FOREIGN INTELLIGENCE. AMERICA. NEW YCRK, Jan. 16 The telegraphic news from America has an alarmist cha- racter, but more, we think, on the surface than in reality. Mr. Chandler had moved a resolution in the Senate requesting the President to withdraw the American ambassador from England, and to inaugurate a policy of non-intercourse on the ground of our refusal to settle the Alabama claims. There seems to have been a debate of considerable importance on this motion; but it was ultimately tabled "-that is, re- jected—by a majority of 25 to 12. Mr. Chandler and Mr. Sumner, both wished the resolution" to be referred to the Senate committee for Foreign Affairs but instead of this, the subject was got rid of altogether. Thus far, therefore, the anti-English feeling has been powerless for mischief A resolution has been offered and laid over, recommending the immediate trial of Messrs. Davis and Clay by military commission. All the volunteer troops in the department of lirgil have been mustered out. The report in the American journals that the Federal troops would be withdrawn from Alabama and Georgia was unauthorised. General Grant, in replying to an application for their withdrawal, does not recommend such a step until there is ample security for the protection of all classes in the late rebellious States. He doubts the propriety of arming the militia while the Federals remain in the Seuth. The Federal adjutant in Mississippi has revoked the order disarming the negroes. The Treasury agents in Charleston have arrested the princi- pal officials, and seized the books and assets of several blockade-running companies organised during the war. They have forbidden them to dispose of their assets, and the matter has been referred to Washington for adjudication. The Federal troops have recaptured the steamer Lilly taken by outlaws on the Alabama river. Seventy-five bales of Government cotton had been landed, and the outlaws had expressed their determination to prevent any Govern- ment cotton running on the Alabama river. All government employes at Fort Monroe, formerly in the service of the Co; federate Government, have been dismissed in consequence, it is said, of fears that they intended to at- tempt the rescue ef Mr. Davis. General Sweeny, the Fenian Secretary of War, has joined the senate organisatiou, and has issued a call for prompt military action. In the Senate Mr. Chandler has given notice that he would on some future day read the British Foreign Enlistment Act, With the provision abolishing all existing laws on neutrality. During the debate on the resolution for the proclamation of ncn-intercourse with England, Senator Johnson said that it was a very important matter, and that the mere offering of the resolution had created great solicitude. He moved to table the resolution. Mr- Chandler wished the resolution to be referred to the Committee on Foreign Affairs. Mr. Sumner thought that a reference to that committee was the best course to pursue. The resolution was then tabled.
THE LOW LODGING-HOUSES OF NEW YORK. Some faets presented in the annual report of the Metro- politan Police Commissioners at New York, contained in the me of journals just come to hand, will bear comparison with any of the sad reports that occasionally crop out respecting London, or the narrative of the amateur casual" of the PaU Mall Gazette. We learn from them that in a single precinct in the Fourth Ward:— There are 60 places, or dens, where the wretched poor, the criminals, and the depraved, resort to lodge, paying from 10c. to 15c. per night for the miserable accommodation. The places are chiefly in cellars, with naked stone or brick walls, damp and decayed floors, without beds and bedding fit for human beings. They are mainly unventilated or lighted, except through the entrance door. In condition they are filthy and disgusting beyond description, overflowing with vermin and infested by rats. Into these hideous places are packed nightly an average of ten persons to each place, or 600 in the aggregate. In violation of the laws of decency and morality, men, women, and children, white and black, with no regard to the family relation, sleep promiscuously together, exhibiting less of the impulses of decency than the brute creation. From the character of these apartments, their owners and occupants, and the manner of theirjuse, cleanli- ness is impossible, and hideous diseases of various classes and types are engenered and propagated. While thus occupied they cannot be made decent or healthy, and those who frequent them are beyopd the reach of reform, except through the strong arm of the law. Again, in the Sixth Ward are the following hideous receptacles for human beings:— No. 25, Baxter-street, two rooms, each 10ft. by 6, full 10ft. below the street; no windows or other ven- tilation, bare stone walls, no furniture, a dirty, dis- gusting cave; 12 to 14 lodgers nightly, at 10c. per night. First floor of same premises a drinking place, the resort of thieves, beggars, and prostitutes of the lowest class. The captain says, 1 have seen as lodgers 18 of both sexes asleep in the place during the night." No. 15, Baxter-street, a cellar, 14ft. by 18; five beds; naked stone walls, no window, light, or ventila- tion 14 persons are accommodated at 8c. per night. No. 16, Mulberry-street, one room, 14ft. by 10, with nine beds, and two beds in adjoining kitchen; 20 per- sons, male and female, are lodged at 6c. per night. The building is the property of an officer of one of our city banks, and rents for 61. per month. No. 51, Baxter-street, second floor, one room, 8ft. by 5, contains three beds, kitchen adjoining several beds on the floor; 18 persons lodge here, at 6c. to 8c. per sight; rent, 71. per month; owned by a well- known citizen in Twenty-third-street. No. 141, Leonard-street, second floor; two rooms, one 8ft. by 10, and kitchen adjoining; eight or ten lodgings, at 8c. per night. Other places are spoken of in the Sixth Ward, where young and old, black and white, thieves and prostitutes, beggars and drunkards, and every kind of abandoned character, herd together, sleeping promis- cuously on the floors, and coming forth in the morn- ing to prey on the community. The captain of the Ward speaks of these places as poisoning the atmos- phere' of the whole neighbourhood, and spreading abroad disease and pestilence."
A PLEA FOR RAILWAY SERVANTS. rPaul Bedford, the well-known comic actor at the Adelphi Theatre, London, has recently come out in a new character, and ths following suggestions contained in a letter of his addressed to the papers, shows that his notions in the philanthropic line are equal to his acting. We heartily wish every success to Paul's Pence," and hope the idea will be adopted :— Would you oblige me by devoting a nook in your universal journal to the insertion of the following idea. ? The idea runs thus There is a minute section of the human family that is both unregarded and, therefore, Unrewarded. I apply these sentiments to railway engine-drivers, stokers, and guards, and I much won- der the idea has never been indicated by others far more elevated in society, whose observations on the subject would have read with interest, and I have no doubt the scheme would have been carried out and matured long since. But. to complete my picture, I must sketch sunshines of the past and shadows of the present, for which purpose I must recede or go back some years. In the year 1818 my honoured father ex- ported me from my native city (Bath) to the giant city (London) for the purpose of being instructed in the airine art of singing. At that period I was a sprightly youth. I therefore selected the fastest going vehicle for my transit (the New House day coach), and the journey (110 miles) was accomplished in twelve hours, to the astonishment. of the then travelling-public. There were three coachmen and one guard employed to convoy us from city to city. At every change of coachman Jarvey used to pay his respects (hat in hand) to the grateful passengers, and from each re- ceived a shilling as a ieward for his care and atten- tion and on our arriving at the White Horse Cellar, Piccadilly, the guard was presented with a gratuity of half-a-crown. Now, look on that picture and on the following one. Travellers are now in excess a thousand to one of former days. And how are our guardians rewarded (that waft us day and night through thunder, lightning, storms, fogs, and rain) ? Why thus If I am rightly informed, their pay (generally) does not **nge above a miserable guinea (or two) per week. Therefore I propose (of course it must be with the sanction of the varied railway monarchies) that there should be established at the multitudinous stations a deposit-box, in the which, if one passenger out of a hundred dropped a grateful penny, it would consoli- date a benevolent fund, to be appropriated to the Wants and exigencies of our guardians in cases of mis- fortune or trouble, and alleviate the sorrows of many a brave fellow, assuage the anguish of loved wives, and dry the eyes of weeping children. This penny movement is not a novel notice, for I remember in my early Dublin days there was established a penny fathering named after my honoured friend and patron, )aniel O'Connell; and at the present day there is a Divine contribution entitled Peter's Pence." There- fore, may I nrnf with great humility, plead his sup- Krt in consolidating the idea of "Paul's Pence," to devoted to ihe philanthropic dispensation before named.
A HINT TO REFORMERS. The following suggestions on Reform have appeared in the Times under the signature of Scotus":— Allow me to add another suggestion to the many that would-be reformers are scattering so profusely before the public at present. The six-pound franchise appears to satisfy no one but Mr. Baines. The Liberal party make faces at it; and the Radicals take it grudgingly, and only as an instalment. But why should it be so ? The first re- sult of the passing of such an Act would be to club together naturally, though perhaps, involuntarily, the great class of small householders, in order to work the "long lever" for raising the H., 41., and 31. renters into the electoral roll. Now this class combination is one of the very things that reformers want to avoid and thus many, I believe, would prefer to go the length of household suffrage at once, than disturb the present system for such a shoit "dip" as 61. There is principle in household, none in a pi. franchise. There is an end of Reform agitation in the one, a continuation of it in the other. Would it not, therefore, make a cleaner bill and a fairer start, to sweep away the house qualification al- together, and judge electors not by their domiciles but by their earnings ? Why should I, paying 4d. per pound on a respect- able yearly income, be excluded from the franchise because I choose to live in lodgings ? or why should an artisan, earning 303. a week, be kept without the Pale because he finds it more convenient to rent a small house, and put his savings in the bank or spend them on his family ? The remedy for these anomalies Would be found in an income franchise, and this I Would simply propose to be put in the following way:— Bring down the assessable tax to an income of, say, —equivalent to a wage of 21s. a week, and reduce the tax. On incomes of 100?., and under, levy a tax ?^ld. per pound on incomes of 2002., and more than *00t., say 2d. per pound; and on all above 2002. say j* per pound. By such means the franchise would every man worth having, and at the same time f*>th rich and poor would be bound more closely to conduct of the Government. The only difficulty to this scheme lies in the collec- tion,—a difficulty, however, not insurmountable and, "so, there would be realized so large a sum that in- ject taxation might be materially lessened.
