^FRID LAWSON AT LIVERPOOL. ^A?raoil> M P., visited Liverpool on "tDer**111 a hearty reception from the y "o'kerg. Replying to a com pi i- ,om Liverpool Popular Control Wiev <4 u111 ^ociation, the hon. baronet members of the assoeiation be- Pattv mifj" believed there was something OOBHL.P WM country. They had come lo *bat there was nothing in political *4 int* M *° "d of those laws which of thiii ^^Pwance, crime, misery, and the dis- the 00try, Their association sought to r it • Knl°k v g »ystem, while he sought to m '.J.e honoured all who tried to diminish « ? v with the system, which, he be- rMo»« worse. The cause they had at ould wbich he was devoted, and he hoped shievfui11 0 to devote themselves to it until ^quentl- "gnal triumph. M P ^rid Lawson, with Mr. A. M. v'of •» took part in the proceedings at the temperance hotel.
II PATENT OFFICE MUSEUM. Reader Leach became clerk to the Com- **jtentB a complete re-organimation of the '.7*owum has been effected under the able ♦k Stuart Wortley, the curator. As *K 6 n>°<^e^8 have been classified and placed II entrance the visitor finds an •C*'0n "crew Propellers and paddle- Jh is followed by groups of marine engines. £ ■» speed indicators, and the like. J sn interesting display, among them ? Dover Caetle clock (1345) which is still Jts old verge movement. There is also a c clock from Aymestrey Church, Hereford- L u now going again and indicating the e help of its curious old stone weights. electrical apparatus are Sir Charles s original models of telegraphic instru- ih were presented to the Commissioners eath through Colonel Stuart Wortley. A f the various inventions in electric lighting of formation. The interesting old Healop °h hao been lately acquired, is placed side ith its brethren, Old BeM," Watta'd the old Cornish pumping engine; while Ib. them stand those unique specimens of 1 locomotion—the Rocket, Puffing Billy, uispareil. Among the new models lately *? u*. krge steam oarriage designed ri J the late Mr. Randolph, and a col- re cycloidal screw pro- a ™««ence to Heath- aced theuriaanf'i' W*ictl cedited with W«1 ptwnted toKJ n™ 8™°?"'» ~*5om A £ o £ .MSS?S'°^™ by Sir In fact thrnnoif ,.ac'^e fftmou8 »t whioh a«il ? 1 historical and scien- if the collect; present satisfactory 1 collection, can now be studied to ad-
RICULTURAL DEPRESSION. ^'n. ^e&der on Tuesday) says the JJ^aicn ia being caused by the depressed con- agricultural interest has brought out a vergence of opinion between the consumers Producers of the staple articles of food. The the towns have been crying out at the Mtliness of housekeeping; while, on the other ere haa risen from all the rural districts a of the ruinous cheapness of all articles of Produce. It is difficult to see how these j^^ts can be consistent with one another. Products, such as ham, bacon, cheese, hi English farmer is exposed to « competition, and a considerable fall in u these articles is now rapidly rodn the great fall in value of ,Bt cera of all kinds have been complaining a ti.001?8 to the great bulk of the con- shajpe in which they have a right to look oojaiderable reduction in the weekly cost ^ttle light has been thrown on wuty by a return, ordered by the House of 1 on the motion of Mr. Foljambe (issued on *• *• to the prices of agricultural produce for with lc78. A review of the these valuable tables suggests that the farmers "g from bad seasons rather than from low 111108 there is scarcely one of their products, rheat and wool, which is not now considerably r Price than it was in the days when the pros- 1 the agricultural interest under free trade was 1 subject of national congratulation as its on is of commiseration at the present moment.
a. BRIGHT ON PROTECTION. Writing to the editor of the North American asked him for his opts Ion as to the nature o(the alleged movement In favour of protection a. Uys ^are Any chance of a return in TO the doctrine of protection. We export tn» J ^ioiltural produce. To protect our B nwf» manifestly impossible. From another P "Section of our land produce is not more Po our Population exists on imported raLuT^i* this itpport by Customs duties in tur? *he price of home-grown food is a pro* cannot be entertained for one moment. offered to Parliament and the I destroy any Government and any party. through a time of commeroial I j1" causes are apparent to those who to&es ft0f°?"id"r the facts of recent past years. s trouble ignorant men seize upon un- Th "PIDIsible propositions and schemes for iatiei.rspecial remedy for this malady, ce ,» the working of natural laws, the s of of the excitement and half tbout a paat, and a general economy will g bnf n°t without some or much a a without failure. We adopted free |.nj 1846. But our landowners and htQH tv^ ^des of our people did net gene*? Principles we taught, and now ith th 18 on the iil-awiaMnted 'o °f forty years ago. There has id; uu«e8s since our Corn Law was >tne of *uOW' when trouble has come for a Who «. offerers, and some of the quack cry f always ready to prescribe for the and Pr.°teetion, as if we had never tried JUatriea** an. ^ad been found a fpecific in action •' tl~"er»isno danger of our going back bee« Present trouble will pass away. by the evil policy of our on« Ju411 that also will pass away, and the e are looking for relief to an exploded *cnrh ^>racrice will relapse into that silence tjj.i which become them. It is a grief m^OQr People do not yet see their way Jl*l • *rate tariff. They are doing wonders ^ationS world's history in paying off Woulrf^i A moderate tariff, I should ftht yovi abetter revenue, and by decrees naorft??^0*0^ a more civilised system. What Id than for your great, free country rhem *kler? against that commerce which is I shnnij J"aadmaid of freedom and of civilisa- iot Vwiu P&'r oi the prospects of mankind if eopU t^at before long the intelligence of ariff Tk rev°lt against the barbarism of ms j 0 world looks to you for example in Sr. As to commerce, the great *u it look in vain?"
ftfn.0AMernbly of the Irish Presbyterian euui S"!? 813 to f 78 votes to sanction t £ e use of t pZ in churches. for are being made in England and. ad thB °r»>comtng medical congress to be held in ag to ih»2S People and medical practitioners are of th« characteristic national greeting to the •hnuai «.?. *on- The congress is the forty- a,Unh«i'«^ee °f the British Medical Association, l. j ?wV.dl 01 8,000 medical practitioners in U i*rtin?i and Wales, and forms the most Body in the world.
The FUNERAL of BARON ROTHSCHILD, The funeral of the late Baron Lionel Nathan de Rothschild took place on Friday morning in lut week, at the Wlllesden Cemetery of the United Synagogue. There were no invitations issued to the funeral and it was essentially a family solemnity; but the respect in which the deceased was held caused a very numerous attendance at 148, Piccadilly. Tfce feeling of the re- ligious body to which the late Baron belonged was shown by the fact that along the route from the house to the conseerated ground, all the shope above which Jewish natmea appeared had their Bhutters closed as the prooession passed by. At New-court business was entirely suspended in the morning, and all the olerka at tended the funeral, as did also many of the tenants on the Buckingham estates and from Gunnersbury. The Duke of Wellington, the Earl of Beaconsfield, the Russian Ambassador, the Turkish Ambassador, the Brazillian Ambassador, the Netherlands Minister, the Duke of Manchester, the Duke of St. Albans, the Duchess of Somerset, the Lord Mayor of London, Mr. Sheriff Burt, Mr. Sheriff Bevan, the Marquis of Tweeddale, the Earl of Feversham. Lady Molesworth, Lord Howard of Glossop, Lord Norreys, Earl Somers, Lord Dorchester, Lady DuCane, Lady Emily Peel, and Baron de Stern were among those who sent their carriages. At the house of mourning there were collected among others Lord Barrington, Mr. Fulke Greville, Captain the Hon. J. Yorke, Sir Julian Goldsmith, M P., Mr. Sergeant Simon. M.P., Sir Barrow Ellis. Baron H. de Worms,Baron G. de Worms, Mr. A. Cohen, Q C., Mr. 1. Seligman, Mr. F. D. Mocatta, Mr. Cyril Flower, Mr. J. M. Levy, Mr. M. Greger, Sir Albert Sassoon, Mr. R. D. Sassoon, Mr. A. Sassoon, Mr. R. H. C. Pallett. The coffin, placed in an ante room, was covered with wreaths of blush roses, pale noisettes, white stephanotis, and gardenia, with leaves of lilies of the valley. Some of these beautiful and fragrant flowers came from Gun- nersbury, but the largest wreaths had been sent by ladies of the family from Paris or Ferriferes. There were no ladies at the ceremony, but the carriages of the Baroness and Lady de Rothschild, of Miss Alice de Rothschild, Mrl, Eliot Yorke, Miss Lucy Cohen, Mrs. Wagg, and others followed. Precisely at ten o'clock the procession started from the house, and consisted of nearly one hundred coaches conveying the relatives, and personal friends of the deceased, and included a large number of pri- vate carriages. The ground having been reached, by the excellent arrangements of the police, soon after eleven, the coffin was conveyed into the little mortuary house at the entrance, which was ornamented with wreaths of heartsease, oamelias, azaleas, and the broad leaves of the lily of the valley. The ooffin was placed on the bier, and then the Rev. B. H. Ascher, Burial Rabbi of the United Synagogue, offered a short prayer. The Chief Rabbi was unable to at. tend. He is at Brighton recovering from an illness, and sent by telegram and letter, as well as by his Bon, Dr. H. Adler, to express his regret at being pre- vented from following the funeral of his oldest friend. Among other telegrams was one received by the Rev. A. Lowy, secretary of the Anglo-Jewish Association, from the Baron de Castelnuove in Tunis, chief of the Alliance Israelite there, to express con. dolence