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THE DREADED CHOLERA. The Times has the following leader upon the much-dreaded Cholera, which shoull be regarded as a timely warning to make us watchful against such a foe :— The information which has lately reached us of outbreaks of Cholera in one or more towns of Eastern Europe has been quickly followed by telegrams an- nouncing the illness and death of an English lady, Mrs. Brewster, at the Hotel Donau, at Vienna. Mrs. Brewster, who was in good health and in the prime of life, was attacked about two o'clock on the morning of Thursday last, and died about five o'clock in the after- noon-that is, in the course of fifteen hours. Her malady was called "Cholerine" by the doctors in at- tendance, and the word suggests a reasonable hope that they consider it to be something different from epidemic or so-called Asiatic Cholera, and that its rapid course and its fatal issue may have been due to the constitution or condition of the unfortunate lady herself. The brief tele- grams by which alone the facts have been as yet conveyed, and which come to us from the lady's brother, are not incompatible with this supposition; but neither are they incompatible with the idea that the case may have been one of genuine Epidemic Cholera, and that this disease, which has long been linking in Pesth, in various places of Galicia and Bohemia, and along the course of the Vistula, may have followed, as it constantly does follow, the main lines of human traffic and intercourse, and may thus have reached Vienna. We have no intelligence of Mrs. Brewster's own recent movements, and, there- fore, cannot tell whether she herself may have con- tracted her fatal illness at Pesth or some other pre- viously infected place, and may have only reached Vienna in time for its development there. The events of the next few days will clear up the doubts which arise from imperfect information, and will show whether there is any cause for anxiety or alarm, In the ir anwhile, whatever facts may be brought to light, and whatever may be the actual or future state of things in Vienna, the reports of the presence of Cholera in the other localities we have mentioned are such as to demand the anxious consideration of sanitary authorities in England. In the course of the last two or three years we have several times had occasion to call a tention to the chief facts in the natural history of the disease. Mr. Netten Radcliffe and other investigators have ehownus that Cholera does not travel, but that it is carried and the human locomotion, not air or water, must be regarded as the means of its extension to any distant place. Air and water, on the other hand, seem to furnish the means of its extension in the immediate j vicinity of a spot where it prevails. We have thus two | chief agencies in its diffusion. By the agency of travel- lers it passes from Persia across the Black Sea to Russia; or from Mecca to Alexandria, the Mediterranean ports, and Southampton or from the Baltic to Hull and Newcastle or from Liverpool to New York. By means of air or water, or by means of infected clothing or other articles, it passes from house to house and from street to street; and thus the single imported case may become the starting point of a local epide > ic, as well as the centre from which travellers go forth to carry contagion elsewhere. The disease may remain dormant for some days in the person of any individual who has been infected by it; so that it is hopeless to attempt to hinder its conveyance from town to town, or from country to country. Such a result might, indeed, be secured by a quarantine of sufficient strictness and duration ut the enforcement of this quarantine would be practically impossible, and the impediments it would offer to locomotion and to commerce would, in the present state of intercourse between different parts of the world, entail even greater losses than would be occasioned by passive acquies- cence in the ravages of an ordinary epidemic. For the restraint of Cholera, therefore, our chief re- liance must be placed upon the well understood precautions which have been found to prevent its im- mediate diffusion in the vicinity of the first imported case; aud"in order to enforce these precautions it is necessary that medical mtn and sanitary authorities should be prepared, so that they may act promptly and effectually if occasion should arise. When Cholera is in Eastern Europe, still more if it should be actually in Vienna, any day may bring it to our shores. If brought, its first appearance would not necessarilv be at a seaport, because many travellers do not stay at their place of landing, but at once proceed by rail to inland localities. It is therefore desirable that