THE EFFECT OF A "MINISTERIAL MIDNIGHT INSPECTION!" An official inspection made by H. B. Farnall, C.B., tk r -^aw Board Commissioner, on Thursday, of *he casual wards the Stepney Union disclosed a I o™ debasing and inhuman treatment of the house- 688 (says the Times). It will be remembered that the Amateur Casual," in his concluding letter, gave Mr. Farnall a hint that, in the opinion of the work- house frequenters, the Poplar and Tottenham casual wards were the worst in London; but there are no Tottenham wards, and the Poplar wards, as was proved by the report in the papers of the visit of Sir George Grey, Sir Richard Mayne, and other gentlemen, were good and sufficient, while in "other" wards, not mentioned, the people were found huddled to- gether in the most disgraceful manner. These "other" wards, and, doubtless, the wards meant by the home- less critics in Lambeth, may be supposed to be iden- tical with those of the Stepney Union. These are in the old Ratcliffe Workhouse, and form the wards for the parishes of Stepney, Sharlwell, Limehouse, and Ratcliffe. An inquiry of the officials proved that they Were visited about a fortnight since by Sir George Grey and his party on the Ministerial Midnight In- spection." A description of these wards from personal inspection and an account of the mode in which the poor are treated will give the public another insight into the manner in which the Poor Lawis administered by the so-called "Guardians of the poor." In the yard of the old workhouse is a row of work- sheds with a loft overhead, and this lo 11 which has a sloping roof, is about nine or ten feet high in the best part, and is reached by a ladder. All round the floor, on the floor, as closely packed as possible, and without any division whatever, are the beds of the men, made of mere hay-bags and stuffed with a handful of hay or straw-just enough, in fact, to keep the sleeper off the ground. Incredible and inhuman, debasing and demoralising as it may appear, it is a fact that the men have to lie upon these hay-bags stark naked, for all their clothes are taken away, and no shirts are sup- plied to the men or night-gowns of any sort to the women, and all the covering the wretches have is a rug and a worn-out blanket, and this in a pl&ce not built for human habitation, and unlighted and unwarmed. The women's "beds" are not made up so close together as the men's, but each is doubled, and misfortune thus makes the unpitied, houseles? women—most of whom, it was stated by the official, were of a somewhat decent class—acquainted with strange bedfellows, the old being thus "pigged" with the young, the fever-smitten London tramp with the healthy girl from the country, and the clean wayfarer with the parasite-covered denizen of the street. This is no over- drawn picture. The ordeal which the recipients of re- .lief have to undergo if its revolting as the sleeping ar- rangements. The casual is admitted at the gate by the porter, a pauper, and introduced to the paid official, who fills the office of clerk as well as superintendent, and whose wife looks to the female casuals. The casual is searched, and then handed over to a pauper, who has charge of the lower shed, where he is kept until it is his turn to be bathed. If he is the first in order, he goes into an apartment the floor of which is paved, and which is in charge of a pauper only one degree removed from being an imbecile. In this apart- ment is a large copper, and a bath, the latter fitted with taps for hot and cold water. The casual, having stripped and bathed, passes into another apartment, where he leaves his clothes and receives a blanket, wrapped in which he goes into the shed where the other waiting casuals are, and having mounted the ladder leading to the loft he drops the blanket to the next candidate for the bath, and slips off to bed cover- less. The old man in charge of the bath-room was asked how many people he bathed in the same water. He looked vacantly into the face of his interrogator, and, after touching his forehead with his forefinger for a few moments, as though he felt the thinking ap- paratus to be out of order, replied, Oh, six on 'em." He was asked if he did not mean "ten on 'em," and, after shaking himself hopelessly, he announced that he thought the number was six. It must be understood that in this loft, so overcrowded with beds, there is no supervision during the night, and the quiet and help- less, the young and the old, are left to the mercy of the ruffians who, thrust from the neighbouring wards of Poplar by the supervision of the police there, crowd to Ratcliffe, where, if they have had beds and a place to sleep in which when full must be pestilential, they have what all the ruffian class highly appreciate-the liberty to indulge unchecked in whatever brutal and vicious sports they think proper. There was a meeting of the Stepney Guardians in the afternoon, and the Commissioner attended the meeting, which was held, be it remarked, in a room luxuriously furnished, and the fittings and ornamenta- tion of which were of the most elaborate character, showing that the administrators of the Poor Law in this part of the town have a proper regard for their own personal comfort. On the entry of the Commis- sioner, one of the guardians jocularly observed to him, "You don't like our wards, I hear," or words to that effect, to which the Commissioner replied, "They are shocking, shocking, indeed." The Commissioner then proceeded to read his minute, founded upon the ob- servation he had made while going over the wards, and just as this was finished the Chairman, pointing to the writer, who was seated at the opposite end of the room, requested to be informed who that gentleman was. The reply that he was a reporter, who had at- tended in the ordinary course to report the proceed- ings, had an effect not easily to be described, and he was at once informed that they had a minute on their books excluding all representatives of the press from their deliberations, but it was hinted that if he made a written request to be present this would be taken in. to consideration. On leaving the room for this purpose he was soon informed by the clerk that the application would not be acceded to if made, and he was requested to consider the business he had heard discussed while his obj ect was unknown-he having taken it for granted that the "Board," like nearly all meetings of London Guardians, was an open one-should be considered as private. Under these circumstances the Commis- sioner's minute cannot be made public, but conclusions may be drawn as to what its contents were when these other facts are stated. The original wards certified by Mr. Farnall were in the lower shed, and the beds were then all separate, men and women having proper sleeping places. Without consulting the Commissioner, and without informing him of what they were doing, the Guardiaus pulled down all the sleeping places, thus inflicting not only a wrong on the poor, but a wrong on the metropolis generally, for this lodging of the houseless is paid for out of the general rate, and when a certificate is once given to a ward no change whatever shculd be made in that ward without the Commissioner's sanction. One thing may be stated and that is, that the certificate of the Guardians for these wards has been withdrawn, and the expense in- curred by the four parishes of the union" for housing the poor will not be refunded out of the general rats, it would have been had not this discovery been made by the Commissioner. It may be added that all the casuals are treated in the manner here described, and that the only effect the visit of Sir George Grey had upon the Guardians has been to make them study what powers they have with respect to keeping out of their doors all who are likely to inquire too curiously." —————
AN EXTRAORDINARY SWINDLE. We extract the following account of a cruel and heartless robbery, from the Times, which reads more like a fictitious story than the devices of a London thief :— On Monday, the 15th inst., a gentleman" drove up in a close cab to the house of Mr. in Berkeley- square, and presenting an order from Messrs. Banting, the eminent firm in St. James's-street, asked to see over the premises, which he wished to take furnished for 12 months. Mr. saw him, and explained that since he had placed his house for letting in Messrs. Banting's hands he had sustained losses, and had been besides disappointed in the receipt of a sum of money that was coming to him, and that being under certain engagements it would now be necessary for him either to sell his house or raise upon it a sufficient amount for his requirements. The stranger, who listened with apparent interest to this, announced himself thereupon as Mr. Montefiore, the nephew of Sir Moses, and con- nected with Messrs. Rothschild's house, said that his wife and two children were expected up, and that he wanted a house immediately, pending the decoration and furbishing of one he had purchased that money was of no object to him; and if Mr. —— could make any arrangement whereby he could let the house he should be very glad to take it, although not quite large enough to accommodate 11 servants." Mr. Montefiore then affected to know a great deal of Mr. -'s antecedents and personal history and begged him to think it over," and see him at the Langham Hotel on the following day at 4 o'clock. Having been to Messrs. Banting and heard that they had sent the "gentleman," Mr. kept the appointment, and was shown into a private sitting- room by a servant in plain clothes, who always attended his master, and on each occasion of his visit to Berkeley-square sat outside the cab, and remained in the hall during the interviews. The face of this man, as well as that of Mr. "Montefiore," were familiar to Mr. a fact which now goes far to sub. stantiate the belief that it was a deep-laid scheme upon him by some persons intimately acquainted with his affairs. The millionaire received Mr. —— with much cor- diality, said that he had really no idea of taking the house, but had become so much interested in his affairs and in him, and saw it to be of such importance to Mr. with his fine prospects not to part with the possession of a residence he would hereafter require because he was temporarily pressed, that he had sug- gested this meeting with the sole object of begging him (Mr. -——) to regard him as a friend able and ready to assist him to the extent of his present requirements. Mr. could with difficulty express his acknowledgements for an offer at once so timely, so unexpected, and romantic, and refused it, except upon the understanding that Mr. Montefiore would take a transfer of his leasehold property as security for the advance. This the millionaire assented to, saying that it would give him a hold on his debtor, and said he would send Mr. Chinnock, "whom he always em- ployed," to carry out the necessary arrangements, but that this need not impede the carrying out of his part of it, which he would be prepared to do on Thursday. On his return home Mr. wrote to Mr. "Monte- fiore reiterating his thanks, his astonishment at the singularity of his friendly offices, and a wish to secure his timely benefactor in every