to the family.. After the entrance prayer the coffifl was earned to the place of interment- not by any paid bear en, but, all the custom in, by the voluntary service of members of the congregation to which the deceased belonged. The grave is situated some distance from the monu- ment of the Baron and Baroness Meyer de Rothschild, which was marked with fresh wreaths, and from the temb (already bordered with thick ivy) of the late Sir Anthony de Rothschild. They are surrounded by other graves, and this is placed in an open part of the ground. It is not, however, a family vault. The Jewish law does not permit more than one body to be buried in a grave, and this prescription is strictly adhered to in the cause of pauper burials as in that of the richest Israelite Thus, the grave once closed is not re-opened, and the living are not exposed to danger from the dead. The procession to the tomb was headed by the boys of the Jews' Hospital, chosen because they are orphans. There were also on the ground children from the Jews' Free SchooL Infant School, Westminster Free School, Borough Schools, Jews' College, Stepney School, Bayswater School, Gates of Hope School, and Portuguese Orphan School. On their way the bearers paused, and the officiating rabbi delivered a brief address, selecting for his text the words, JS.no w Ten not snai mere is a Prince and a great man fallen this day in Israel ? He referred to the political work which gave peculiar importance to the career of the late Baron Lionel de Rothschild and held him up to imitation in adding, "He was accessible to and sympathized with every one, the poor as well as the rich. He also was the spokesman in the council of merchant princes. He whose advice was sought by statesmen did not disdain to listen pationtly to the tales of woe and misery. Many a man who crossed his threshold with a heavy heart, full of anxiety and angufsh. left his house with joy and gratitude and thus he gained for himself, not only the blessings and prayers of the needy, but also the admiration and love of the world at large, and, let us hope, the crown of glory in Heaven." The Rev. B. H. Ascher concluded with the following prayer "Holy Father in Heaven, God of life and death,—With a heart full of tears, but with eyes of hope, we look up to Thee for Thy mercy and Thy kindness. Do Thou receive the pious departed in Thy infinite kindness with his beati- fied ancestors In the regions of bliss and eternity. Send Thy truth, Thy light, to conaole his descendants with Thy sacred word. Inspire them with filial feeling to follow In the footsteps of their revered father. 0, Fountain of Mercy, as the deceased was a messenger of peace and hap- plneis to man, grant from Tby celestial regions that he may bring the message of peace and comfort to his spouse, who 10 lovingly, so patiently stood at his side alike in weal and woe, gladness and sadness. Send Thy comfort and Thy consolation to that god-fearing mother In Israel, who has brought solace and pleasure to many. 0 pardon his errors, cast his sins Into obllvlen, remember only his pious deeds, and re-awaken him to everlasting life, happiness, and glory. Amen." The body "as lowered into the grave with the wreaths upon it to "smellsweet and blossom in the dust." The first three spadefuls of earth were thrown in by the eldest son of the deceased, so that he might fulfil the duty of burying his dead. The other kinsmen followed in their order; then members of the congregation; and before the last carriage had driven away through the green lanes leading to London the sextons had filled it to a level with the ground. The coffin was perfectly plain, of wood covered with black cloth, with iron handles, without any orna- ment, inscription, or initials. Within it the deceased was buried in an unornamented shroud, lying in his talitth, the scarf which is worn in prayer, and representing the abba which Arabs in the Holy Land throw over their shoulders to this day. In the borders of this garment is a thread of blue, according to the command in Deuteronomy. As the coffin was lowered into the grave those present joined in the words, May he come to his appointed place in peace," and plucked a few blades of grass before they left, saying, in acknowledgment of the resurrection, And they shall blossom forth from the ruins like the dust of the earth." There was a short concluding service in the chapel, in the course of which the mourners joined reverently in the Kaddish, the ancient Chaldaicprayer, which has survived the decay of post-classical Hebrew. It will be said every day for a year in memory of the deceased by his sons.
The cemetery in which Baron Lionel de Rothschild now lies buried waa opened in 1873. Although but a short drive from London, it is in the midst of rural scenery, with lilacs and laburnums blooming in its gardens, and surrounded by rich meadows sown with buttercups and daisies.
Sermons in memory of the late Baron Lionel de Rothschild were preached in several of the London synagogues on Saturday, and offerings were made not only by the family of the deceased, but by a large number of other members of the congregations. Sir Nathaniel de Rothschild, M.P., the eldest son of the late Baron, attended service at the Central Syna- gogue, ocoupyingthe seat of the mourners at the door of the temple. He was called to raise the scroll of the law in sight of the worshippers, and said the prayer Kaddish, which expresses resignation to the Divine will. The Rev. A. L. Green preached the sermon, taking as his text the words spoken to Abra- ham—" Thou shall be a blessing." He spoke of the personal care and attention which the late Baron devoted to charity, and the insight which made his large benefactions so useful. The Rev Dr. Hermann Adler preached a memorial sermon at the Bayswater Synagogue, He dwelt upon the unbounded benevolence, high-minded integrity, and public spirit of the late Baron, which contributed, not only to emancipate the Jews of England from political disabilities, but to release them from the more galling fetters forged by social intolerance and "MnaW..t tte ».• S, gogue, referred to the same subject, and said thatfrom every synagogue in England a prayer would that day ascend for one who had well filled his place as a prince in Israel.
THE DISTRIBUTION OF SEEDS. I Plants being immovably fixed to the spot where they grow must necessarily be provided with some way of distributing their seeds 88 ao to insure the per- petuation and extension of their species. There is a wonderful variety of devices in nature for this pur- pose. These form the subject of an interesting paper lately read by Dr. Newberry to the New York Academy of Sciences. He passed under review first diverse modes of distribution by the wind, some seeds being provided with a pappus" or tuft of fine hairs, other, with long silken appendages, others having their seed-vessels inflated like a balloon, during the process of ripening others baving wings attacbed either to them or to their capsules, and all being thus more easily conveyed by the wind. Inmany plants the seeds and fruits are prov ded with hooks, which attach them to man or annals so thatthej- ww con- veyed to a distance. A Western plant known as the devil's pod" (Martynia probotadea) has a fruit con- P" sisting of an oval fleshy pod terminating in a long beak. This beak, at maturity of the pod, splits into two very rigid incurved horns abruptly bent at the enuB. When a mule steps on one of the pods (a frequent occurrence) the latter opens, and the two rigid hoeks clasp round the fetlock and remain there till noticed by some one, for the mule cannot rid itself of them. Thus the devil's pod is often transported far. Then there is the method of explosion, presented in many different forms. Dr. Newberry lately received from Cuba a speci- men of the fruit of the sand box or Sura crepitans. It is a hard and woody capBule, of discoid shape, deeply ribbed, and about 3in. diameter. He placed it on his writing table, and when reading one evening, he was suddenly startled by an explosion as loud as the report of a rifle, fragments of some material at the same time flying through the room. On examining these, he found them the seeds and broken pieces of the sand box fruit. Explosions for seed expulsion occur in the balsams, the gentian, the lupine, and other plants} and a like way of expelling reproductive bodies occurs among cryptogams. Again, some hard and indigestible seeds often accompany delicious and succulent fruit eaten by man or the lower animala. The seeds pass through the alimentary canal un- harmed. Thus, seeds of the dogwood, fcc., swallowed by birds are often carried to a distance. Another mode of seed-distribution is by water; thus, the oocoanut has been transported from island to island; and sea beans from the river banks of South America have been carried to the coast of Norway. Dr. Newbury mentioned a curious mode of disper- sion (not previously described) in the case of the American button ball tree or sycamore (Platanas). The seeds are produced by a globular head attached to the branch by a stiff stem 4in. or 5in. long. These balls of seeds are persistent and hanp on the tree throughout the winter. By the action of frost, and the effeet of alternate freezing and thawing, the woody stems be- come ultimately reduced to mere thin fibres, strong hut exceedingly flexible. By the action of the winds of early spring, the balls are beaten violently against the branches, and the seeds are detached and fall into the waters beneath. Now, it so happens that all this occurs just at the season when freshets have caused the rivers to be at their highest, and as the waters afterwards gradually subside the seeds are distributed far and wide over a large extent of country.-Tlu Times.
