met with on their lines. These varieties are the Salix viminalis, especially fitted for very damp ground; the Salix purpurea, which does well on dry sandy soils; and the Salix pruinosa, which yields satisfactory results on poor lands that are now almost absolutely barren. When we consider the little care required for osier culture, we cannot but think that this is the best suggestion yet made to railway com- panies for the utilisation of their waste lands. Our own companies have been advised frequently to go in for fruit culture, but the suggestions have never been car- ried out, inasmuch as the costs of cultivation and of watching the fruit to sea that it does not get stolen, have been felt to be such as would preclude the possi- bility of profit.-Globe.
Down to Monday evening the Hospital Sunday J'und In London amounted to £ 13,000 and upwards.
THE FIRE AT PHILADELPHIA. The following further paticulars of the above disaster have bees received:— "During a thunderstorm about 10.30 a.m. on June 11 the lightning struck the pump-house of the Atlantic Refining Company at Point Breeze, on the Schuylkill River, in the southern section of the city. Along the river front were stored about 25,000 cases of oil, and in the river by the wharves were a number of ships and barques loading or loaded with oil. The pump-house is a long frame building, in which was stored a mass of machinery. In a few minutes the fire spread to a large filling warehouse, where the barrels are filled. This was soon enveloped in flames, which then extended to the long line of sheds on the wharf. By the time the city fire-engines reached the scene five ships in the river and 10,000 barrels of oil and the surrounding buildings for a distance of over 1,000 yards were burning fiercely. The first vessel to catch fire was the Austrian bark Fa, loaded with 12,000 cases of oil, and she burnt to the water's edge. The fire then communicated to the barques F, Reck (German), from Leghorn, and Giuseppe Quinto (Italian), just arrived from Genoa, both empty Ilion (Russian), with 2,000 barrels of oil on board and the Hudson, Norwegian ship, of 1,000 tons, nearly ready to leave with 7,000 barrels of oil. All these vessels were destroyed. Other vessels lying near-among them the Norwegian barque Magnum and the Swedish ship Edvard-were towed out of danger by tugs. At one o'clock the area which the fire had covered was still one maes of flames. No lives were lost and no serious injuries resulted to anybody. The lightning which started the fire at the Atlantic Company's property struck three other different esta- blishments in the vicinity no serious loss resulted to them."
THE ARCHBISHOP OF YORK ON MODERN PHILOSOPHY. On Sunday, at St. Margaret's Church, Westminster, the Archbishop of York (the Most Rev. Dr. Thomson) preached in aid of the schools of the parish of St. Margaret. His Grace took as his text St. Matthew vi. 34, Take, therefore, no thought for the morrow; for the morrow ahall take thought for the things of itself. Sufficient unto the day in the evil thereof." His Grace alluded to the evils to be witnessed in this life, and to the controversies which they had given rise to; and he granted that with all religions great difficulties had ever arisen with reference to the ques- tion why God permitted evils at all to exist in the world. It should, however, be remembered that people were prone to judge of things as evil with. out being able to see all sides of the question. Combating the doctrine put forth by certain schools of philosophers in later days with reference to the in- fluence and power of nature and her universal and un- alterable laws, his Grace confessed himself unable to realise the force of the arguments of such teaehers. It was difficult for him to see that the care exercised for him through general laws, as so designated, was more sure than that which the Christian believed his Creator felt for him. To make use of an illustration, all nowadays made use of a contrivance of man-the steam engine—which helped to carry them along in everyday life, Its strength, exactness, and simplicity struck them with wonder, but it was useful only while quiet perfect. If cne of the 250 tubes burst, if a spring strained, if a tyrefcracked, the engine became useless until the skill that made it waa brought to bear to repair it. One part broken, the others became useless. Not so the human body, the equal of which no engineer ever did or ever could construct. It, too, was composed of many parts, but it had one power-that of self- preservation-which found no counterpart in human contrivance. If the body were wounded, the inside life commenced the work of renovation and bound up the wound; if poison found its way into the blood, the inner life roused itself in rebellion to cast out the intruding stranger. His Grace at some length argued the question of Divine love and solicitude towards man as distinguished from the operation of natural and unchangeable laws, and held that neither common sense, reason, nor science could shake such a doctrine. Sometimes, he admitted, two different things were confounded- Providence and the faith that contemplated it. Men asserted that they could not believe in Providence unless it came to them, so that, as it were, they could touch Him with their hands and cause Him to speak to them. His Grace concluded by earnestly pleading the cause of the parish schools, to the aid of which the offertory both at the morning and evening services was devoted.