possible way. To this note he received on Thursday morning a reply as follows :— Langham Hotel, Portland-place, London, W., January 17, 1866. My dear Sir,—I regret that m ny engagements through- out this day have prevented me replying earlier to your note at hand. Until I shall have accomplished something for your benefit I am but the unworthy-because undeserved- recipient ot your thanks. If Agreeable to you, I will call on you to-morrow (Thursday), P. G. between two and three for the furtherance of the object in view. Believe me, my dear Sir, very truly yours, To Esq. J. M. MONTEFIORE. Accordingly, at two on Thursday he went again to Berkeley-square, and said he had arranged with a bank at which he had influence and some interest that j Mr. should (having first, in the usual way, opened 'an account with 500?.) have an open credit for the amount he required, Mr. "Montefiore" being his surety toihabank. All this with any one else but Mr. Montefiore would have seemed very strange to Mr. — who ha had some experience of banking; but he at once said he was not prepared with 5001. Upon this the millionaire said he had 2501. or 3001. with him (inferring that it was in his pocketbook or at the hotel), and that as Mr. —— could return it immedi- ately on the completion of the affair he must find the rest, and all could be concluded on the following day. Mr. regarding this proposal for his finding 2001. or 25M. as a test of his responsibility, went on the following day at 1 o'clock, having provided himself with an open check for 20ll on the Southwark branch of the London and Westminster Bank. Mr. Monte- fiore" was waiting in his room at the Langham Hotel and showed Mr. a check he had drawn in his favour for 30M., which, from delicacy, Mr. —— did c Ir not particularly scrutinise. Placing both checks care- lessly on the table, Mr. Montefiore" asked whether he or Mr. should first get them cashed, as he did not wish the account opened with checks. Here again Mr. could only demur to taking any part in a matter arranged with so much apparent kindness for his personal benefit, upon which Mr. Montefiore" put them in his pocket, and, after discussing religious matters for half an hour they started in a Hansom for the bank at Southwark, Mr. —— waiting outside in the cab while the great man went in to cash the check or checks. On his return he directed cabby" to drive to the corner of- St. Swithin's-lane and King William-street, on the plea of going to Messrs. Roths- child's and getting "one of Sir Anthony's men" to go with them to the bank to carry the transaction through. "Montefiore" had previously shown Mr. an agree- ment for a house in Queen's-gate-terrace (made out in the name of Montefiore), which the owners had offered to let him unfurnished for 5001. a year. Mr. again waited in the cab, but after an interval of some twenty minutes he bad a suspicion that he had been robbed, and went down to Messrs. Rothschild's to inquire if Mr. Montefiore was there, and heard that he was. Feeling then quite ashamed of his suspicion, he made the excuse that he wanted to discharge the cab in which he was waiting for him, and asked the cashier to give him change of a sovereign. Having received this he did dismiss the cab in order to account for his following" Montefiore" to Messrs. Rothschild's. He then walked up and down St. Swithin's.lane for half an hour, and fearing that he should be too late for the train he had to catch at Waterloo, went again to Messrs. Rothschild's to see Mr. Montefiore. Then he did see the real Mr. Montefiore, and found to his dismay that he had been the victim of a clever, bat, under the circumstances, most cruel hoax and robbery. Mr. hastened to the detectives in Old Jewry and Vine-street, and thence to the Langham Hotel, where he found that the servant (or accomplice) had left. From Mr. Schumann, the manager of the hotel, he heard that Montefiore" had been there a week, that his bill for Ill., delivered on the previous day, had not been paid, and that he had given notice of his intention to leave on the day in question (Friday last). Nothing was to be found in his sitting-room, but in the bedroom were two portmanteaus, one empty and the other weighted with bricks. "Montefiore" is a Jew, about 5ft. 5in. in height, dark complexion, black hair, whiskers, and moustache (slight), and very short-sighted, wearing spectacles with powerful lenses. He was well-dressed, and has the demeanour and address of a gentleman. His servant, or accomplice, is a tall thin man with no whiskers and black moustache; he was in plain clothes, with a white neckcloth. Mr. Knox, the magistrate of Marlborough-street, has issued his warrant for the apprehension of the swindlers, and the matter is in the hands of the detec- tives.
A TURKISH PRINOE! Last October an oriental-looking personage, repre- senting himself to be Prince Kalimaki, and son of a large landowner in Turkey, went to the Grand Hotel at Marseilles, without a retinue, and with scant luggage. H.e was installed in the handsomest set of rooms, which had previously been occupied by the Czar. Next morning he called at the Turkish Con- sulate, and left his card, and the Vice-consul returned the visit. The Prince stated that he wished to buy horses for his father, and was introduced to Carbounal, the large horse dealer, who collected his best horses for examination from Avignon and Lyons. The Prince selected several horses at high prices, and subsequently he wrote a telegraphic despatch addressed Ali Pacha, Constantinople, stating the number and price of the horses he had bought, and desiring the Pacha to remit funds immediately to pay for them. This despatch was taken to the telegraph-office by one of the clerks of the hoteL The landlord, completely deluded, lent the Prince £4,000. and Cajbounal lent him 1,500f. A tailor executed his orders to the extent of 1,500f. The Prince during his visit to Marseilles fell in love with a respectable young lady, whom he had seen on the road in company with two nuns, and opened negotiations for a marriage. The offer of the Prince was accepted by the lady's brother on her behalf, and an appointment was made at Marseilles to sign the marriage contract. The Prince, intoxicated with the happiness that awaited him, at once made his intended bride some presents, and volunteered to sign two bills of 100,000f. as an instalment of the settlement he in- tended to make upon her. Marriages, however, in France are not hastily made. The brother of the young lady made inquiries at the Turkish consulate. The answer was that nothing whatever was known at the consulate about the Prince, that his visit had been returned without inquiry, and that was all; but that as to the validity of the bills, the parties taking them must decide entirely on their own judgment. The mishap put an end to the princely career of the guest of the Grand HoteL Confidence was suddenly withdrawn from him the bills poured in all at once, and he was constrained to confess that he had no re- sources in the world; When he appeared the other day at the bar of the Correctional Police on a charge of obtaining money under false pretences, it was proved that he was a Levantine named Tanca, a subject of the Bey of Tunis, and that he had lately come out of prison at Cairo. The false Prince was sentenced to two years' imprisonment.
THE POST-OFFICE. A correspondent in the Times draws the following com- parisons as to the merits of the English and German Post- offices In your very interesting article on the Post-office in the Times of to-day you draw attention to the effect produced by rapid communication and frequent de- liveries in the great increase of local correspondence in London, and you also refer to the slow advances made by the department in the matter of day mails to pro- vincial towns. In this latter point the English Post-office might well follow the example of our German neighbours. Not a through train runs upon any line without a travelling post-offie-e-actually such, and not a mere carriage for the conveyance of bags and clerks, and it is in the power of any one who obtains access to a station to post a letter as the train passes through. The practice of our Post-office is ludicrously dif- ferent. -r At my station, just 21 miles from London, there is a post-office letter-box, which is cleared at 10 a.m. and !rhe up and down trains stop eight times daily at this station, and the Post-office has a contract with the railway company, under which it can avail itself of any and every train for 'the conveyance of letters without additional charge beyond the annual lump sum agreed upon. Notwithstanding this, our letters for delivery m London, and to pass through London, are taken from the station at which the train stops by a walking post- man, and are carried by him a distance of four miles to the next town, where they are sorted and then carried back to a station a mile distant from the town, for transmission to London. This elaborate arrange- ment occupies from three to four hours a great deal of work is done'for the money, but the bag could have travelled the distance by train in ten minutes. Now, sir, why should there not be a box on the prin- ciple of the pillar-boxes in each guard's van, with a slit on the side, making it a veritable travelling letter- box so that any one sending down to a country station could post a letter for the up or down journey with the certainty that it would fall into the hands of a sorting department within an hour or two, instead of a whole day, as is now the case ? The Post-office is obliged to maintain offices and officers in a meagre way at the London stations and at the important junctions. A very slight addition to the staff at these stations would enable them to deal with letters arriving by every train in this way, and the convenience of country residents, and the consequent increase of correspond- ence, would be incalculable. Not Jong ago I crossed the Irish Channel in one of the splendid steamers maintained by the postal subsidy. There is a post-office on board-i. e., an establishment of clerks and sorters, who prepare the mails for distri- bution in Dublin or in London. I wrote a letter on this steamer, and wished to post it, buf I was informed it could not be received unless three additional stamps beyond the ordinary postage were affixed to the letter. This is a fair illustration of the spirit which still survives in some administrative details of this great public department. The additional fines of 3d. each for posting a letter or for writing one on board the Irish mail steamer cannot bring a very important revenue to the depart- ment but it is a petty annoyance which can only have been conceived by gentlemen who think it right to check and thwart the use by the public of the facilities provided by the public purse. Great advances have been made in the administra- tion of the Post-office since the adoption of the penny postage, but abundant work yet remains for the energies of a business-like Postmaster-General. It is semewhat of a scandal that with our greater need for frequent postal facilities we should in these matters be so far behind our continental neighbours, whom we are accustomed to consider slow.