EXECUTION OF SOLOVIEFF. On Friday in last week, Alexander Solovieff was found guilty of endeavouring to overthrow the Govern- ment and the social order existing in Russia, and of having on April 2, 1879, attempted the life of the Czar by firing several shots at him from a revolver. The sentence was read to him on Saturday, when he was condemned to the loss of all civil rights and to suffer judicial death by hanging. Twenty-four hours were allowed for an appeal. The prisoner was ap- parently unmoved, and made no remark. On Monday morning Solovieff was executed in a field adjoining the Great Prospect, in Vassili Ostroff, near the Smolensk Cemetery.-The St. Petersburg Correspondent of the Daily News gives the following particulars Solovieff did not present any petition for pardon, the term for which expired on Sunday at six p.m. He was brought to the place of execution from the fortress in a cart, seated on an elevated position and pinioned. He mounted the scaffold without assistance, and surveyed the crowd on both sides of him, maintain- ing the same undaunted firmneso which he exhibited at the trial. On refusing the last religious rites, he was enveloped in a white dress, covering him from head to foot, and he then mounted on a stool, and the execution took place. Life appeared to be extinct in four minutes. "After remaining half an hour, the executioner, assisted by two convicts specially brought from the fortress for the purpose, covered the corpse and placed it In a coffin. The death was certified by the medical offioer, and the corpse was taken away in the cart, escorted by Cossacks and mounted gendarmes. An orderly crowd of perhaps 6,000 persons, for the most part drawn together by the signe,of preparation, witnessed the execution, the time and place of which were not previously announced. Sentries were posted round the field, with Cossacks and mounted gendarmes in the rear. The scaffold was surrounded by a square of infantry four deep. The line of the road was kept by troops and policemen in the immediate neighbour- hood of the field.
PASTORAL LETTER FROM CARDINAL MANNING. A pastoral letter from Cardinal Manning was read in the churches of the diocese of Westminster on Sunday, when a collection was made in each to defray the expenses of erecting new places of worship. Un the first day of May," his Eminence says, fI the new church of St. Mary's, Chelsea, was opened. The cost of the building, amounting to £9,000, has all been dis- charged, except about JS500. But for the self sacrifice of the rector of the mission this coald not have been done. When this small remaining sum has been de- frayed the church can be consecrated. The church of St. Patrick's in the Eaat will be opened, it is hoped, in the beginning of August. This church, which stands in the midst of some 3,000 of our poor, and in one of the worst parts of London, is the gift of one Catholic. It will be necessary to build a sacristy and a priest's house attached to the church, and for this help is asked. A new mission has been marked out for the district of Iimehouse, but as yet the clergy possess no means, either for the tize or for the building. There are other spots fixed for future missions, but of these we need not speak now. In building our churches the clergy have endeavoured so to construct them as that they shall be solid and spacious. The purpose has been to cover the largest apace with the means at com- mand. For this reason they have been designed with extreme simplicity. The first duty of the Church is to place an altar in the midst of every part of its flock; to make that altar as accessible aB possible, and to diminish the distance of the church from the homes ot the people. The aged, the infirm, and the children are unable to go far. To these distance is priva- tion. We have believed, therefore," the Cardinal adds, that our duty is to multiply the altars among our people. It will be for those who come after us to adorn them. In some cases it has been inevit- able that we should build in part with money borrowed and secured upon the building and the site. We would gladly avoid this course, but we had rather incur this inconvenience than leave thousands of souls without a church. It is, moreover, just that those who come after should bear a part of the burden. If those who now live provide two-thirds of the cost of building a new church, it is most just that the remaining third should be paid off by those who inherit B8 freely the church, with all its blessings, fer which in this day we have denied ourselves. One purpose, therefore, of this annual collection is to pay off gradually the remaining costs of building. Lastly, it must never be forgotten that as our churches multiply and as time goes on, the burden of repairs becomes heavier. In richer missions this can be easily met, but in poorer missions help from this fund is urgently needed."
AN AMERICAN LADY IN A CORNISH TIN MINB. The Cornishtnan describes the descent to the lowest depths of Dolooath of Miss Leila A. Noble, a young lady of 19, of Rome, Georgia, United States of America. Accompanied by a friend and a skilled miner, the plucky explorer passed first to a depth of 1,560 feet by the man-engine, stepped from the small platforms on the huge moving rod to the fixed stages at the sides of the shaft with the cool and ready step which takes away all danger from the use of this friend to the underground toiler. But this labour was little compared with that which succeeded. One hundred and thirty fathoms of further depth had to be reached by the descent of perpendicular ladders. This safely done, the lowest and richest parts-of the mine were explored, and a trophy gained, in the form of a lump of ore, dug by the no longer fair hand of the reddened climber. The work of the boring-machines, driving and blasting, huge vughs, or spaces left by the removed ore, and rich deposits of tin were seen. The homely and kind miners were profuse in their compliments. One of them said, I'd raather taake the trouble to put her to the bottom of Dolcoath than I wed a strange miner from another bal; wusnt thee, you ?" The trying ascent had now to be made. Hand over hand upright ladders which would reach to nearly twice the height of St. Paul's had to be climbed— 1 200 staves to be used. The Cornishtnan says ''The firm and Bkilful way in which she took hold of the ladders oaused a miner to ejaculate, 'I never seed a young laady klem with a moor bowlder and shoorer step in my life.' Turning to his comrade he con- tinued, She can klem, you, better'n scores of men I've seed down heer.1" This 780 feet accomplished, 1,560 more, or nearly eight times the height of the Monu- ment, had to be done by the man-engine. About 5 p.m. the bold mineress from the Far West regained the surface, after being underground, and constantly exert- ing herself, for 4i hours, without showing signs of great fatigue, certainly not of exhaustion, and without a mishap of the slightest kind.
COLOUR BLINDNESS. An investigation has lately been made by Dr. Keyser, of the Eye Hospital, Philadelphia, into the extent of colour blindness among the men em- ployed on the various railroads that converge on that city, and the results of his labours. as summed up in an address which he delivered before the State Medical Society at their meeting at Cheater on the 22nd of May, are not reassuring to railway travellers generally. He bad up to that date examined the train hands of the Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore, the Delaware, the North Pennsylvania and Bound Brook Railroads, and had found 3J per cent. colour blind that is, 3i per cent. of the whole number who mistake colours one for the other, and 8i per cent. besides who, although able to distinguish the colours, were unable to tell the shades of colours, thus making 12 per cent. of those examined who were not quick and sharp in noticing and distinguishing colours and shades. The 3t per cent.- those who mistook colours—had defects ot such a cha- racter as to make them really incapable and unsate to fill the positions they occupied. In the examination of these men several methods were used, so that there should be no mistake which might perhaps cause the removal of a trustworthy person from a responsible post, or the retention ot one whose defect might fnvolve danger to the travellers by the trains. Dr. Keyser a attention was attracted by two peculiarities among those found colour blind. One was the fact that two men who could not distinguish red from green on test had edu- cated themselves to know that red was an intense colour, and thus distinguished bright red signals, but at the same time bright greens and other bright colours were red to them, and for such they said they would stop the trains, thus being on the safe Bide, and successfully avoiding accidents, But green they called a deep or dull colour, and dark reds, dark greens and browns were all green to them, and they would pass them by as all right. The other pecu. liarity was the power of distinguishing bright red when held within three feet of the eyes, while at ten, twenty, and thirty feet it was invariably called green, The discoveries that have of late been made with regard to colour blindness ought to lead to a thorough examination of the optical peculiarities of persons whose duty it is to attend to signals whether on land or at sea.—JPall Afall Gazette.
EGYPTIAN CHARACTERISTICS.—It has been remarked by an observant author that the Egyptians must have been a very curious race of people. "Their great end of life was death. They were no sooner born than they thought about dying. The whole nation seemed to live in a sort of forcing pyramid. An Egyptian did not care so much where he lodged, so long as he knew where he was to be buried. His greatest comfort was the idea of being made a nice mummy of. His card was an epitaph. He was walking about with a tombstone continually in his hand. In fact, the largeness of the Pyramids is a standing proof, if proof be wanting, what a set of tre. mendous undertakers the Egyptians were. Their present was the future. This may partly account for their being so much in advance of other nations. To speak extravagantly, they seemed to calculate time with a death-watch, which they wound up with a skeleton key. They made themselves, in fact, 10 familar with death, that they invited him to all their feasts, and put him at the head of the table at all their weddings, anniversaries, pic-nics, and grand dinners."