THE BOYHOOD OF THE PRINCE IMPERIAL. The Pall Mall Gazette of Tuesday had an article on the early days of the Prince Imperial, from which we make the following extraots Napoleon III. had been married three years when the birth of the Prince Imperial took place on the 16th of March, 1856. Driving through the Bois de Vincennes some months before, the Empress Eugénie had made a vow that if a son were born to her she would erect a chapel on a spot which she designated; and there the chapel stands now, for no vow was ever more gladly kept. One cannot say in hackneyed phrase that the birth of the Emperor's heir proved a death-blow" to the hopes of any political party; for the hopes of factions die hard, and in 1856 few people thought that the Second Empire would last long. Scores of the most distinguished men of France were still in exile; the prisons and penal colonies were full of political delinquents and it was felt that order was only maintained in the country by the merciless system of compression which had been inaugurated at the toup d'itat. However, the coming of an heir did add some prestige to Napoleon, while it gave him a new and vital interest in preserving the throne he had so strangely gotten. A salute of 101 guns announced the birth of the child to the people of Paris; and it was accounted an auspicious circum- stance that this event should have occurred just at the time when the negotiations for peace after the Crimean war were in process of completion. The signature of peace and the christening of the young Prince were arranged to coincide on the 30th of March, and numerous measures of clemency and largesse were made te follow. It was decreed that every child born on the same day as the Prince should, on the application of his parents, receive a commemorative silver medal and a pension of 100 f. a year for eighteen years, payable from the Civil List. Some 500 applications were sent in from poor people, and all the children who sur. vived till 1870 received their pensions up to that date. The boys were in every case christened Louis Napo- leon and the girls Eugenie. Aa to pardons, a partial amnesty was promulgated; but it only included per. sons who chose to make their submission to the Govern- ment; and consequently few availed themselves of it. "The little Prince had an English nurse recom- mended by Queen Victoria; and whilst he was still in swaddling clothes he used to be held up at the nur- sery window for the admiration of crowds who collected in the gardens of the Tuileries to stare at him. As soon as he could toddle he was appointed a corporal in the Imperial Guard, that the sobriquet of Le Petit Caporal" might be revived in his person; and in August, 1858, when the French armies re-entered Paris in procession after the Italian campaign, he stood at the head of the Guard to do homage to his father on the Place VendAme. It was not till his tenth year that he was promoted to a sergeantship. but soon afterwards he was reduced for some little act of disobedience, and remained a coporal again for a whole year. The Prince Imperial was never a wilful boy, though high-spirited like his mother, and thoughtful like his father. His temper was always exquisitely sweet. Children used to be invited to come and play with him at the palace, and he never abashed them by any of the airs of a spoiled child. When he drove through the streets of Paris in the company of his playmate, Louis Conneau, and attended by a strong mounted escort of Guides, there was always a winning smile on his face as he acknowledged the greetings of the people and sometimes, when persons who had probably been on the look-out for him ran into the road flourishing petitions, it was touching to see him motion to these people to fling their papers into his carriage, knowing as he did that the captain of his escort was under orders not to rein in for any- body. Whenever it was possible to grant a petition, the Emperor was Bure to do so if it came through his son's hands; for he doted on the boy, and would have let him have his own way in all things. The Empress, not leas loving, but rather firmer, kept the Prince under a curb that was good for him and it was chiefly owing to her very wise and motherly guidance that he became what Continentals call un jeune homme bien dlevd,' and Englishmen, a perfect gentleman." After alluding to the preceptors chosen to direct the young prince's studies, the Pall Mall Gazette proceeds:—" The Emperor, though reluctant to let the Prince go away from him, yielded to the suggestions of his Ministers that the boy should see something of the world, and in 1866 began to send him on State excursions with his mother. In that year they visited Lorraine together, and were enthusiastically received; but this welcome was nothing to that which they got two years later in Corsica, at the centenary of the island's union with France. In the country which was the cradle of his race young Napoleon could feel that he was indeed beloved; and from that date it became notice- able that he understood to what high destinies he was born. He became suddenly so industrious that his application, after first delighting his grim tutor General Frosaard, ended by alarm- ing the Court physicians, who, in consequence of a Blight attack of illness, prohibited lessons altogether for several months. This interval of leisure was spent by the Prince in practising horsemanship and fencing, in both of which arts he became so expert that he was enabled in after-years to carry off prizes for them at Woolwich. He continued to read, however, as much as the doctors would allow; and the books he perused were chiefly histories which treated of his great-uncle's battles. No boy ever cared so little for novels. Beyond the historical romances of Alexandre Dumas and Walter Scott, he scarcely touched any works of fiction at all; but then to an Emperor's heir perhaps all his- tory is as entertaining as romance. "The grade of sub-lieutenant in the Guards was conferred on the Prince Imperial when he went with the Emperor to join the army of Metz in 1870. Some derision was excited by an ill-worded account of the engagement at Saarbruck, in which the Prince was described as having picked up dead bullets but the fact was, he had ao much keen courage that the officers appointed to look after him had some difficulty in pre- venting him from exposing his life raahly. It was a great grief to him when, after the first reverses, he was sent to Belgium on his way to England. Being at Mons, he actually tried to evade the vigilance of his custodians, and endeavoured to hire a vehicle to convey him across the frontier to Sedan. This project was happily frustrated, and the Prince was taken safely to Englaud, where he lived to give many a promise of the tine qualities which would have appeared in him as a man had his life not been cut so untimely short."