every medical practitioner and every medical Officer of -Health, more e-pectally those who are in the vicinity of seaports, should at once a,!k himself whether he would recognize the early symptoms of Cholera if he saw them, and whether he is Jully conversant with the means by which a case of the disease could be rendered harmless so far as others than the patient are concerned. This is not the place in which to enter into the details of isolation and dis- infection but it may be observed that the precautions adopted in Bristol in 1866 have not been surpassed in respect either of completeness or of efficacy. We are probably fully warranted in believing that an im- ported case of Cholera could be treated in any dwell- ing-house with due regard to all the requirements of the patient, and with scarcely a possibility of infec- tion being conveyed elsewhere. In such a case, success would depend entirely upon promptitude and effi- ciency of action, and the neglect of any necessary measure, even for a few hours might neutralize the effect of all that was done too late. It is not only upon medical sanitary authorities that a heavy responsibility by the possible danger, but also upon the heterogeneous non- medical bodies to which the care of the public health is intrusted in various places. The. arrangements which were made last year °fth" Eastern ports against the introduction^ Cholera from the Baltic are not only as complete as the present state of the law will allow, but are probably sufficient, assuming due vigilance on the part of in- spectors and other officials, toTffU they were intended to serve. 11 « be feared, however that the vast, e*ten.fc °f !^te.r"hEe included in the Port of L mdon protected and it is certain that the crowded districts which are thus exposed would P^fse,^ ^f ^?r Jua^ facilities for the diffusion of °hpler.lhoul(i ever be introduced into them. The •of London is, or is intended to be. the y autho- rity of the port; but a variety of circumstances and of questions has intervened to prevent that body from taking the steps necessary for the full and effectual exfrcise of the powers which were to be committed to it. Within the last f^w weeks we have heard of a sailor suffering fro™n~°.x wf}o was landed within the port, and was y • way trains and cabs to a succession P ? r" ent parts of the metropolis, before he shelter and care that be required, and before the general public were delivered from the dang ecticm. We have no security that froni Cholera might not be similarly l»n^ w> an(i driven about from overseer t" reh g and from workhouse to hospital. For su irence, if it happened, there would be no o justi- fication or of excuse. Forewarned, we ought to be forearmed and from the Government to the humblest Inspector of Nuisances a^y au- thorities 3Mi have no more urgent y to take care, if Cholera should by any ^!t^0.ught ^to the country, that it is received and tr«at<^ *n such a manner as to disarm it of its terro healthy, and to destroy the means by which it spreads. (From The Timet, Tuesday, July 1.) "We have to report that another of our country- women at Vienna has succumbed to what appears to be an attack of cholera. News, received by telegraph at a late hour cn Sunday night announces the death by cholera at Vienna on that day of Mrs. H. Craufurd The fatal illness attacked Mrs. Craufurd only 12 hours previous to her death, in the house of her brother, Colonel Goodenough, the Military Attache to the Embassy. Dr. J. Henry Bennett, of 60, Groavenor.street, writes to us :— 'The lady whose sudden death at Vienna you mention in one of your leaders to da, which Tt1; 0' 7"" sailles, is my aister. The tf which I received on Friday last were from my ^em' PW> IIe"r>; Brewster. He had been traveniug'n^s ern Europe, a^d had arrived from Constantinopl meet 8 before. My suter had gone to Vienna to meet him and see the Exhibition. P-^i^ce at V r^iiu r>i MAV with her at her residence au Versailles, and found her perfectly well, without^ au arte or a pain. She appeared fresh and in <1 health and never onca mention* d the gubJe°t ,he Was quUe hpum° me" Without being a strong wominshewaaquHeheanby, and had never had a serious illness in her n e. bhe left home m June for Munich, on her way to Vienna.^ith a daughter, and wrote to me from Y1(.nna when taken i?i 8Pll"lts. She h,d been several days ^'CiTy girin^Tn i' aiid liad. he had just burled his mother. The following telegram ^s been rece1^ from the Hon. H. C. Vivian, her Majesty s Acting Agent and Consul-General in Egypt, Aikxandria June 29 • Quarantine probable here en a^val» f(r0°rmlrV,'lrilce. owing to appearance of Cholera. P^engers for lLdia or Egypt had better avoid Venice ro

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