THE LAW OF COPYRIGHT. In London, on Monday evening, at a meeting of the National Association for the Promotion of Social Science, held in their rooms, 1, Adam-street, AdelpM, a paper was read by Mr. J. Leybourne Goddard Oa the Law of Copyright, with special referenoe to the term for the duration thereof, and the Report of the late Royal Commission with reference thereto." Sir Trovers Twiss, Q.C., took the chair. Referring to the fact that the Commissioners who reported in May, 1878, were not unanimous in their recommendations, Mr. Goddard, who was secretary to the Commission, said he appeared as an advocate of the views put forward by Sir Louis Mallet in a separate report, in which three other Commissioners concurred, with regard to the term for copyright. Sir Louis Mallet, instead of the existing terms of copyright, or that which was proposed in substitu- tion for them, suggested as the term a fixed number of years, to be reckoned from the date of regis- tration. As it was proposed to establish a system of compulsory registration, the act of registration, which would almost invariably be performed as Boon as a work was published, or all soon as protection was needed, seemed an appropriate commencement for the right. In the case of books, 50 years appeared to be, in present circumstances, a suitable time for a work to be protected; but he was not disposed to recommend any extension of the terms of protection afforded by the existing laws to other works which were the sub- ject of copyright, as he thought that the tendency of legislation should be rather towards greater freedom than towards greater restriction. Among the argu- ments put forward in favour of this suggestion, it was pointed out that the term was sufficiently long to give an author or artist a prospect of adequate remunera- tion, whether he happened te live long or to die early that the greatest certainty would exist as to facts-whether a work was copyright, when the copy. right began, in whom it was vested, and when it would terminate—and the information would be obtainable with the greatest ease and at nominal cost; the exces- sive difference in the case of the works of different authors which would sprinsr from the adoption of the proposed term of life and 30 years, as proposed, would ba avoided and, lastly, no exceptional terms would be required, either for anonymous works or works published after the author's death, for encyclopaedias, for photographs, engravings, or similar works, or for works produced by firms or companies. The chairman said he thought a great deal was to be said in favour of Sir Louis Mallet's proposal as re- garded the two principles of registration and certainty in the term of the duration of copyright. These two points seemed to him important considerations In pre- 1>aring the way for an international copyright The principle of registration seemed to have commended itself to the younger members of the family of nations-the United States and Canada- and to some extent this was a strong argument in favour of its adoption. With regard to the term, zir Travers Twiss said that, as a sentimental objection might be raised to the possibility of the copyright expiring during the lifetime of the author, he would suggest 60 instead of 50 years for the duration of the right* In the discussion which followed a majority of the speakers appeared to be in favour of a fixed term dating from the registration of the subject of the Copyright.
WEEKLY REVIEW OF THe CORN TRADE.1 BelVs Weekly Messenger aaya :—" A week of variable weather, which has been favourable to the grass and root crops, but which has kept the wheat crop in a backward state, has failed to produce any activity in the trade for wheat. In some quarters rather a firmer tone has been apparent, but it has been by no means general; and, consequently, the condition of the trade is still unsatisfactory to the producer. Liberal shipments are advised from the United States to this country, but the quantity in view at the various points of collection has diminished, being reduced to 14,000,000 bushels. This is a large quantity, but it is natural, as the season isnowsoraewhat advanced, and as liberal supplies have already been forwarded to market, that some diminution should take place. At this period last year, the visible supply was only 900,000 qrs., and in 1877 still leas, viz., 600,000 qrs. It is now 1,750,000 qrs. At the same time the supply of wheat afloat is extensive, and English farmers are marketing supplies considerably in excess of last year. It would appear, however, that, as long as we receive no bad reports from America or Russia respecting the growing crops, the trade nere win remain In its pre- ment inactive state. The season is likely to be a pro- tracted one, and immediately prior to harvest native supplies in England and France may be reduced to very small proportions."
POPULATION OF THE SANDWICH ISLAND. A. census of the population of the Sandwich Islands was taken In December 27, 1878, and the result Is especially in. terestluir, as demonstrating the continuous decline of the native element and the increase in the number of foreigners. The total population of the seven inhabited islands of the group was 67,386, distributed as follows (says I he Times):- Hawaii, 17,034 Maui, 12,109 Oahu, 20,236 (of whom 14,114 are reaidenta ot the capital); Kauai, 5 634 Molokai, 2,581 (of whom 866 form the "Leper colony"); Lanai, 214; and Niifau, 117, This shows an increase in population cf 1.0;8 during the six years since the previous oensus of 1872. But it is sad to reflect that in 1823 the population of the group was estimated at 142,000. The native Kanakas amount now to only 44,088, which is a decrease of about 5,000 since 1872. On the other hand, the number of the mixed breeds (. hildren of native mothers by white or Chinese father*) is 3,420, which is an increase of v<W. ihe whites are now 4,561, being 1,133 moie than six years ago. But the greatest increase is in the number of Chinese, which has risen from 1,938 in 1872 to 5,9lo. Of the entire population of 57 935. 34,103 were males and 23,882 females, show- ing an excess of 10,221 males, or 42*88 per cent. Yet the number of children under six years of age is greater by 739 than in lo7 2. It is also noteworthy that whereas the decrease in the number of natives dur- ing the six years preceding 1872 waa 12 31 per cent., the decrease during the six years ending in Ib18 had fallen to 7'80, so that the hope of the eventual survival of the Hawaiian race need not yet be abandoned. The following are the numbers of the several foreign nationalities, exclusive of Chinese, together with the corresponding 1872United States, 1 276 (889); British, 883(619); Portuguese, 436 (395); Germans, 272 (224); French, 81 (88, the only instance of decrease); other foreigners, 666 (364). The number of children of foreigners (exclusive of the mixed breeds ") born in the islands was 947, against 849 in 1872* This is the first time that a census has shown an increase in the population of the Sandwich Islands; but the increase, it will be seen, is wholly due to the development of the foreign element.
LIBERATED AFRICANS. The Civil Commissioner at the Seychelles group of islands, dependencies of Mauritius, states in his report made laot year, that the returns for 1877 showed 2,421 liberated Africans distributed over the group, but the exact whereabouts of 305 was not known, and pro- bably the majority of these were dead. The Commissioner says that the position of the African is quite as good as that of the Creole, and the former has the advantage of being preferred as a labourer. After his allotment service is over, he is more or less of a skilled labourer, and he could earn more wages than he actually does were he to work with method and diligence. When he gets task- work he usually does in five or six hours what in an ordinary way would take him eight or ten hours; this shows that he is not overworked, and that he has a reserve of strength he might turn to account. Usually, while working under allotment, he learns the labour he afterwards follows. Compared with other available labour he is considered the best cook, the best household servant, the best farm labourer, and much more to be depended upon for keeping at work than the creole, besides which he is more robust. The building accommodation is fairly good. As good a dwelling for the climate and the requirements of the :African can be built with palm-leaves as with almost any other material. In 1877 there were 462 adult liberated Africans working with masters to whom they bad been allotted by Government for five years, and for their pay, rations, and accommodation the Government was re- sponsible. The 240 minors were al o under the guardianship of the Government, The other liberated Africans were free to work and engage themselves on such terms as they pleased men can earn from 10rB. to 12rs. a month, the women not quite so much. They are under the protection of the Civil Commissioner and the Inspector of Africans, but the Government is not responsible for the amount of their pay. Marriages among liberated Africans have much in- creased, and the Commissioner antioipates that shortly there will be very few African women not settled in a home. The good effect of marriage on both African man and woman is seen to be considerable. As a rule, liberated Africans marry only among themselves; but there have been recently a few instances of their intermarriage with Creoles. The former Governor, Sir Arthur Phayre, reports that the climate suits the liberated slaves very well, and that they are well pro- vided for and well treated in every respect, and a larger number are much required.
THE PRINCE OF WALES AND AUSTRALIA. The Sydney Morning Herald, ot April 24, says :— ''Reference has frequently been made of late to the probability of the Prince of Wales visiting Australia; and it appears from an explanation made by Sir Henry Parkes on the 16th, that on the 3rd of January last the Governor sent a telegram to the Secretary of State, of which he read a copy January 3,1879.— Ministers have asked me to ascertain, through you, whether it would be agreeable to the Prince of Wales to reoeive a formal invitation for himself and the Princess of Wales to visit New South Wales, and be present during the first International Exhibition ev r held in Australia." An answer was received, dated the 20th of January, which may be accepted as evidence that the matter was very maturely considered. The answer was in these words From the Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor of New South Wales. January 20, 1879,—I have been requested to convey the best thanks of their Royal Highnesses the Prince and Princess of Wales for the proposed invitation to them to visit Sydney during the forthcoming Interna- tional Exhibition, and to express their deep regret that it would be quite out of their power to undertake so long a journey, at all events during the present year."