Mr. Ralph Waldo Emerson, who waa seventy. seven years old, May 26. lectured in Boston on the 23rd. The Journal of that city 'ay In the delivery of his lecture he would frequently lose his place In the manuscript, and it was a pretty light to see his daughter, who sat close by him for the purpose, direct him back to the point at which he bad dropped the thread of hia thought."
] 'TOME OF 1 BRITISH AND FOREIG Tnt. of Prinoe Leopold has of Improved that his Royal Highness has inti tion to go into society much more.-Court An agreement has been signed betwei of England and France, declaring the cone wrecks on the coast of either country at and providing facilities for the speedy sun A number of men have been em Princess Louise for some time past in manl and bandages for toldiers wounded in the A bundle will be sent to the Cape of Go< days. Some time ago the citizens of M exception, were commanded to hand over firearms in their possession, but, this n sufficient, the Governor-General has last quiring similar obedience from all the 11 province within a fortnight, the penalty being 690 roubles or imprisonment for six Correspondent of The Times. The best agricultural speculation i culture of Mulberry leaves. They sell for cwt. The silkworms must be well fed. The King of Spain has issued an or all slaves free for ever In the island of resided In any country where slavery has r The order, which is dated Madrid, 16th Ap been published in the Havana Ojjicial Gaze On Sunday the 111th anniversary General Hochewas celebrated at Versaul firieig, flags, fireworks, rifle and velocipede light processions, and general rejoicing. Sphinxes, after all, are to be placed Cleopatra's needle on the Thames embai two granite pedestals are accordingly to be Two millions sterling is the sum Transatlantic contemporary to be spent In counter by shopping Americans every seasc The toilet of the city of Paris costa of any other city in the world, but on the Is no waste. The blossoms of the orange trei public gardens and the grass around the and on other communal property are all so The most recent addition to fashi, Are you intense ?" It threatens to beco "What! Never?" "Well-bardly ever." According to the Montreal Gazette Ontario state that, although plenty of cat in the country, the kinds required for ex scaroe, and the demand will have to be sal desirable class of beasts. The old Arctic exploring ship "Re It may be remembered was abandoned by t 1864, and which, being subsequently foun Arctic Ocean by some American whalers, w President of the United States, and generc the British Government, is to be broken Dockyard. The best of her timbers will 1 rnaments, and pieces of furniture, whic propose presenting to the President of the a grateful memento of his predecessor's klni Reports of the growing crops in th Quebec, Canada, are generally favourable, good and forward for the season. The United States Consul at Hami reports that more than 6,000 people had lei during the past two months for Manltob from other patts of Canada and from Euro] had better wait to see how this great crowc Lane Express. The Mayor of Manchester has noti account of the apprehension of canine ma within the city are to be confined from the ] 1st of October. A singular accident happened at Brig evening to one of the borough constables, some boys he slipped on a stone and fell. rise, he was conveyed to the hospital, wl covered that he had broken his thigh. At Irvine, Ayrshire, on Saturday 2nd Ayrshire Volunteers were engaged shoot when one of the markers, named John Dick 20 years of age, incautiously left the mant when firing was going on. A bullet at penetrated through his loins to his stomach. after a couple of hours. All present intention of blowing up Vanguard has been abandoned. Her Valorous, with Lieutenant Durnford and Kingstown Harbour for Plymouth, taking block of dynamite. The Vanguard lights moved at once. A project is on foot in America to Falls of Niagara by the electric light. The American correspondent of The Madame Holland, who, with her husbam tour round the world, fell Into the Niagara day and was carried over the falls. She visit Island, stooped with a cup to get drink, lost fell into the rapids just above the Horse carried away too quickly for her husband They are from LIdge, Belgium. Having trat world, they were about to return home in steamer from New York." The Postmaster of New York has ing notice to the public to direct their lei -it being stated that there are often as perfectly directed letters posted in thai Moreover many people omit to add the town where their correspondent resides il this in itself is a difficulty may be gathc that the United States can