PROVING HIM DEAD. At a London police court, Mr. Jones, a dairyman accompauied by Richard Lewis and Benjamin Shield, two men of the 19 who who alone escaped in the pin- nace from the wreck of the steamship London was introduced by the chief clerk to the magistrates to make the following application Mr. Jones said a man of the same name, but no relation, had, with his wife, lately lodged in his house. The husband was a member of one or more benefit societies to which the applicant also belonged. Jones wished to go to Australia, where his mother is living, and he and his wife went out and were drowned in the London. It was desirable, if possible, to secure the money the man was entitled to from the society for his mother, but, as it was an imperative rule with these societies not to pay the money but upon positive proof of the death, he had brought a photographic likeness of the de- ceased, with his age at the foot, a written declaration of the facts, and the two sailors as witnesses, both being able to Identify the portrait as that of Jones, and to declare his death by drowning on board the London. One of them (Lewis) could depose to shaking kands with him only five minutes before the vessel went down. This Lewis did, and the declaration having been formally amended into a legal shape by the the usher, the magistrate signed it. He presented each sailor with a half-sovereign before they left. As might be expected, much questioning was made of the two seamen relating to the fearful scene they had been witnesses to and so nearly partakers of. This, however, was in a room adjoiningthe court. The captain was spoken of in the most eulogistic terms. Several incidents mentioned in the newspapers as facts they knew nothing about, and disavowed having oc- curred. For instance, that passengers had expressed an intention to shoot themselves at the last extremity, or their friends if requested. Again, that the offer of money for safety was made by a young Jewess, who beat her bosom wildly and said she had 5001. placed there which she would give for her life. The men were confident many persons had died in the cabin long before the ship went down, and they described the numbers of Bibles and Prayer Books there as some- thing incredible. They added that the reliance felt by the passengers on the captain was such as to render it certain if he had placed his foot on the boat all would have tried to follow, and not one soul would have sur- vived to tell the tale. The boat was but fifty yards from the vessel when the final moment came, yet not any vibration or shock indicated the appalling disap- pearance.
THE EARL OF SHAFTESBURY ON THE DORSETSHIRE LABOURER." The Dorsetshire Labourer" having been the subject of so much discussion, the Earl of Shaftesbury, who is Lord-Lieutenant of the county, and owns a con- siderable quantity of its land, has come forward to say what he knows on the subject, and the tenor of his communication is that this much commiserated labourer is a great deal better off than people have been taught to believe. Out of 185 labourers, married and single, taken from contiguous farms, and who may be considered fair representatives of their class, Lord Shaftesbury finds that though their nominal wages in no instance exceed 10s. 6d. per week, the total value of their earnings (so many are their perquisites) is not less than 14s. 61d. per week. But this is not the full statement of their financial position. The peasantry pay a weekly rent of Is. for their cottages, which are, many of them, quite new, each having a front and back kitchen on the ground-floor, three bedrooms up- stairs, and every form of outhouse and other con- veniences essential to the comfort of domestic life. To each cottage, at a rental of 40s. and upwards, a garden is attached, the produce of which is estimated by themselves at 4d. weekly, reducing thus the rent by one-third of the amount named. In addition to this, the allotment system extensively prevails, and is very advantageous to the labourer. In Dorsetshire also they are great admirers of short hours. As a -general rule, and with very few exceptions, no labourer, from the middle of September to the middle of July in the following year, commences work until seven o'clock, nor continues it beyond five, with half an hour off for breakfast and an hour for dinner, giving, there- fore, to his employer, instead of ten, only eight hours and a half a day. From the middle of July to the middle of September he comes earlier to his work, and stays at it longer; but then he his paid, for every hour beyond the eight hours and a half given in general, extra wages for his extra work. "This is a practice, says Lord Shaftesbury, "very dear to our people; and, in proof of it, I may state that when one of my principal tenants-Mr. Symes, a man of great intelligence and liberality—offered to increase the weekly wage in return for an increased amount of daily labour, he was met by an immediate and hopeless refusal.
A HINT. The enclosed extract of a letter just received from a gentleman who has for many years been largely en- gaged in farming operations at Port Natal may perhaps be interesting and useful just now, when the cattle plague is making such serious havoc in many parts of this country (writes Mr. Edmund Fry, of 25, Glo'ster- place, Brighton). The writer is a man whose great in- telligence and experience as a practical farmer entitle his testimony to careful attention: Nov. 2,1865. I am sorry to find that you have what we call the lung sickness amongst your cattle in England. I have lost hun- dreds of pounds by it. We inoculate all our cattle now, which is a certain preventive, unless the disease is already in them. To your country connection my experience may be of use. We kill a beast which is lung sick. A calf or young beast we prefer. We then cut off a piece of the lung that is full of virus, but not the black part. We syringe the virus into a cup, and then soak about four threads of lamp cotton in it. We scrape a few hairs off about four inches from the end of the tail, and with the point of a penknife we make the smallest incision just under the skin, so as not to make it bleed. We then with a darning-needle draw the cotton through the hole and cut it off, leaving a piece in with about half an inch projecting on each side. If it take properly, the tail becomes stiff and full of pus- tules, which, when at the proper height, is still better to in- oculate or to vaccinate from the tail, if taken at the proper ti-ne, being quite free from blood-quite clear from water. Cattle properly done may be turned into a krall every night with diseased cattle and will not take it. Any cattle owner in Natal would rather give 10Z. each for oxea that he knows to have been inoculated than 81. if not done. If the tail swell very much it should be bathed with vinegar and water and lined in several places. Some years since, when the disease first broke out, I re- fused to adopt this plan, as did many others; the conse- quence was I lost all my oxen, about 3091, or 4001 worth. I never think of giving more than 51. or 61. for uninocu- lated cattle, and then get them done as soon as we can meet with the virus.
THE QUEEN AND THE CATTLE PLAGUE. On Saturday afternoon Major-General the Hon. A. N. Hood presided at an adjourned meeting of agriculturists and landowners from Berks, Middlesex, Bucks, and Surrey, held at the Town-hall, Windsor, for the purpose of promoting the formation of the Windsor Mutual Association for the Insurance of Cattle. General Hood read the report of the committee, and in the course of his remarks stated that a circular had been issued to the landowners and others inviting them to subsoribe to the guarantee fund to collect statistics of the number of horned cattle in the pro- posed district, and informing them that the rate of insurance would be 10 per cent., of which sum 2h per cent. the insurer would be called upon to pay at once, and that no animal should be valued at more than 251. They had received returns from less than half of the parishes included in the district, and in those there were about 5,000 horned cattle. He regretted that they had not got all the returns, but they had found that many of the smaller farmesp were very desirous of insuring their stock. He was happy to say that the guarantee fund now amounted to 25,000?., and there was every reason to believe that it would become still larger, and then the association would be founded upon a very substantial basis. They had obtained the opinion of ccunsel as to whether the association ought to be formed in accordance with the provisions of the Limited Liability Act of 1862, and the answer was that it was not necessary, as the association was to be formed for indemnity and not for gain. Mr. Harvey, M.P., proposed, and Mr. Lambert, High Sheriff of Bucks, seconded the adoption of the report, the latter gentleman remarking that of all plans the formation of the association was the best, and much better than all the restrictive measures that had been passed by the quarter sessions of the country. The adoption of the report was carried unanimously. The chairman stated that her Majesty would give a guarantee to the sum of 500?., provided the rules, when submitted to the Queen, were approved of by her, and if it was shown that it was the wish of the inhabitants of the neighbourhood that the association should be established. The rules of the association were adopted, and the proceedings terminated with a vote of thanks to the chairman. The Court Journal states that the greatest precau- tion has been observed by Mr. Tait, at the Queen's Daii y Farm, in the Home-park at Windsor, and the Prince Consort's Model Farm, adjoining the Great Park, known as Shaw Farm, against the introduction of the cattle plague, which up to this time has been successful, no symptom of this dire complaint having presented itself on the royal farms, notwithstanding the serious loss of cattle among the farmers and gentry of the neighbourhood of Windsor. On Friday all the cattle on the two royal farms, upwards of 200, were vaccinated.