HUNGARY AS A FIELD FOR EMIGRATION. A patriotic Austrian, Herr Fritz Robert, is dis- tressed at the great numbers of Europeans who year after year-needlessly, as he thinka-fonake the old World for the New (says the Globe). He has just issued an elaborate treatise, fully illustrated with maps and tables, in which he attempts to show that there is still a most available tract of land in Europe itself, which is far better suited than the United States, the Argentine Republic, Brazil, or the Australian colonies, to the needs and habits of European settlers. This land ia no other than Hangary. Herr Roberts writes with an enthusiasm and a determination to convince which leave no room to doubt that he thoroughly believes in the truth of his very novel propoti ian. Thousands of Europeans," he writes, go year after year across the ocean, carry away from their-father- land capital and labour-p Jwer, and when they arrive in their transoceanic settlement find all their florid hopes and anticipations bitterly deceived," They require fruitful soil, little or no population, water, means of transit, good climatic conditions, and a number of other good things, each of which, as Herr Robert categorically shows, is to be found in Hungary, as in no other part of the world. The Austrian-Hungarian Government, he observes, has an eminent perception of the value of his suggestions, and by its diligent intersection of the wide and lovely land with railways, and the great care it is now taking for the regulation of the rivers, offers advant- ages which no European can look for in American wastes. He adds that all inlanders will feel that one of the chief deterrents from emigration, the terror of the long sea-voyage, would be removed by setting their faces towards Hungary. The author, at the close ot his treatue, appeals To the Governments of all the European States to think of his suggestion, and divert the stream of emi- gration from its present disastrous current toward the New World, and BO preserve millions of unborn Bonis for Europe by directing the course of their^ emigrant sons towards the blessed Hungarian land."
GOLD IN SOUTH AMERICA. In French Guiana gold digging commenced in 1856 and in the next six years about 13,120oz. of gold were procured. A few years later the Dutch settlers began to work the eoldiields in their colony, and in the two ended 1877 goW to tlw value ot SJ5.000 .« ex. ported to Amsterdam. In the meantime still greater progress has been made in Venezuelan territory ao joining. In 1869 about 20 OOOoz. of gold were obtained there, and the introduction of improved machinery during the last, ten years has largely increased the output. Large numbers of Cornish miners, of miners from California and British Columbia, and labourers from the dif- ferent West India Islands hav« been attracted to these fields and now it is reported from Surinam and Cayenne that rich veins of gold have been found simul- taneously in several parts of the auriferous area which bid fair to eclipse the wealth of both California and Australia. One man, it is stated, in four weeks gathered upwards of 401b. weight ofpuregold, with little labour, and similar instances of the abundance of the metal ire numerous A regular rush has been made towards the diggings, and it is learea MI com- plications may ensue, if precautions aw not promptly taken, in consequence of the conflicting claims of Eng- lish, Dutch and French ■ettiers, ^of the Venezuelan Republic, and of the Mtwe ltribes. Although gold has not been actually worked in British Guiana, its existence in the i^torior has long been suspected and eTe" and the fresh discovery must have impoirtiint influence on the future of the colony. Unfortunately the limits of the British colony and the Venezuelan Republic have never been accurately defined, con^ stant disputes occuring in consequence. The fact that the gold region of Caratal extends uito ^the J^aUotr ° J four distinct nations, none of which clearly marked its limits, will lead, no doubt to mani- fold disputes, unless judicious arraugements are at once made among the Powers interested.-Cofcwte* and India,
SWIMMING. Upon the above subject The Times has published the following letter Sir,—The swimming season, upon us, and with the memory of the dreaafallo88 of life by drowning in the Eurydioe and the steamship Princess Alice, it behoves all to do what 1 es it»their power to lessen the awful sacrifice corded in the Registrar-General's annual report viz., 2 140 males and 522 females-moat of whom peruh from a want of the knowledge of iswiinming. The swimming club connected with the School Board are doing valuable work among children, u*d them fair scope for their labour more baths^are necessary, especially in crowded localities, in which simple apparatus should be prov!dedwhereby each person can by a little perseverance s- herself. It is with great pleasure I mform you, IBir, that we are busy perfecting a scheme whereby shall add no lesa than eight additional P^nge baths to the now scanty list, at which gratuitous tuition will be afforded to all comers. Any one desirous of aiding in this work has only to write to me, and 1 will send him detailed particulars that cannot be inc.uded in a short letter. Meanwhile we will continue our gratuitous tuition," and any one can have a voucher entitling him to attention at the hands of our honorary instructors by sending me a stamped and directed envelope. We are willing to give dispiaysofswim- ming to schools or other institutions desirous of inculca- ting a love of this movment among pupils and protigies or to advise in the choice of professional teachers or otherwise promote the interests of the swimming question.—I remaio, Sir, yours faithfully, J. GABRATT ELLIOT, Hon. Sec. London Swmming Club. 14, flasbury-square, B.C., June 7.
BURIAL OF MR. W. FROUDE. Tbe Cape Times of May 13 Rives the annexed account of the burial of the late Mr. W. Froude A great man was carried to his rest yesterday. That William Froude, the great mathematical engi- neer of England, should sleep under the canopy of a South African sky will call up thoughts of deepest interest to the people of this country. The name of Froude will ever be identified with our history, and no less BO because a brother of the historian Bleeps on our shores. England will do justice to the name of William Froude, who would have been a stranger to us but for the deep interest taken by hia brother in this country, and we shall net attempt to anticipate in any degree the eulogiums of the English Press. His connexion with the Navy was what we may term a semi-official one, <but the services he rendered cannot be overestimated, and for this reaaon these in command of the Naval station at Simon's Town gave to his memory all the honours it was possible to give. In. the absence of the Commodore, the arrange- ments for the funeral were made by Captain Adeane, who was assisted by Captain Wright and the other officials on the station. The coffin, a very handsome and a very massive one, was drawn to the burial ground by a detachment of Marines, who were flanked on either side by officers. The Union Jack of England covered the ooffin, and resting on it was 11 beautiful immortelle of chrysanthemums, ihe £ o- vernment of the colony was represented by Captain Mills, the Under Colonial Secretary, and there were several heads of departments present. All the vessels in port had their flags half-mast high. As the prooes- sion moved towards the burial ground, which is pic- turesquely situated on a slope, and looks down on Simon's Bay, the church bells tolled. The service at the grave was conducted by the Rev. Dr. Pemberton, who was aesisted by the chaplain of the Tenedos."
AMERICAN CATTLE. The Times 01 Tuesday published the following letter Sir,-At the present time of agricultural depression, when neither landlord nor tenant knows what is the fate that awaits them, it may be some satisfaction to be informed what is the opinion in America as to the future range of prices of cattle fit to be exported to this country. The opinion I quote below is one formed by a gentleman of muca intelligence connected with our grazing counties, who is now in America, and who possesses no ordinary means of information. He writes as follows :— Canada has little or no more stock to spare, another month will clear out the surplus stock of the Dominion but there is any amount to come from the West, especially from Texas, at a price but the present absurdly low rates can only be continued in a time of extreme depression. The best opinion 11 that the value of English-grown meat will not ulti- mately be materially affected." This opinion is valuable and may tend to allay the present panic as to the future value of cattle but there is no doubt a general revival of the world's trade, and consequent increased consumption would bring about a spsedy result. The consumer may think this cold comfort, but that unhappy individual does not seem to have materially gained in the price of meat by the great reduction which has takenwisce in that of fat cattle during the last year. It appears to be one of those things which nobody can understand, that, generally speaking, butchers ad- here to much the same prices now as they did a J ear since, while graziers and feeders find so great a reduc- tion. America is, no doubt, the land of plenty, but even there neither corn nor cattle will be permanently grown and exported except at a remunerative price. The fluctuations in the price of corn exported from America during the last 25 years ef free trade should prevent our giving way to panic. Much more does this apply to cattle, so distant and so costly, and so difficult to move.