boast of 18 Bre< burgs, 5 Baltimores, 10 Bangors, 12 Bostc Charlestons, 4 Chicagos, 8 Ctnclnnatls Philadelphia, 22 Richmonds, 25 Springfle 30 Waahlngtone. It if, a sign of the times in whic; that old Rome has been invaded by a st< necting it with TivoU, the centre of the trict, some twenty miles distant. The li road, well know n to British tourists, and some steep Inclines, the speed averages I hour An interesting competitive tria waggons for the conveyance of artlcli carried out. The other day a train mad pettng waggons left Camden-town for Ho returned on Saturday, and is now In I Ktlburn awaiting the expiration of the all waggon contained a side of beef, a side o of sheep, a lamb, a pig, a gosling, a lever fowls, ducks, and rabbits. The prize for best preserves the food is JMO. An Illinois editor returns thanks sent to him by mail from Texas, it bel first cant, of any kiud that we've rec weeks." In consequence of the reduction < lashes to be inflicted In the Army, it t observe the same limit in the Royal Ni stand that a short Act will be obtained the Session te amend the clauses In thi Act of 1866, bearing upon corporal punlst A testatrix at Sost, in Germany, le her brothers and sisters, but added I marries in his old age, he «hall have n< perta hold that William, a robust sexagei nothing, as until his death it cannot be marries or not. It is related that a young felloe married under some difficulties the other of the young woman refusing to allow him himself arrested for breaking into a I suWpcsnaed the girl as a witness. By this access to ker long enough to accomplish friendly help of a minister. According to the Official Messenger, conflagrations in Ruslla during the mo slonlng damage to the extent of more the The loss of property of all kinds Inflict* during the last six months is valued by at more than 30,000,000 roubles. Mr. Mechi's farm in Essex will b inspection before, during, and after t Cards for admission may be applied fc street, London. A riot has occurred in Chicago bel of volunteers and a mob. The former bayonet, and one person was killed and All the volunteers were arrested. There sailed from the Mersey Is persons, an increase of 5,441 on April, as 1878. In the five expired months of thl emigrated from Liverpool 12,730 more pe corresponding period of last year. M. de Lesseps, in a lecture at Panama Canal, stated that the subic opened two months hence that In Noi himself start for the Isthmus, that the f turned on New Year's Day. and that wH navvies, some of them Chinese, but 11 negroes from Brazil, whom the EmDeror I less agree to send, the work would be con eight years. Some of the through trains on the have recently had a novel addition, ctlouJ comfort of travellers. It is a dining car, can be obtained for 75 cents, the carte b- and as varied as that at any of the chief sti The thrifty way in which Frenc turn everything to account is especially season. The orange blossoms and grass li gardens are being sold to the highest bidi vinelal railway-station yesterday I found devoted to the sale of the grass growing ments. The company consisted chiefly < residing, of course, in the vicinity, and lc down to them at as low a sum as a franc not appear to be any competition, a lot bt at the upset price or remaining undlspose are much too shrewd and too neighbourly another and so raise the price."—Paris Coi Times. I
THE MARKE, MABK-LJ Quietness still prevailed in the grain tr There was a thin attendance of millers, 41 position to purchase. English wheat was but the quantity offering was equal to re fine samples prices were fairly steady, o< was weak. With reference to foreign vi quantity was on the stands. There was about late rates. Barley, from its tcarcl steady, but the demand was limited. Mai prices. The oat trade was dull, and price tendency. In maize, dealings were restric rates. There was still an inquiry for beat dull of sale. The flour market was lnac change. METROPOLITAN CATTLE MARK The cattle trade was quiet, and withoi Supplies were not large, but were equal From our own grazing districts there was a of beaits. Some choiee stock was offered, 1 tion of the bulk room for improvement wa ness proceeded slowly, and prices remained at iMt week. The best Scots and crosses sol 6s, per 8lb., the top quotation being, howe, From Norfolk and Suffolk we received at the Midland and home counties about Scotland, 170 head. The foreign side of fairly supplied with beasts. About SCO offered, about an equal numtwT oi Qnj Swedish. With a quiat tf&de, pripes The sheep pen a wero not well Supplied. Th trada, at previous currencies. The best I breds changed hands at 6s. 8d. to e*. Md were offered, at 7s. to 8s. per