THE LAW OF TREASURE TROVE. This was an action brought by the Great Western and Metropolitan Railway Company against Joel Emanuel, residing at Nottinghill, Londen, student- at-law, to recover 5111. damages, for detaining a purse of money found by him in a carriage on their railway. The case was heard in the Marylebone County Court. From the opening address of Mr. James, it appeared that defendant was a passenger on the Metropolitan line, and picked up a purse in one of their railway car- riages. He immediately informed the station master at Nottinghill of the occurrence, and at the same time giving his name and address, expressed his willingness to deliver up the purse and contents to any person who had lost it and could give a proper description of it. No person had appeared to claim it, and the plaintiffs now said they had a right to keep the purse, on the ground that it had been found on their premises. The defendant, on the contrary, contended that having found the purse he was entitled to retain it against all persons but the rightful owner. The solicitors to the railway company had written to the defendant asking him to return the purse, at the same pointing out how important it was that any property lost on their line should be delivered up to the company to take care of, and the directors had provided a lost property room for that especial purpose, to which he made the fol- lowing reply:— Dear Sirs,-In reply to your favour of yesterday I certainly did find a purse in one of the carriages on the Great Western Railway Company, and I certainly mean to keep it until I find the rightful owner, then I shall feel great pleasure JJ1 returning it. I am at a loss to conceive by what right the railway company claim to be entitled to the custody of the purse. I claim my authority to retain it under the old classical motto, "Findings, keepings." (I forget at this moment whether from Horace or Virgil.) It is very kind of the railway company to specially provide an office for lost property, and reflects great credit upon the benevolence and disinterestedness of the directors. Actuated by their example, I have a room in my honse which I intend to de- vote to the same purpose, and 1 think the purse will be just as comfortable in my room as in theirs.-I have the honour to be, your faithful servant, JOEL EMANUIL. He (Mr. James) did not know whether Mr. Emanuel intended to dispute the action on classical authority or on legal grounds if the latter there was no defence. It was clear the railway company were liable for loss of any of the goods of their passengers, and being found on their promises, it would entitle them to the custody of the same. No one could contend that if a traveller left his carpet-bag in a railway carriage any stranger was at liberty to open the door and take it away. The cases of Merry v. Green (voL viL, Meeson and Welsby's Reports) and Cartwright v. Green (8 Vesey, 409) decided that property left in an inn belonged to the innkeeper, and not to any one finding it in the house. Again, in a recent case of Le Contour against the South Western Railway (Law Journal Reports, January, 1866), it was laid down by the Lord Chief Justice that the liability of a railway company for goods lost by their passengers did not cease because the passenger had taken the goods into his compart- ment under his own care, and had not put them in the luggage van. On these authorities he maintained the plaintiffs were entitled to recover. Mr. Emanuel observed that Mr. James having stated that the object of the action was not so much to recover the value of the purse as to'lay down some distinct law on the matter to guide them in future occurrences, he would ask his Honour's pardon for occupying the time of the court by entering more fully into the law and authorities on the matter than he should otherwise have done. He distinguished the cases of Merry v. Green and Cartwright v. Green from the present one. The title of an innkeeper to property found in hia house arose by reason of his liability for the lost pro- perty of his guests. It had been laid down by Black- stone (vol. i., p. 295) that the finder of a lost article was entitled to retain it against all persons but the rightful owner. In Armory v. Delamire it was held that the finder of a lost article, though he does not by such finding acquire an absolute owership, yet has such a property as will enable him to keep it against all per- sons but the rightful owner. This case had been quoted in 1851, in the case of Bridges v. Hawkesworth, where Patterson J. said that this dictum had never been dis- puted. In Bridges v. Hawkesworth, 15 Jurist, 1,078; 21 Law Journal, Q.B., n.s., p. 75, a person entering a shop found on the floor a bundle of bank notes, it was decided that the finder of the notes was entitled to keep them and not the owner of the shop. The railway company did not know the purse was ever in their possession; and in Sutton v. Moody, Lord Raymond's Reports, p. 250, it was held that in every case where goods being on a person's premises gives him a title to them, there must be a knowledge on his part that the goods were on his premises and a desire to possess them. The 16th and 17th Vict., c. 33, s. 11, which enacted that lost property found in a metro- politan stage carriage or hackney cab should be de- livered up te the police, did not apply to property found in a railway carriage, therefore the law was in same condition in the present case as to goods found in a hackney cab before the passing of that Act. Mr. Emanuel referred to various authorities to prove that all treasure trove vested in the person finding it, and that a railway company were only liable for lost goods when they had been entrusted to their custody or through the negligence of their servants (Great Nor- thern Company v. Shepherd, 2L L. J. Exch., 114, Addison on Torts, p. 408); and the action being for 501. the plaintiff's liability did not extend beyond 101. unless value declared. Mr. James: The purse was in the constructive pos- session of the company, and they are entitled to re- cover as bailees. Mr. Emanuel: The purse may have been stolen, and thrown through the window by the thief; in that case it would never have been in their constructive posses- sion. Mr. Emanuel said on classical grounds he might have been in error. He had been told that "Findings, keepings," was from Juvenal, not from Horace or Virgil. He had not, however, referred to the autho- rities on classical grounds. His Honour said this was a case of such importance that he must reserve his judgment until the 6th of February, to consider the law on the matter at the same time he must express his obligation for the able manner in which the case had been argued, and the elaborate review of the authorities by the gentlemen engaged.
A SENSATIONAL TELEGRAM. Some stir was made in London and other places on Monday morning by an announcement that proceedings were being taken at Washington for the recall of the American Minister from London, and the issue of a proclamation of non-intercourse with England. The statement was, however, at once appreciated at its true value, when it became known that its only basis was the introduction of a resolution into the Senate by Mr. Chandler, which had been "tabled" (that is "shelved") by a majority of 2 to 1. Mr. Chandler is Sen- ator from Michigan, and the same gentleman who in Dec., 1864, offered in the Senate a resolution demand- ing that the Secretry of State should be instructed immediately to make out a list of American ships de- stroyed by vessels from England, and demand pay- ment with interest; and about the same time sug- gested that notice should be given for the termination of the Extradition Treaty with Great Britain. This however, was at the time of the St. Alban's raid, when the corsairs from this country were recklessly destroy- ing American commerce. Mr. Chandler is a promi- nent, but not very influential Western man, and the large majority by which his proposition was set aside shows how strongly the Senate is inclined to a policy of peace.-The Daily Telegraph, in a. leader on the subject, sensibly says The Americans have as much reason as orrselve8 to be satisfied with the result. Even supposing the claims for damages had been recoverable, the amount to be thus obtained could not have compensated for the loss consequent upon an interruption of friendly relations with England. The war has inflicted serious injury upon the commerce of the United States. For a period of four years their foreign trade was almost stopped by the dreaded cruisers. But the question arises whether the sufferers cannot more easily recoup themselves by actively renewing commercial inter- course with England, than by preferring litigious de- mands. Large mercantile houses have generally a great dread of law, and consider it likely to bring more plague than profit even when they have right on their side. That is the lowest view of the case, but it is one which cannot fail to have presented itself to the shrewd Yankee intellect. • The United States will gain more by pushing their legitimate* trade than they could possibly secure by quarrelling with this country. Even if every farthing of the supposed damages could be recovered, the successful litigants would find that they had prosecuted a losing suit by driving away their best customers. To the so-called "practical man" that is, the man who cannot or will not look beyond the exigencies of the moment-these immediate considerations may appear sufficient. But upon a more comprehensive view of the subject, it will be seen that America has still stronger reasons for abandoning her untenable claims. Had they been en- forced, as they probably would in the case of a weaker Power than Great Britain, we should have had a precedent that must have operated disastrously against the United States in any future European war. What Mr Adams required was that we should be responsible for all the damage inflicted by the cruisers which were equipped from our shores. On the same principle, his own country might hereafter be called upon to reimburse some powerful Continental State for losses occassioaed by vessels proceeding from Atlantic ports and harbours. The obligation which such demands imply would, as wejhave already pointed out, be so inconvenient that no Government could undertake to observe it. A neutral may possibly be called upon to abstain from interposing in foreign quarrels; but to require that it should prevent all its subjects from aiding either belligerent, is to impose an interminable task. No State could be responsible for all the injurious actsjdone by each of its citizens; the most rigorous law of nations could exact no more than that a neutral power shall not voluntarily aid belligerents or con- nive in the tender of assistance to them. If the contrary prin- ciple were once admitted, it might extend, not only to damages or a warlike kind, but also t* injuries committed in time of ,Mr- Adams's doctrine is, in a word, that of universal responsibility for the tortious acts of individuate. foctrae prevaited, England might have to com- Php 5ub:fects for the losses sustained through forcersfalse rouble-notes by a gang of SUt hf ?n .,the same way. the British Govern- i be re(lulred to redress any injury received by foreigners from proceedings originating in this inland
VACCINATION FOR CATTLE, &c., &c. The following interesting, useful, and practical letters on vaccination for the rinderpest, or cattle plague, which for so many months has been decimating our herds of cattle, are extracted from the Times •— From the EARL OF AIRLIJI. In order to test the efficacy of vaccination as a preventive against the cattle plague, I sent two vaccinated animals (an ox and a heifer calf) and one not vaccinated to an infected farm on the 15th inst. Both animals had been vaccinated on the 6th, and the vaccination had taken in each case I have just heard that the vaccinated ox is dead. The ox which was not vaccinated is very ill, and there is said to be no hope of its recovery; the heifer caJf has had a slight cough, but he has never shown any symptoms of plague, and is said to be new to all appearance quite well. For the purpose of testing the preventive powers of vaccination as severely as possible all the animals were by my direction brought into close con- tact with cattle which were suffering from plague in its most aggravating form. Inoculation does not seem to be more successful than vacci- nation. A stockowner in the neighbourhood of Forfar has had seven animals inoculated with the virus of diseased cattle. Four out of the seven are dead. As I have been very fortunate hitherto, so far as my own cattle are concerned, perhaps you will allow me to state what has been the result of my experience. I have cattle on three separate farms, one of them is and has been for some time past literally surrounded by infected tarms, and the disease is raging on farms adjoining both the others. But I have not as yet had a single case of disease on any one farm. I attribute this immunity, not only to a rigid isolation but to a liberal use of disinfectants. Ever since the plague began to make its appearance in my neighbourhood t have used chloride of lime, coal-tar, and M'Dougall's disinfecting powder daily without stint. Experience seems to show that isolation alone is not now sufficient to keep off the disease. There are in my neigh- bourhood, and I believe elsewhere, in which the plague has broken out on farms where the outbreak cannot be traced to communication with any infected place. The air seems to have become tainted in districts where the disease has been allowed to continue for any considerable length of time.