EPITOME OF NEWS. BRITISH AND FOREIGN. The University of Copenhagen celebrated, on Friday last, June the 6th, the four hundreth anniversary of Its foundation. Telegraphic and written congratulations were read from most of the Universities in Europe. The fiftieth anniversary of Belgian Independence Is to be kept next year by a series of purely national fitet. There will be a grand exhibition ou the Brussels Kac.. course, but no foreign nations wiil be allowed to exhibit. There were only eight British and foreign'wrecks reported during the past week, making a total otjia tor the prisent year, or an Increase of 78 as compared with^the porresBondlnK period of last year. The approximate value propertylostrwas £ 200,000. including British £ 160,000. A Lloyd's telegram from Sydney announces the arrival at Noumea of the French steamer Plcardie from Marseilles, chartered by the French Government to bring back to France 650 pardoned convicts. One of the objects of interest at the present moment to the louuger in the Strand Is the copy ot an English newspaper displayed In a window in the condition It reached a subscriber In Bussia, after passing through the hands of the Russian authorities. An article on Bussia is entirely obliterated. The manner in which the Russian authorities manage these things is wonderfully simple ana effectual. They take a printer's roller, covered with printer's ink, and run it up and down the objectionable columns till not a word can be dectphered.-Court Journal. A telfgram from Simla to The Times says that cholera in a bad form has appeared In the lower Bolan Pass The tallest man in London just now, says the London correspondent ot the Sussex Daily New8, is a mili- tary attachfi to one of the Northern Courts, Denmark, I think. He stands six feet seven Inches in height and is proportionately stout and strong. Pittsburg telegrams says that the PittBburg iron manufacturers have surrendered to the strikers. The iron- masters met on Saturday, adopting a resolution declaring that in existing circumstances they deem it inexpedient further to resist the demand of the men. All lovers of fishing will read with deep regret and considerable anxiety of the spread of disease among the salmon, aid Its communication to trout. The diiouo is a fungoid growth of an orange colour, which fixes on the out- sloe of tbe fish, and eats Its way Inwards to the bone. It ap- parently affects some parts, and then dies out, for nsh have been found with marks of skin and flesh being eaten away, but with no fungoid affection existing on the particular part. With the increased warmth and the prime growing weather of the put few days, crop prospects have Improved wonderfully. Cereals and grass are rapidly ihooting up- wards, and altogether reports are of a more cheery charac- ter than could have been expected under the adverse cir- cumstances of the season. An unusual occurrence took place on Monday at the funeral of Inspector Haynes, of the Leicester Borough Polloe. A large detachment ot police attended the funeral, and while passing over the north bridge, the band playing the Dead March," Sergeant Biggins went to give orders to some men, and as he attempted to speak kne leu lueiess so tne grounu. The Rev. Thomas Bary Wells, M.A., rector of Portlemouth, South Devon, and one of the survivors of the battle ot Algiers, died last week at Portlemoutb, at the age of eighty-four. Mr. Wells, who left the navy fifty years ago to enter the Church, was present at the blockade of Fiuihlng in 1810, and was midshipman of the Oranieus at Algiers. His conduot on that occasion was reported by his captain as having been "conspicuously gallant." At a meeting held in Plymouth Guildhall on Mon- day evening It was resolved to invite the various towns iu Devon to form committees lor the purpose of raising funds for the relief ot the sufferers by the failure of the West of Eogland Bank. Grants to the amount of £600 have already been made to those shareholders of the late bank who are incapable of maintaining themselves. The total fund at present amounts to £8,000 The Washington Indian Bureau has received infor- mation that 800 of the Chief Sitting Bull's followers have crossed the frontier into United States' tenitory. On Monday afternoon a prolonged thunderstorm burst over the south and eastern districts of Scotland. Rossend Castle, near Burntisland, was struck by It htnlng, but tbe damage was not extensive. A horee was killed at Dumfries. Houses were flooded at Prestonpans Torrents of rain, with hailstones of unusual size, fed while the storm lasted. In some places the daikuess was intense, and the lightning of an appalling brilliancy. The Panama Canal Congress have decided on cutting a level canal thrugh the Isthmus from L'mot. a Bay to Panama, a distance of an out forty five miles and a halt the voyage lasting two days. The tcheme his been selected from six other projects, and is much the same pin as that pro- posed in 1843, and lately reported on by Lieutenant Vyse. Tne canal would be constructed in six years at an expense of £ 48,000.000. They are building a little steamboat at San Francisce for Honolulu parties, and her owners have made its name the subject of a riddle at the Hawaiian Islands, promising anyone who discovers it before it is announced, a free passage on the vessel to any point of her route for one year. A return, prepared at the instance of Mr. Sclater- Booth, shows that the number of wives of Army Reserve man who applied to the union authorities in England and Wales for relief during the time their husbands were called out last year was 494. The total number of the children under 16 dependent on their mothers was 1,364; and the total amount of out-rellef given was £ 137 6s. 5d.-A similar return with regard to the Militia Reserves, show that 535 of their wives applied for relief, the children dependent upon them being 1,541; and the amouot of out-rellef £ 438 4s. 6d. The cost of relief given In the workhouses is not stated. The St. Petersburg Molva says the reported suit oi Prince Alexander of Battenberg for the hand of the young Princess Youssupoff has already found its way into the columns of the Press, and it adds the following particular* :— Prince Nicholas Borrlsovltch Youssupoff is the repreteota- tive of one of the richest aristocratic families of Rustia. When quite a young man he married Ojuntess Rlbeaupierre, a couslii-german. Soon afterwards he went to reside near Geneva, in the environs of which city he bought an estate I and named it, in honour cf his wife, Tatlana. 1 here he lived In comparative retirement, spending so modest a portion ef his colossal fortune that he is said to be in a position to give to each of his two daughters 20,000,000 romles. or about jM.000,000 sterling, for a marriage portion, consisting nan 01 money and half of jewels A Bulgarian decoration has baen instituted by Prince Alexander. The Order consists of five cla«ses, ana the medal bears the Bulgarian inscription Z\ Zasluga "For Merit"—and is attached to a red, white, and gree ribbon. The Stafford-house Committee are ab?^tt!hPU total their final report, from which It ?60 12g 4d t 0f amount received from all sources was balance of which £ 42.841 18a. 6d. was Biantyre's Asia £ 908 13s. lOd The were treated in sections, s^°w that 11,526 sick an juj)blliftncel and dispen- 11 hospitals, 83,366 in elK^t durjng transport by the saries, and 26,382 were attended to on# return railway and road tr*n>po distributed at seven soup- ot 71,274; *'or convalescents assisted on their way £ ltChe^hn.min JKSj donations. The staff engaged con- thtM commt/sloners, 43 surgeons, and a large number ot dispensers, transport agents, tnfirmiers and others.—The Times. Owintr to the high pnoe of bread, serious riots have occurred in Sicily. Three gendarmes, one soldier, and several civilians were killed. In going down to the Bath and West Show one often sees some late crops; but anything approaching to the backwardness of the corn this year I have never before ob- served. A bare might be seen in the middle of a wheat field by anyone passing it in an express train, and it is no ex- aggeration to say that a rat might be seen in most of the barleys. The wheats on the heavy lands look quite brown from excessive moisture, and many of the barleys are yellow from the same cause. The?e are also many thin plants. Altogether, the appearance of the creps as seen In going from London to Exeter by one route, and returning by another, is anything but satisfactory."—Mark Lane Express. People are reported to be dying of famine by hundreds in Cashmere. The Western Morning New states that it has good reason for believing that the visit of Prince Leopold to Australia, as representative ot the Queen at the Interna- tional Exhibitlion Is highly probable, but it will depend upon the state of his Royal Righness's health. Mr. &. W. Hinde, of Wolverhampton, has just died at the age of stght.y.five year,, Mr. Hmde was. tor thirty- seven years editor of the Wolverhampton Chronicle, the duties of which post he filled until he reached his eigntleth year. During a heavy thunderstorm at Wrexham on Sunday afternoon, the spire of St. Mark's Church was struck by the lightning. A gentleman who was couducting a eass in a room at the base of the spire was knocked down, while five of the scholars were burned and one had his leg broken. The State of Massachusetts, with a population of between one and a half and two millions, expends upon education £ 1,000,000 per annum, maintains 6,750 schools, employs 8,500 teaehers, and enrols 310,800 pupils. The Agent-General for Queensland has received the following telegram from the Government of that colony Treasurer's budget delivered anticipates surplus next year. No increased taxation. No alteration in tariff. Estimates show extensive retrenchment. Government have decide i to spend loans on railways and public works only for making fertile lands available for settlement, and propose further loan of three millions. They have strong majority in Parlia- ment. Press approves budget." The Maidstom Standard says that the Duke and Duchess of KUlnburgh, while staying at Linton-plaoe last week, visited Leeds Castle and added their names to a manu- script in which King George III. recorded his visit to Leeds Caatle In 1778, or almost exactly one century before. The Tamar troopship, which arrived on Sunday at &I Portsmouth from the Cape, brought home a number of those who had fallen sick or had been wounded during the Zulu war. Reviral of the defenders of Rorke's Drift were amongst the wounded, and some interesting particulars have been supplied by them of the fight against the Zulus at that point. The invalids were cenveyed to the Netley Hospital. Amongst the passeDgers by the Tamar were several widows and children of oflicers and men who fell at Isandula. Dr. Talmage, the famous American preacher, arrived in London on Saturday and is expected to lecture In London and some of the principal towns. The Brooklyn Tabernacle, over whtch he presides, seats upwards of 6,000 persons, and is always crowded. At a recent sale of silver plate in London, a highly Interesting relic of the late Duke of Sussex, consisting of two magnifioently chased sllver-eilt tankards, with classical sub- jects in repousst, sold for JE191, being at the rate of 16s. 6d. per oz. This is the age of monuments. Germany will soon have written all her history In stone. On the 2nd of September next, the anniversary of Sedan, now one of the great national festivals of Germany, a column will be erected at Fehrbellin in commemoration of the battle fought there on the 2ith of June, 1679, when the great Elector overthrew the Swedes under Waldemar WraDget."