gib. Cftlvps vi demand, at late rates. Pigs sold at prev At Doptfoid, about |0Q beasts and 8,000 s Inferior ueaats, 4s. to 4s. 6d. second quail) prime large oxen, 5s. 6d. to 6s. Sd. prime Iz 6s.; inferior sheep, 4s. to 5g. second qu prime coarss-woolled, fis. to (II, 8d.; prln 6s. 8d. to 6s. 10d.; large coarse calves, 68. ( small ditto, 6s. to 6s. 6d.; large hogs, 3s small porkers, 4s. 6d. to 6s.; lambs, 7s. to 8s the offal, METROPOLITAN MEAT MAKK] Owing to the cool weather there was a meat this morning and prices were firmer. moderate. Qaotatlons were as follows I to 3J. 8d. middling ditto, 4s. to 4s. 8d,: prl 6s. to 5s, 4d. prime small ditto, 5a. 2d. to 5s, 5s. 8d.; inferior mutton, 3s. 61. to 41, 4d.; 4s. 4d. to 5J. 4d. prime ditto, 5s 8d. to 6s. I 3s. 6d. to 48 small ditto, 4s. 4d. to 4s. 8d.; 7s. 4d. per 81b. by the carcase. POTATO. The arrivals continue moderate, and the steady for many descriptions. Prices Kei to 120s. Essex ditto, 76s. to 100s Scotch 120s. champions, 00s. to 110s. Victorias, flukes, 130i. to 180a. per ton.
THE BISHOP OF MANCHESTER ON THE CHURCH IN LONDON. The Bishop of Manchester, in preaching on Sunday morning at the pariah church, St. George's-in the. East, on the words, Compel them to come in," re- ferred to the recent correspondence in The Times on empty churches, which, he said, far off as he was, he had read with much interest. But people in London must not imagine that they were worse off in this re- lpect than people elsewhere. A few days ago a hard- working clergyman in a crowded pariah in Manchester with 500 houses had asked the head of each family what his religious profession was, and he found seventy-two who said they belonged to the Church of England, seventy-five who belonged to Nonconformist bodies, ninety-five were Roman Catholics (Irish Roman Catholics formed a large proportion of the popula- tion), but in 278 out of 520 houses the people openly professed to be of no religion at alL This at least indi. cated the failure of the churches and chapels to overtake the religieus apathy and indolence of the people. As far as London waa concerned, he waa mot sure whether the Weat-end had any reason to plume itself on its superior godliness for he was not sure that dukes and duchesses and earls and countesses and squires and knights and their ladies were much more like what men and women ought to be than the eostermongers at the East-end. Those who had a balance at their bankers' ought not to be too hard on men and women who were not sure cf having a meal on the morrow, for it was hard for people in such a case to think about their souls. If they asked him what filled the West-end churches he was not sure he could give a satisfactory answer he waa not sure that they were filled with men and women hungering and thirsting after righteousness, with men and women anxious to know what the Chris- tian life and the Christian temper were. It was all very well to draw people by spectacular services and eloquent harangues; but the other Sunday night, when a crowded congregation had been attracted to St. Paul's Cathedral by an eloquent preacher, the first cry when some of them got outside was Who has won the Grand Prix de Paria ?" So fearful were the anomalies and contradictions to be found among them. And, therefore, when people wrote to the papers about the East-end of London, he liked to look below the surface elsewhere, and be sure that the varnish of religion was quite what it ought to be. Aa to the means to be used to bring the people within the circle of Christian influences, the Bishop advooafeod the use of what Keble in his "Christian Year" called "gentle force and blameless guile;" for it was by winning the people, and not by physical force, that thty could be gained for Christ and for God The force of sympathy was the only real power, and the servant of God must be known and respected aa the servant ot his fellow men. The Church of England some said, wanted elasticity he thought that what was wanted was more loyalty, not to Catholic antiquity but to the Church of their own day; and greater liberty would then be readily conceded. Reverting to the work of the Church in East Lon- don, the Bishop said that the great chasm dug deep down between rich and poor by the supposed require- ments of modern civilization was one of the chief causes of the present condition of things; and they needed more labourers of the spirit of young Edward Denison to bridge it over. The Bishop referred briefly to the death of Prince Louis Napoleon, and said many hearts there had, he felt sure, sympathized with the poor discrowned Empress in her stupor, her lonelineaa, and her unmiti- gated and unmitigable sorrow.