From GEORGE OKELL, M.R.C.S., &0. On January 3rd I vaccinated 12 cows belonging to my father, Mr. Okell, of Gorstage, near Northwich, Cheshire. On January 10th I vaccinated the remainder of the stock, 15 in number. In all except two, one cow and a bull, was the operation successful. None of the cows were ill at the time I vaccinated them, but in a few days several of the herd be- came affected with rinderpest, and up to this date, January 27, 19 head of stock have been attacked with the disease. Eight cows have died, and five of these had been successfully vaccinated at least 14 days before they showed symptoms of rinderpest, four cows are recovering, and two, the bull and one cow, are quite well, and, singularly enough, these last are the two in which the operation of vaccination was un- successful.. I live in the centre of a great dairy district, and I have vaccinated a large number of cattle-at least 500 head, for when I commen ced,vaccination 1 had great faith in it as a preventive me asure, but I am very sorry to say that I believe my labour has-been in vain, for but that I am unwilling to occupy morèlJbf your valuable space I could relate other instances in which cattle have been attacked with rinderpest, and have died although they had been suc- cessfully vaccinated.
From Mr. WILLIAM B. CAREW, Government Con- tractor, Market-street, Manchester. For three weeks past I have been experimenting on a herd of 45 head of cattle, but have refrained from publishing the successful result attained until repeated experiments confirmed and proved beyond doubt the efficacy of the treat- ment I have adopted. Very nearly following Mr. Tollemache's system I have also used in various doses a preparation principally com- posed of oarracena pierpuria (or peipuriens), or Indian cun aud the gratifying result has been as follows Recovered. Recovering. Died. 9 Having the rinderpest badly 7 o .7 2 16 „ less severely 14 i i 20 Were vaccinated, and the pre- paration given rather freely, and then allowed to mix with those infected sor nine days; all are now well .20 0 o 45 41 1 "3 Considering that many of your readers may feel an interest in the above experiments, I shall be most happy to supply gratuitously what I have left of the preparation, together with fullest detailed account of experiments, doses, &e., in my power.
From MB. C. J. WATTERSON. On January 111 vaccinated (with humanized lymph) nine beasts for a Mr. G— On the eighth day seven had taken successfully. With the lymph obtained from these beasts, I and others have vaccinated between 400 and 500 head of cattle (calves, yearlings, milch cows, steers, and fat beasts; under cover apd in open yards. Not one of all these have taken.. On January 15 I vaccinated with humanized lymph 13 head of cattle, and on the 16th three calves; and of the id ten were successful, and also all three of the calves, with tne lymph from these cattle, I, and several people 'to whom I distributed the lymph) have vaccinated a great number of beasts but of course, as yet, I oannot tell whether the re- sult will be satisfactory or not. These facts clearly point out that vaccination from beast to beast is not of much avail. A A day or two since I vaccinated tw0. lymph obtained from the cattle above mentioned, it is yet too early to know the result. „ Sir in this crisis when cattle are dying by thousands of the rinderpestT and when every man ought to assist his fellow- man in the effort to stop this dreadful scourge the answer of Government to applications for vaccrne lymph is a printed statement. that having only sufficient lymph for the vacci- u. nation of the human species, none can be supplied for vac- cinating cattle." Surely, Sir, this is a gross case of red *^1 ought to state that all the cattle above mentioned were vaccinated in the inside of the ear, that part of a beast being more easily got at, and being covered with a very thin skin.
From READY LANCET." In some letters in the Times the importance of vaccination as a prevention of cattle disease is urged. In others we «.r« asked to beware of a manufactured vaccine. Can any of your inf.ormTn»e where pure lymph can be obtained, Y.accine institution in a printed form declining ♦ 7 I other than human vaccination? If vacci- is to be of service (in parts especially where the dis- ease is on the increase) it is important that a large supply of tymph should be speedily attainable. Some dozen of anxious owners of some hundreds of eattle want only vaccine.