—BerUn Corre- spondent of 7'he Times. The largest orchard in the world is that of Mr, McKinstry, on the Eist Bank of the Hudson River. It con- tains more than 24,000 apple trees, 1,700 pears, 4,000 cherries, 600 peaches, 200 plums, 200 crabs, 1,600 vines, 6,000 currants, and 20J chestnuts. The apple crop of last year was 30,000 barrels. Ghosts' balls have been introduced into American loclety by some lively young people tired of ordinary dances md calico balls, so says the Paris Globe. The dancers drape themselves In sheets, which cover their dresses like flom'noe-, their faces being co cealed by a kind of hood made of the sheet, and false nosesof white cardboard. Thus disguised, the guests glide about like spectres, and often vainly try to recognize their dearest friends. Blood-poisoning by a rusty steel pen has lately caused the death of an Austrian priest. Herr Motz was in the habit of leaving his pens in the Inkstand with the points uppermost, and one day he struck the palm of his band accidentally against the point of a pen. At first he thought nothing of the scratch, but next day he was seriously ill, in three days his hand ani arm were swollen to the shoulder, and in eight weeks he was dead. There have been serious floods and storms in various parts of Austria. The church of Bichtz was struck with lightning and burned to the ground. Waterspouts have oc- curred throughout Siberia. The rivers have inundated the ptains of Moravia, and carried away cattle and household effects. The Clothworkers' Company (London) have voted £ 105 to the guarantee fund of the committee for establish- ing the new Somerville-hall for the higher education of women at Oxford. Sheepshearing is in full progress in France, and the reports are generally to the effect that the wool is good in quality and abundant In quautlty but there are at the same time complaints from all quarters that the weather has been so unfavourable as greatly to retard operations. Prince Alexander of Battenberg, whilst at Balmoral was invested by the Queen with the Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath (Civil Division.) The first experiment of the Valorous on the sunken Vanguard has been successful. With hose and dynamite the foretop and fore rigging were blown out. An enormous quantity of flsh came to the surface dead after the explosion. The blowing out of the masts in sections will be proceeded with. Afterwards the hull will probably be blown up to get at the Armstrong guns. The death of Baron Rothschild is a windfall for the Chancellor of the Exchtquer, for there must be a fine pull in the shape of succession duty, as the personsiity left is saia to be enormous. Her Majesty, since her arrival at Balmoral, has presented to the whole of the °ln toe royal estates a souvenir of the late Prhicess Alios, in tne shape ot an elegant and carefally-executed portr^t of her Rayal Highnets, who was a universal tavourite on Deeslde. A restaurateur at Berlin has devised an ingenious plan for keeping his place free from beggars, street nuisances, deadbeats, and other undesirable customers. He just puts a policeman's hat on a table near the door, and when the undesirable customer looks in It meets his fascinated gaze, and he closes the door gently and departs holding his breath. A Queen's messenger recently left London with de- spatches for the Queen at Balmoral. He reached Aberdeen at 12 40 p m. on Wednesday, and proceeded thence to Balmoral, returning to Aberdeen on the same evening by the last ordinary train. Taking a special train to Aberdeen he prooeeded from Aberdeen to Perth, which place he reached in time to catch the express at 8 30 on Thursday morning. The express reached London on Thursday even- ing at eight o'clock, and the journey to Balmoral and back was thus performed In thirty six hours. Nearly nine thousand prizes in the Paris Exhibition Lottery remain unclaimed, and are to be sold by auction. The American peach crop, it appears, is to be a rich one this year. In Delaware the set of fruit Is so lavish, that an estimate has been made that about 10,000 car-loads of peaches will be transported. Ot berries the most that the Delaware Railroad ever carried was 764 car-loads in 1876 and the proportion ef this crop is also estimated at 20 pe? cent. more this season than in that year. No rain has fallen for twenty-three years in one dia trict of Tunis lately visited by three French engineers to re- port on the practicability of creating an island sea in the province. Their report is favourably to the project. Zulus have a regular symbolic language of grass fires, and by this means convey messages from one part of the country to the other. Private signals are also made among the natives, by tying grass Into knots of different shape, which would pass unnoticed by the ordinary observer. An Englishman writes to The Times" It apo pears that Englishmen residing In France are compelled by law to tend all horses they may possess to be Inspected annually,«and are liable in case of war to have them taken for the use of the Army, receiving for tbena such an amount as the inspectors award. Owners of valuable horses would thus probably suffer great loss. Now, as Russians, Spaniards, Portuguese, Brazilians, and the natives of many other coun- tries are exempt from all military requisitions, I write in the hope that sotoe one at home will take the matter up and obtain for Englishmen residing In France the same privileges." An agreement between the British and German Governments for the mutual relief of dutressed seamen which was signed in London on the 27th ult., and ^i^win come into operation on the 1st of July, has been wtated "1 » *• liamentary paper. The rellel will include maintenance, clothing, medical attendance, medicine, and travelling MC- penses. In case of death the fuueral expenses are also to be paid. A correspondent of the New York Tribune at New- port, Rhode Island, states that Mary Greene, a maiden lady, celebrated the one hundredth anniversary of her birth on the 22nd ult. There II, the correspondent says, undisputed proof that she was born May 22, 1779, in the town of Warwick, In this State, where she resided until about four years ago. With the exception ol being slightly deaf and somewhat near- sighted, she Is in possession of all her faculties. The master builders of Bristol, in alliance with the National Association, unanimously determined, at a repre- sentative meeting held on Saturday, to adhere to their de- mand for a reduction in the wages of the stonemasons, carpenters, and plasterers, and agreed to accept the arbi- tration of Mr. Fisher, the Bristol county court judge, with respect to the painters but at a meeting of the painters It was denied that they had authorised their representatives to agree to arbitration, and they determined to strike with the rest. The Golos publishes a telegram, dated the 13th of May from the celebrated Central Asian traveller, M. Prej'evalsky, formerly a colonel In tbe Russian army. At that time he was on the river Buiucuna He had marched 600 verits from Saisan along the river Urnmtsu, and would Immediately set out for Cbemi through the southern Altai mountains. All the members of his expedition were in good health. The American papers state that a fatal accident has occurred at the Niagara Falls by which a smuggler met with his death. A party of excursionists from Buffalo were on the there near Cataract-house, when a cry was raised that a small boat with a single cc upant was being borne down the rapids. The man was rowing with all his might, but his efforts were futile against the desoendtng currents. The light skiff was borne on like a feather until, suddenly dash- ing against a rock at the top of the precipice, it was smashed to pieces, and the unfortunate oecupant was flung into the waters and killed.
THE MARKETS. MARK-LANE -MONDAY. The position of the grain trade is much aboutthesame There was a fair attendance, but business was anting in activity. English wheat was in short supply. The demand was Inactive, but for fine samples full u jy With reference to foreign wheat V16?fnflv nre^rtous^quota" offer, for which the trade was quiet at fuUy previous^quota^ tions. B "ley wm In slow request gold at late currenclea. supplies were rather sho demand for them was not Oats were fairly well hel wjthout alteration in value, active. Maize was QU^ but witnou^ METROPOLITAN CATTLE MARKET.—MONDAY. Th« rattle trade was without special feature. Supplies wl™ about the average, and were equal to the demand, was fairly active at steady prices. As regards t- the arrivals from our own grazing districts were on a moderate scale but there was frequently room for Improvement iu condition. The trade was quiet, at about the rates current last week. The best Scots and crosses changed bands at 5'. 4d. to 6s. 6d. per 81b. From Norfolk and Suffolk we received about I,400 from other parts of England about 500; and from Sootland about 260 head, the foreign side of the market was a good supply of American, besides some Danish, lgpanlsh, and Swedish Business was on a moderate scale, at last week's prices The sheep pens were fairly well filled. A steady trade prevailed, and prices were firm. The best Djwns and half-breds realised 6s. lOd.to 7s. per 81b. Lambs were in fair request, at 7s. to 8J. per 81b Calves were in moderate demand, on former terms. Pigs were quiet, at late rates. At Deptford there were about 700 beasts and 11,(00 sheep and lambs. Inferior beast, 4s. to 4s. 6d.; second quality, 4s. 6d. to 5a.; ptime large oxen, 6s. to 5s. 4cu prime ecots, 6s. 4d. to 6s 6i. inferior sheep, 4s. to 61. second quality, 6J. to 6a prime coarse-woolled, 6s. ea. to 6s. 8d.; prime Southdowns, 6i lOd. to 7a. large coarse calves, 5s. 6d. to 6J. prime small DLTTO. ES^TO^ ed. lwge hogs, 3J. 8d. to 4s. 4d. small porkers, 4s. 6d. to 6s. lamns, 7s. to 8s. per 81b. to sink the offal. METROPOLITAN MEAT MARKET.—MONDAY. There was meat, and toe wither being rath/' ^V^ os tos. 4d.; middling d.tto, 3s. 8d. £ to £ 8d Scotch ditto it. 8d. to K° kI to 5s 8d • inferior mutton, 8s. 6(1. to 4s. 5"; i to 6>. 4d. prime ditto, 6-. 81 to £ T°? U,»Vri" «• » fi 'K*" mi°- "• "• 41 8d lamb 7s 4d. to 8s. per 81b. by the carcass. POTATO. There were moderate supplies ol potatoes, and with a fair dnmand orlces have been pretty well supported. Regents, 1M? to 120s. rocks, 90s to 106s.; flukes and Victorias, 120s. to 140s.; German reds, 95a. to 120s. per ton. Jerseys, 17.. to 2H.; Maltas, lis. to 12s. per cwt.