Qurnt So.—Yakoob Khan, Ameer of Afghanistan, has, it appears, consented to be photographed, after some hesitation. "His Highness," we read, "in- sisted on having the negative shown to him." The Ameer's taste for the negative is doubtless only the reflection of that of the Czar of Russia, the failure of whose mission to Cabul seems to indicate that he has also had the negative shown to him.—Judy. THI RUMIA* COBS BMTLB.—We (Globe) learn from Warsaw that the German Government is about to despatch a commission to South Russia, to examine and report upon the ravages perpetrated by the corn beetle. In Kharkoff and seven other provinces the corn beetle has inflicted so much damage among the crops that the entire rural population, by an Im. perial decree, has been rendered liable to obligatory labour in auppreaaing the pest. In Ekaterenoalav alone the damage done this summer already arceeda five aoillien roubles.
THE ZULU WAR. ARRIVAL OF A CAPE MAIL. At daybreak on Tuesday morning, Messrs. Donald Currie and Co.'s steamer Balmoral Castle entered Plymouth Sound, having made a rapid passage of twenty days and a half from the Cape, including all stoppages. Among her passengers was Sir Theophilus Shepstone, for many years British Administrator in the Trans- vaal. and Mrs. Shepstone. There were also a con- siderable number of passengers from Natal, including Captain Smythe of the native contingent, who was one of the survivors of Isandlana, and Major and Mrs. Bennett. The passengers described the consternation occasioned just before their sailing by the news of the Prinoe Imperial's death, which, however, had only just become known. Indeed, in the special supple- ments of the three Cape papers it is announced in only half-a-dozen lines, without any details. Sir Bartle Frere was expected at Cape Town the day after the Balmoral Castle sailed. It was doubtful whether the despatches curtailing his power to negotiate for peace had followed him to the Transvaal, and if not he had not received them when the steamer left, but Sir Theophilus was sure that so far from resenting the appointment of Sir Garnet Wolseley, Sir Bartle would receive with great relief anything lessening his re- sponsibility and duty, the Cape Colony being quite enough for any man to govern, apart from Natal. No sane man would hazard a guess as to the probable duration of the war. It entirely depended on Cete^ayo's endurance and tactics and those no one could foresee. If he could be fairly got at the struggle would be soon over. That Sir Bartle Frere's policy was right, that the war was necessary, and that Lord Chelmsford's difficulties had been immense, were matters admitted by all who had been really at the front. The forward movement had well commenced when they left, and stirring events might any day be expected, or might be almost indefinitely deferred. The peace negotiations possibly were genuine, but their character could be determined with certainty by any experienced persons who saw the envoys. Sir Theophilus Shepstone stated that the feeling with regard to the death of the Prince Imperial at the Cape was very deep indeed, the melancholy occur- rence having cast a gloom over the whole colony. There had been no further details received at the Colonial Office at Cape Town than those whieh have already been made public. — The Cape Argus says that General Marshall, at the head of a body of cavalry, went to the spot where the Prince had been left, and found his body in a state of nudity, all the clothes having been taken off by the enemy. Around the Prince's neck was a scapulary Agnus Dei, or medal of the Virgin Mary, such as is worn by pious Roman Catholics, but this was left on the body by the Zulus, who probably took it to be a charm. The Prince was not mutilated, except as far as the assegai wounds were concerned. One wound was through one of his eyes. A bier was formed of lances and blankets, and on it the corpse was conveyed to camp, where it was buried with military honours." Other passengers by the Balmoral Castle confirmed the view that the war was likely to be a long one, and an old Natal settler, well acquainted with Zululand, was confident that the new King's kraal was impreg- nable, the approach being by a defile six miles long. On board the Balmoral Castle were half a dozen Zulus, dressed in their native costume, and seemingly as agile and lithe as monkeys, and thoroughly pleased with what was going on around them. Colonists said they were young and under the average size of Zulu men.