From Mr. GEORGE CHARLES JENNER, Blakeney, „ Gloucestershire, Jan. 27. I am surprised that the country should be at a standstill for pure lymph to vaccinate their cattle, when, on the 15th ,wrote to Sir George Grey, stating how pure IH^EI 00 (1 procured to vaccinate all the cattle in the an(*> were it attended to, every head of cattle might be vaccinated in six weeks, or, at the outside, two a £ put a stop 40 this dreadful disease, which is our cattle by thousands weekly. I should feel inserting my plan in the Times, that it may from y ,kn°wn> which is as follows—Take the lymph a hMltw r t £ °rSfi that has the grease, and vaccinate can ^ntat^Tv.and *fom this cow vaccinate other cattle. I assisted^8810 the result' father, who too ? r- Jenner, in the discovery of vaccina- would hft »told me of the great benefit vaccination ?e'f ould the smallpox break out among A i m his travels, taking vaccination to different E^e™fld' °hlig«d to have recourse to the nation i h!f 1ymPh from the cow to go en with his vacd- wherethe cattteplSeTrft10
I From ME. T. D. GREGORY, M.R.C.V.S., Bideford. Within the last few weeks Dr. Murchison Mr Oelv and rindCTMstei?Uwintih 1stat.e™ents most confidently that the vaccin^iL J-n Tan°la or small-pox, and that opinions of 8 P^P^actic to the disuse. The raised hAru» ^eh high, medical authorities have naturally' S few"! -he public mind that the dreadful scour^ the future be wi&Ti^n control °f thei/o^ers ar^?h°tLanim^ 1)6611 ™*inated, «"»<* ixnmS from restl?g ?n fanciod security of their Tin? r *E?gh J116'"0?1 authorities as those already like Mr ToUemach^ri.?^* "I6 the believers in this theory, ATvet' the ater tion s nf ft be to° sanguine «f the result AS yet tne assertions of these authorities are not Droved • muchremams to be accomplished, and I CM^ot bu^^li would have been far better and more consistent had tow placed the matter beyond a doubt before they put toS statements that are based upon mere hypothesis. In the belief that those diseases are identical I do not sub- scribe. Rinderpest is no more smallpox than it is typhus, typhoid, or scarlet fever. That they are all blood-poisoned diseases allied to each other, belonging to the same class— exanthematous or eruptive—I have from the first never en- tertained a doubt; but the poison or contagious matter of the one cannot nor ever will be made to produce the other • each has its distinct and specific entity. If these diseases are identical, how comes it that but one or two doubtful instances can be quoted of anything like pustular eruptions having appeared upon the persons of the hundreds of the genus homo who are being constantly brought within the influence of the contagious matter of rinderpest. They could not all have been protected by v»ccination. And again, if this is smallpox, it does appear strange that not in one case has the true variolous pustule been seen upon any part of the skin of the diseased The disease is said to be suppressed, and that the thick- ness of the skin prevents the development of the pustules. /he skm of the animal is not too thick for the vesicle of the true1 cowpox to show itself, and why that of smallpox, if such Ji J86*^613 L M_any other reasons might be brought for- 8 the fallacy of this theory, but a public journal is, perhaps, not the proper arena wherein to discuss further this part of the subject not* y6t been Proved to be a preventive veterinary profession has not been so H be?n alle8ed- B°«i this and inocu- lation have been tested, and found not to be so productive of benefit as some would have us believe. In Russia and other countries it has been long practised. Since 1853 the reports from these countries afford streng evidence of the hopeless- ness of the system. I advise the public, therefore, not to be too sanguine of the power of vaccination in preventing this disease. But in order to allay the excitement at present existing, let the Go- 7!^e.nt ? called uP°n to institute a thorough investigation (if this is not being done), and so have the matter placed be- yond a doubt in this country. Until this is done, thousands of impositions will be practised; the pockets and credulity of cattle owners will be a prey to every would-be operator, who will make them believe that the mere scratch of the lancet is sufficient to produce the good effects of vaccination h*hiZ°«eJ fbU8 f°-ollshly would 8° towards estab- ln,sFal,ce against the losses occasioned by the disease. I would warn the agriculturists in England to tlous' andnot to be lulled into fancied security and rinderpest measures for the suppression of the
SEIZURE OF ARMS IN DUNDALK. a On Saturday morning, the Dundalk police effected an extensive seizure of rifles, bayonets, and pistols, which had just arrived by the steamboat from Liver- pool. No information whatever had been given about the matter; but, looking over the invoices of the goods, a list of which is now daily supplied to the police the designation of certain goods, viz., cases," without throwing any light, as to the contents, excited their suspicions. The next morning the steamboat arrived at the quay at about six o'clock, but long before that time Sub-Constables Morehead and Read were at their posts, and eagerly scanned all the goods that were unshipped. After various other packages had been removed which had no interest for the police, two men were soon visible on the tramway carrying a flat box, and as they walked along the plank from the boat to the land it was easily seen that their strength was put to the test. The box was laid down, and the men returned to the boat, and another box came, which was followed by a third. No more having made their appearance, those which had just been landed were about to be taken to the railway station, when the police went over and seized the boxes. The camera were not a little surprised, but they were obliged to succumb to the tap of authority. The boxes were laid on the ground, and, of course, as there was only a very meagre suspicion attached to their con- tents, a satisfactory peep was all that the police desired. The contents of the boxes were from Birmingham, f8 lhre outside indicated, and they were directed to Mr. bhera, an extensive ironmonger in that locality After some difficulty the boxes wer^ forced open, and the gleam of satisfaction which reigned on the counte- nance of the police evinced success. Packed neatly together in the first box were 30 well-finished carbines; under these lay concealed a number of large pistols^ together with a quantity of moulds for making bullets. The under boxes were then examined, and their efforts were met with similar success each contained about 30 heavy double-barrelled guns, not unlike the ordinary fowling-pieces,"but resembling rifles. By this time a large crowd had congregated, and the police, after shutting and binding their treasure, had some difficulty in making their way to the barracks. The affair, when made known through the town, created con! siderable excitement, for on the day previous a similar seizure had been effected. • ■ ^the seizure in the morning created any excitement, it was redoubled when the news spread over the town that another and more extensive one had been effected. Sub-Constables Neil and Gorman were on duty in eve about five o'clock, and, 0n -^e ^uivive, and the recent seizures made them scan with a critical eye every object which T^d n?} cr(rate the slightest suspicion. In the middle of the street is the forge, at which there are always a number of carts standing, waiting the shoeing of horses. The constables went over to one of the carts, on which were some boxes, and suspect- ing, from the outward shape, that there might be something inside worth looking for, forced the box open, and discovered about 50 rifles. There was also in another box a large number of bayonets. The boxes were taken to the barracks, where they were safely secured. It appeared that the carter did not know the contents of the boxes, but was merely taking them to their destination in county Cavan.
• PE4THR0F A FRENCH CELEBRITY.—M. Gisquet is dead. I venture to say (says a Paris correspondent) that out of your myriads of readers not above a hun- dred are acquainted with his name and yet he was one of the most remarkable men of the age in France. By uidustiy and talent Gisquet rose to be partner in the banking-house of Penere and Co. He powerfully contributed to the revolution of July, and soon after was rewarded with a mission to London—to buv muskets-and on his return was made prefect of police a post he retained for five years, during which he con: trived to draw down upon himself and upon the Government an amount of contemptuous unpopularity which no ability he commanded could possibly com- pensate.' It was under his auspices that the notorious Vidocq was converted from a forcat into a thief-taker. His career was abruptly cut short by an action for libel brought by himself, in which he recovered one franc (lOd.) damages, and drew down on himself such a philippic from the Avocat du Roi (the modern Pro- cureur Imperial), a philippic so pitilessly scorching, and so cruelly true, that ignominious dismissal was the result. He was the inventor of what is known as the French mouckard; an invention which seems likely to survive him many years. He had of late turned manufacturer, and death found him "highly respected in the little borough he lived in, in the neighbourhood of Paris. RAILWAY ANECDOTE.—We have just heard the following (says Horapath).-Ticket inspector, a good- looking Irishman, of gentlemanly appearance and in gentleman's clothes—on a railway station, with a num- ber of passengers waiting for a train-addressing him- self to one of a family of little girls after common- place observations—"Now, my dear little lady, I should take you to be as much as 12 years of age," Little girl—" Twelve, sir! I was 13 la«t month." Inspector —"Show me your ticket? Which of course proved to be a half-one for a child under 12.
THE MARKETS. MARK LANE, MONDAY. ^t^°Tndiffer^f was moderate, and the quality ww very ent. Sales consequently progressed verv fl?ivevalue rorarfv* °* realised about their re- ^nld For^L ii?00* irF 8amPles late rates were obtamed. foreign wheat met only a limited inquiry, but ^a tLt^n^h Armly and it was quite im exceptional f purchases could be effected at any advantage, dJnr -Nh? M?elng icuTrelltly asked. The flour trade was rAiin+,i! J? ¥lge t0°k PlaSe in the prices of town made, country marks moved off in small lots at the previous rates. American barrels firm. The few transactions in malt were without quotable change in prices. Malting barley was in moderate request and realised quite late rates. Malting descriptions were dull of sale, but not lower. Peas sold rather more freely at the previous currency. There were fair supplies of native beans but few foreign imports. and the market currency was steady. Oats were in fair sup- ply, but steady rates were paid for all good sorts. Linseed is firm, with a fair inquiry. Kapeseed maintains its value The floating grain trade remains without essential chantre since our last, firm rates being claimed for both wheat and maize. METROPOLITAN CATTLE MARKET.—MONDAY. The market has this morning shown some reaction from the depression caused by the restrictions recently imposed respecting the sale and slaughter of cattle. The supply, depression Perhaps and partly from the prohibitions as to the sending of cattle from some localities, was remarkably short, and as the dead meat markets have somewhat unproved, the tone of the trade here was altogether better, higher prices being in nearly all cases paid. POTATOES. There is verylttle change to report in the general character ef the markets. Trade is by no means brisk, but there is sufficient demand to lend fair support to prices. We quoteScotch regents, 48s. to 70s. York and Lincoln, 60s. to 80s.; Kent and Essex, 60s. to 80s. flukes, 80s. to 100s. Per ton. HOPS. There has been more inquiry the last few days, and although the trade is limited to consumptive requirements, prices are firmly maintained. Very few ifne and good samplesbeing on hand there is a disposition to hold for higher rates. The Belgian and Bavarian markets are firm, with scarcely any good samples on offer, and the latest American advices report an improved demand for best qualities of English hops in New York. Old hops continue in demand. This day's pricesNew Mid and East Kents, 100s., 147s. to 190s.; new Weald of Kents, 90s., 115s. to 14os.; new Sussex, 90s., 100s. to 120s.; new Farnhanu, lMs., 140s. to 168s.; new Worcester's, 1008., 120S. to M7s. ? mew Belgians, 106s. to 210s; older dates, 26s. to 00s.