SMAL PARLIAMENT. WluUtoUde0™8 re"aB8*mbled 0D Monday, June that on Mr. Chaplin's Reso- TK Wstress he would move the folio wing ores tho House fully recognises and rg of 1 ^Jde-spread distress prevailing among itiv d4~?|d throughout the United Kingdom, and 1, thowit.8* *0 do all that can be done to remedy no att?!!S!L rtBbt to place on record lti con- oeenni»!Ii .CV eTer be made to alleviate distress ndlrei* 'U(J by Imposing any restrletlons, *1 upon the importation of food In any e ot «!* ^MDpbell, Mr. Bourke said that In latwLre.pTewnUt,0»» Sir H. Lajard, the n ofu, v Intention of submitting the re- ly th» V provinces not separately pro- rganip °' B«'Un to local commissioners; 'as una. recently completed for Eastern «ie proviaoes.S'^eratl0n w1^ vIew to its appll- hettuM^ Secretary of State for the an, latest detpatches from South Africa U overtures of peace from the Zulu Una* ^ether the right hon. gentleman could *w* 01 any negotiations that might be in pro- 111 reply, said—It appears that stan<*LjWa*° General Crealock, under )IL»H f!?crlbed in the telegram published by Secretary for War in this morning s that thy ,Cetewayols strong desire for ncll -.J"?/ »ere not empowered by the King and B-.„- tbe Zulus to treat for any particular ^hn'»or,'j 'ndeed, were they of the rank of asfni.* ilaTe been sent for such a purpose, d lnf^~5 rf??ed General Crealock to tell them e uin.Pv 8 King's messengers at Ekowe that 1 re*d of ,ent 10 bim at Colonel Wood's camp. omeufiJ.0 rece'Te my message under flag of truce, ooneJn,y* more than words would be required, term. iH8' *be fact that Cetewayo had not pro- him i? 1° reply to the demands originally «> December. (Hear, hear.) 4 w 0 clock the House went into Committee of until past midnight on the Civil «\ k-j ■*» n,ne o'clock five votes in Class 8(Law ions V^V*n to, but the next vote—the 1 vr, °(Sftr0CCUPied nearly two hours and a half. birsVnJi. Mr- O'Connor Power, and other inn»2i frequently and at length against it, and nta p amendment to reduce it by the salary Header at Perth Prison, which was negatived the Votes tome time was consumed in id bv tho Q ext«nt of a pledge supposed to have laken 0f the Treasury, that they should ly v* *?tare evening, but the dispute was "benih«. postponement of all the opposed j U w!?e four in number, had been dis- *° consmence Class 6, but Mr. moved 2; *nd> ,nPPorted by Mr. Monk and Mr. to report progress. u off osgatlved by 120 to 30, but further oppo- *snnn-t^ by Mr. Eylands, and after the first Vote— w<* Retiring Allowances—had been ^ton^ WM "Ported. '"tee an!ln<* Revenue Bill was considered the HrMrT.0?.0 other Bills having been forwarded adjourned at twenty minutes to three
DR. SCHLIEMANN'S DISCOVERIES. The Times of Tuesday published three letters from Dr. Schllemaan, dated Ilium, May 10, 14, and 21 respectively. The communications occupy three columns of The Timu. and give details of the excavations being carried on in the plains of Trey. We give the following extiacts >— y I resumed these excavations on the let of March with a large number of workmen, and was during the whole month of April assisted by my esteemed friend the celebrated Professor Rudolf virchow, from Berlin. Another esteemed friend, the famous orientalist, Emile Burnouf, honorary direotor of the French school at Athens, assists me for two months, and will only leave me when my researches terminate. Our joint effortg have led to the solution of many problems, but many more remain to be solved. II Here at Troy I have continued the excavations with the utmost energy, but with less tuccees than formerly, having this time found only two treasures of Trojan gold jewelry, and Ilium appears now to be exhausted. Both treasures were found in the presence of Professor Virchow and Mr. Burnouf. The first treasure was struck at a depth of only 13ft. 4in. below the surface, en the east side of my excavations, in that part of the ground where a considerable portion of it, 6ft. to 10ft, thick, has evidently been cut away when the temples of Minerva and Apollo were built, because in some places the calcined débri, of Troy follow there abruptly below the stratum of Hellenic ruins. The treasure lay on the ruins of a housewall, which seems to have fallen from an upper story it consists of three gold discs in the form of flowers, 81 centimetres in diameter, of embossed work and much like the dfrcs numbered 25.L in my 'Mycenae;' further, a gold neaa-ornament piekte anadesmi, 18in. long, the upper part of which ia in the form of a basket and ornamented with small gold rings, which are soldered on and filled with a substance of white glass. The latter has probably had another colour and may have been blue. From this ornament are suspended 10 gold chains, each of which is composed of 155 links, and each link is covered with a gold leaf; consequently, there are 1,550 links and as many leaves on this beautiful head-dress. At the extremity of each chain is suspended a gold idol 31 centimetres long, with two eyes well indicated. There are besides the fragments of seven much larger gold idols. This gold headdress had. by the inadvertency of the labourer, been thrown with the dibris on the wheelbarrow to be thrown away, when, most luckily, it was perceived by the keen eye of Professor Virehow, who saved it for scienoe. The second treasure was found, at a depth of 33ft. 4in. below the surface, on the slope of the great wall, to the north-west of the gate. The most curious object in this treasure is a silver spoon in the form of a bowl, having in the centre an embossed ornament much resembling a Trojan shield (aspis omphaloessa see the engraving No. 234, Plate 14, in my Troy and its Remains'); it has a very long handle, which terminates in a large ring, and which is orna- mented wibh a tree nicely engraved. This spoon is unique in the wodd It seems to have served for liba- tions, for it can never have been employed for domestic use. The treasure further contained two gold earrings of very large size, each formed of seven serpents; two others, ornamented with rosettes, and four or five chains with idols at the ends; other gold earrings without pendanta a gold ring for holding the locks a gold frontlet; 10 gold ornaments, each with four spirals similar to No. 297 in my Mycenae two enor- mous, very heavy gold bracelets, consisting of very thick gold wire, having only at one extremity an orna- ment in the shape of a flower button a large quantity of gold beads and rings, six silver earrings a large silver bracelet; and, finally, hundreds of silver riBgø, whch must have been strung on a thread, because all are fused together in long rows. To all this silver jewelry have been fused in the conflagrations numer- ous gold beads, also one of the gold ornaments like No. 297 in my Mycenae." Of other, curious objects, I may mention a long dagger of silver, the extremity of the handle of which represents a cow with long horns: a rude idol of trachyte, 8in. long; small animals modelled of black clay, such as dogs, cows, rams, lions, ftc,; a very curious vase, 6in, high, with very large eyes and a perfect owl's head, on which is fixed a small cup or bowl, forming the mouth-piece; it has around the neck a fourfold necklaoe, it has .two breasts and the arms run out into two handles, between which, precisely in the place of the navel, is a nicely-shaped funnel or spout. I may further mentioa a rattle box of terra-cotta having the form of a woman. —
EVERGREENS AND FARM STOCK. A good deal has been said on the poisonous nature of yew tree clippings, and every now and again we hear of cows or horses being poisoned by munching the branches that have been carelessly thrown in their way. The Journal of Forestry points out that the danger is not confined to the yew tree, but that many other evergreens possess the same deadly capability when in a half-withered state. Horses, and even pigs, have betn destroyed by eating tho clippings of laurel and box trees. Ivy prunings have proved as fatal to sheep, and it Is said that fallow deer have occasionally been killed by being per. mitted to browse on the same plant, which, though apparently wholesome enough when in a fresh growing condition, appears to acquire a deleterious character when it has ceased to grew and becomes shrivelled and dry. Our contemporary has noted fourteen cases that have occurred this i-pring. and seems inclined to attribute the acquisition of a poisonous character to incipient fermentation. There may be something in this, perhaps, but it seems just possible that the noxious principle is contained in the juices of the living plant, and merely becomes con- centrated by the drying of the branches enppea ou. It seems certain that animals may eat with apparent impunity not only box and laurel, but the yew tree also when in a growing state, but it may reasonably be doubted whether they do not receive more or less injury from them, and until the matter has received a little more attention than it has done owners of farm stock would do well to look to the fences of their shrubberies and ivy growths. The question is raised as to whether clippings are as deadly at other seasons of the year as they are in spring. This is considered to be doubtful, but it is a fact that animals have been killed by prunings of the kind referred to at all seasons, and care should be taken at all times therefore, although it may be a fact that the poison may be more virulent at one time than another.-Globe.