CREMATION OF A MEMBER OF THE CEYLON LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL. The Ceylon Times of May 7th gives the following account of the cremation of the late Sir Mutu Coomara Swamy, the Tamil representative In the Legislative Council of the eolony, and a toember of the Boglish bar:- Over a thousand persons, representing every class of the inhabitants of Colombo, assembled in the un- conaecrated portion of the Borella Cemetery on Monday to witness the cremation of the remains of the Hon. Sir M. Ooomara Swamy, the Tamil repre- sentative in the Legislative Council. This was the first time, we believe, that a cremation has taken place in the cemetery, which probably accounted for the presence of many persons who were merely attracted by curiosity; and as it may seem somewhat strange that the ceremony which we are about to describe should take place within a few hundred yards of the consecrated portion of the cemetery, we may explain that the Government agent gave the necessary permission on the principle that a cemetery was for common use, and that the portion of it not consecrated could not be denied to any applicants, whatever their religious faith, and whatever their funeral rites might be. The neces- sary site was therefore furnished for the funeral pyre of the deceased knight, and was indicated by a some- what novel construction. Four plantain trees, heavily laden with fruit, were placed in such a position that they formed the corners of a kind of altar composed of sandal-wood. The sides of the altar were screened with white cloth, and the covering was composed of the same material, native fruits being profusely used to give it an attractive appearance. Near at hand was a large supply of sandal wood to be used after the body had been deposited on the pyre; and the presence of two tins of kerosine, of several chatties containing ghee, and other inflammable ma- terial, indicated that every precaution had been taken to reduce the body to ashes as quickly as possible. The cortege was announced to leave the residence of the deceased at senn o'clock precisely, but owing to the roundabout way the procession took, it was consider- ably past eight before it arrived on the ground. The body, which was ia a coffin covered by a crimson pall with gold fr!nge, was conveyed to the cemetery on a hearse surmounted by a pagoda-shaped construction of white linen relieved with black and studded with a large number of miniature flags, also of white linen. As the hearse was slowly drawn by its two horses, coolies placed long strips of cloth in front of it, so that from Colpetty to Borella the horses' feet rarely touched the surface of the road. Behind the hearse was a string of nearly a hundred carriages, among the occu- pants of which were Captain Nevil Hayne, A.D.C., re- presenting his Excelleney the Governor; Chief Justice Phear, Mr. Justice Stewart, and many other prominent citizens, together with an influential representation of other classes of the community. When the pyre was reached the hearse was drawn round it three times, and the coffin was then borne from the hearse to the pyre by Chief Justice Phear, Mr. Justice Stewart, the Hon. Mr. Vane, and the Hon. J. Van Langenberg. Then began what was anything but an edifying sight, or one calculated to add to the solemnity of death. A number of natives, men and women, began to pile over the coffin huge logs of sandalwood, and seemed to regard the labour as one of a most ordinary character, for they chatted, and shouted, and pushed to and from inat as if they were unloading a boat in the harbour. Log upon log was piled upon the coffin, until at last it was altogether concealed from view, and then two tins of keroaine were poured over the pile, whilst camphor and other in. gredients that have a pleasant odour when burnt, were liberally employed, together with the ghee ia the chatties already mentioned. At last, when the patience of the Europeans, exposed maoy of them for nearly two hours to the heat of the sun, was nearly ex- hausted, the coolies who had so assiduously piled on the Bandal-woed were told to desist from their work. By this time the pile over the coffin had reached the canopy, some of the timber, consisting of wood that had apparently at one time formed the pillars of a dwelling-house, and that took two men to carry. Then Mr. Tamblah, who took an active part in directing the operations, requested the crowd to re- tire for a few yards. This request was willingly as. ceded to; and two natives, who were attired as coolies, but who, we are told, were priests," blew a melan- choly wail for a few minutes on conch shells. As they did so, the pyre was fired by means of a torch, and in a second or two was a mass of flames, the heat from which was unendurable. Moat of the European pre- sent, having seen this much of the ceremony, at once departed; but large numbers of natives, we are in. formed, remained until the pyre was nothing but a heap of ashes. These ashes, we believe, will bo care- fully collected, and after some ceremony, scattered, either in the sea or in a river.