ENDOWED GRAMMAR SCHOOLS. A return to an order of the House of Commons has lately been published, which gives in a tabular form much information concerning the endowed grammar schools of England and Wales. The chief particulars afforded present the name3 of founders, dates of en- dowment, and that "of the last scheme of the Court of Chancery or the Charity Commissioners for the management of the schools," those of the trustees and how they are appointed, a description of the trust, statements of the gross and net incomes, the subjects taught, the masters and their incomes and appoint- ments the number of scholars, first, under 10 years of age secondly, between 10 and 14; thirdly, above 14; distinguishing day-scholars on the foundations and boarders. Also an account of exhibitions or scholar- ships in each school, if any. Some of the statements appear, on being compared, very startling, on account of the apparent difference between the means and results of the several estab- ments. t Thus, the grammar school at Beaumaris has a net income of 3701. a year, and two exhibitions of 201. a year each, at any college in Oxford or Cam- bridge, and only six scholars on the foundation this being an average of six years: boys not on the founda- tion each pay capitation fees, amounting to ten guineas annually; ofjjthese the same avsrage gives forty-three. Again, Palmer's School and Almshouses, Westminster, has for objects the maintenance of six poor old men and six poor old women in the almshouses founded in the parish and the education of twenty poor children in an elementary manner. As to Eton, Rugby, Burton- on-Trent, Winchester, and the Mercers'" (London) schools, the following is all the information contained in this return:— The governing authorities of these schools -which are included in the Public Schools' Commission of 1861-have.. not made returns to the order of the House of Commons, of the 7th of July, 1864"-i.e., that which produced this return. Westminster, Harrow, Shrewsbury, Charterhouse, Merchant Taylors', St. Paul's, the City of London, Christ's^ Church, and other great endowed schools, are less reticent. It appears that in all Wales (without Monmouthshire) there are only twenty-eight endowed grammar schools, or one more than Lincolnshire con- tains. In the county of Somerset there are fifteen schools of this class, the same number in that of Oxford, twenty-three in Staffordshire, ten in Middle- sex, without London and Westminster. The county of Lancaster, with seventy-eight schools, stands highest in the matter of numbers in this point. Most of these date from the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Bedfordshire is low indeed, with one school, although that is a remarkable one. In the county of Wilts there are only seven schools; in Dorset, nine; Rutland contains two; Cornwall, six, one of which is in abeyance, another in decay; Mon- mouth, four; the three Ridings of York, with their metropolis, which contains three, sustain 112 schools in all, respectively thus North Riding, forty West Riding, sixty-two and East Riding, tell. The oldest grammar school in England to which a positive date can be ascribed is, according to this return, that of Wootton-under-Edge, foundedin 1384.).
A DARING ESCAPE. One of the most daring and remarkable escapes from gaol that ever occurred was effected in Sheffield on Saturday. The fugitive is a ticket-of-leave man named Donovan, alias Mangle, and he was in custody at Sheffield, under a committal to the assizes on two charges of robbery, and one of attempting to stab an officer. With him, in the same yard, were Robert Brookes, a notorious deserter, who nearly killed two policemen in an attempt to escape last week from a house in the town, and a burglar named Barnet. These men were confined in a yard which adjoins the women's day-room. A prisoner standing in the day ward referred to would have between him and the open street a wall of great height and solidity, bristling with formidable spiked railings and chevauK-'defrise, and the prospect of escape might appear very remote, But the genius of the builder provided a means by which all these obstacles can be overcome with the greatest ease. The prisoner, casting about for a mode to reach the outer air," would see in the corner of the ward a large iron pipe projecting from the wall in the left-hand corner. We will suppose that he is strong enough to be able to climb up this pipe. At the top he finds himself clinging to the bars of a grated window, which, of course, offer him an easy means of support until the next move is resolved upon. But little deliberation is necessary, for at the distance of little more than a yard is the spiked barrier already referred to. Ingeniously v inserted in the wall, between the spikes and window, and affording foothold to the daring adventurer, is a ridge of metal The chevaux-de-frise ought to revolve when it is pressed upon, but it has become firmly fixed by corrosion of the metal, and is as useful as a ladder. Using these "aids to freedom," the wall would be reached, and as the railing which surmounts it is only about four feet high, it would present a very slight obstacle, and he would only have to drop into the street. Shortly before noon on Saturday the turnkey on duty marshalled the prisoners under his charge who were required to go before the magistrates, and they left the cells. Those whom we have referred to by name had gone through that ceremony, and were left below. Unfortunately, the turnkey had left open the door in the wall which divides the two cells, and the prisoners were enabled to pass into the day ward. There the means of escape which we have described at once presented themselves, and they seem to have re- solved instantly to make use of them. Donovan made the ascent by the "easy stages we have described, and at last stood upon the top of the wall Here comes in the most remarkable part of the story. The time was a quarter-past 12, the scene Waingate, and the chief actor ia full view of all the passengers in that busy street. An instant alarm and speedy recapture appeared inevitable, but fortune favoured the fugitive. He was seen by about a dozen persons to cross the waL and effect his descent into the street, and yet none of them gave an alarm! Still more curious to relate there were two policemen standing at the corner of the Town-hall, but they were looking up the Haymarket, and saw nothing of the exciting drama which was being enacted within 20 yards of them. At last, the gather- ing crowd attracted the attention of one of them (West), and he walked down the street, thinking that something was wrong at one of the shops. When he got to the boundary of the Town-hall, he was saluted with jeers and cries of You're too late; he's gone." The officer at once divined the cause of the assemblage, and an alarm was given. While some pursued Donovan down the Vicker, whether he had been running at his best speed (a proof that he had escaped unhurt by the fall), others bolted into the receiving-office and gave information there. Mr. Inspector Cooke hastened down stairs, and found that Brooks was just climbing the first step of the ladder. He and Barnet looked extremely disappointed, as was but natural under the circumstances. They told the police that Donovan had levanted over the wall inorderto keep an appointment with a young woman, and they seemed very glad that he had succeeded in his bold attempt. It is unne. cessary to add that the police commenced a vigorous pursuit after Donovan.
A SPORTSMAN OF THE OLD SCHOOL. .Tvhe death is announced of General Charretie, in his eighty-third year "Argus," of the Post, relates the follow- ing incidents of this ardent sportsman: He was an extraordinary man, and his like has rarely ever been met with; and, for his own sake I trust he was not so bad as he was iu the habit of painting himself. Reared in a loose school, that of thirty years ago, when the late Colonel Berkeley was Viceroy" of Cheltenham, and held a species of court" at the castle, he was one of the principal officers of his staff, and shared in the sports and pas- times of the queen of watering-places. In all manly pursuits he excelled, being a dead shot, a bold rider, and still bolder better, a clever poet, and a skilful musician. As a companion, none could be more amusing, and his sang froid was delicious. One in- stance alone will suffice to show this. Some years back, when shooting in Hertfordshire, where he had hired a manor, he trespassed on the estate of a de- ceased nobleman, whose name shall be now. The keeper remonstrated with him in vain, and at last! one morning, while out with his master, he heard our friend, the general, blazing away at the pheasants in an adjoining cover, and directed his lordship's attention to him. The latter, naturally irritated beyond measure at the occurrence, desires his keeper to go and turn him off, and shoot one of his dogs, and added, as he was hurrying away to obey him, Here, you had better take my pony, and then you will get back quicker." And he handed to him at the same time a very favourite shooting pony, a perfect treasure, and one for which he would not have taken any money. The keeper, cantering away on him, soon comes up with the general, tells him to cease firing, for, if he does not, he shall have to kill one of his dogs by his lordship's orders. "Very well," replied the general, one of my dogs is an old one, and the other aeoyoung one; you had better shoot the oldest one of the two; but mind, if you do, I shoot your pony; and, as I am not sure where my manor finishes, I don't see why I should go away." The keeper, rendered more irate than ever by this cool speech, shot the dog in. stantaneously; but before he could turn round, the treasure of a pony was only fit for the next kennel Then addressing the terrified keeper he said, "If you shoot again, the next barrel is for yourself." But the servant would stop to listen to nothing else, and took to his heels to tell his master, who could not under- stand his not riding back on his pony, and was horrified at his fate. Before, however, he could resolve in his own mind what course he should adopt towards the general, he was still more surprised at receiving a challenge from the general for the insult that had been offered him by the shooting of his setter. Of course the noble lord did not accept it, for the fame of his antago- nist had reached him but, to prevent further annoy- ance, concessions were made, and the affair after a time blew over. Among other natural advantages he was gifted with an extraordinary memory, and a few years back, for a large bet, he related the whole contents of the Morn- ing Post, from the date to the publisher's name, with- out making a single error. He was a great lover of Shakspere, and far beyond the average stamp of amateur actors who interpreted him. On the Turf, or at billiards, or in a pigeon sweepstakes, he loved to be on a good thing." He showed no mercy to a Derby favourite which he did not like; and he had in his time some miraculous escapes. Gorhambury wa3 the only racehorse he ever owned, and with him, who started at 1000 to 15, he ran second to Cotherstone, beating Gaper, British Yeoman, and a number of good horses; and had he won, he remarked, there would have been corn in Egypt." Altogether, he was one of the most remarkable men I ever came across, and we must attribute his failings to the age in which he was reared and flourished. I wish I could add that his end was a peaceful one, but I am assured it was quite the reverse, and that to the last he refused the consolations of religion.