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WELSH CONGREGATIONALISM. The quarterly meetings of the Welsh Churches -of the Northern Division of Glamorganshire were held on Monday and Tuesday at Ynysgau Chapel, Merthyr. On Monday night sermons were preached by the Rev. R. 0. Evans, Ynysybwl, and the Rev. O. Jones, Mountain Ash. On Tuesday morning a conference was held, when various con- nexional subjects were discussed. A vote of con- dolence with the family and the Church of the late Rev. Dr. Thomas was passed, and a resolution was also passed expressive of satisfaction at the success of the Liberal cause at the recent general election, with the hope that the life of Mr. Glad- stone would be preserved to carry out measures which would give justice, not only to Ireland, but to Wales. In the afternoon the Rev. D. Evans, Bargoed, and the Rev. H. A. Davies, Cwmaman, preached, and in the evening discourses were -delivered by the Rev. T. Edmunds. Hirwain, and the Rev. A. Matthews, late of Patagonia.
THE VACANT PROFESSORSHIP AT…
THE VACANT PROFESSOR- SHIP AT ABERYSTWYTH. The professorship of Welsh at the University college, Aberystwyth, will be filled before the College opens next session. Mr. L. J. Roberts, B.A., of Exeter College, Oxfcrd, and formerly a distinguished student of St. David's College, Lampeter, will doubtless prove a strong candidate but I expect to find Mr. Edward Anwyl securing the appointment. Mr. Anwyl will be remembered as the one whose candidature for the Principalship of Bala-Bangor College was so much wricten about by that clique of young Oxford Welshmen known as the Dafydd Ap Gwilym Society. Mr. Anwyl will also be remembered as a frequent contributor ±o the SOUTH WALES STAB.
A TRIPLET OF GIRLS.
A TRIPLET OF GIRLS. A Paris correspondent states that an event very unusual in that city has just taken place at 23, Rue Beaubourg. A woman named Carle gave birth to a triplet of girls, all of whtm are described as thoroughly well formed and full of life. M. Carle, their father, and their mother are almost dwarfs.
A TRAMP ACROSS WALES.
A TRAMP ACROSS WALES. [BY THE RET. J. H. STOWELL, M.A.] VII.—THE HOTEL BOOK-WELSH CHAPEL- SINGING — THE PITT ROCK — MOUN- TAINEERING—RHYD-DD U. The Colwyn Temperance Hotel at Beddgelert is welcome to the free advertisement of being men- tioned here, but I can by no means endorse all that has been said "of it in the visitors' book. If ever I heard an unmitigated praising of very ordinary merits, it was there. I wanted another book in which a visitor might insert an honest complaint or two on leaving1. Yet the inanities of the unsolicited testimonials in this book were re- lieved by occasional humour, and I am sorry now I neglected to cull a few of the choicer specimens both of prose and verse. My eye, however, was struck by the following as being quit^ laconic, if not perfectly classical, in style :—" Hugh D Jane D-- get a good coffee at Colwyn and the next on the lij-t, which evidently aimed at being classical, but left in ambiguity the point as to whether the enjoyment in question was due to the excellence of the hotel or to other causes "Recovering from a severe illness. I drove here, accompanied by Miss S. A. W., and enjoyed a most lovely summer afternoon. Signed, D. M. R-. 8. A. W- To which had been added, 1 suspect by a later hand, "fy nr/rtriad anwyl, Sali Bach." I am not a Welsh scholar, but with the aid of a dictionary, I have been able to conjecture that the postcript suggests a certain theory of the un- feigned delight that animated Mr. D. II. R. as he penned the testimonial. Next morning after my arrival, being Sunday morning, I made full enquiries about churches and chapels and schools, and finally as to the religious persuasion of the landlady herself. She was a Calvinistic Methodist, and so graciously offered me a seat in her pew if I would accompany her to the morning service at the neighbouring chapel that I at once agreed. About a hundred yards beyond the hotel stands the chapel, a big, plain, square building, and I was duly marched into the hotpl pew. A good congregation assembled, punctually [ at eleven o'clock, the grave deacons gathered in the pew under ipulpit, and a refined, but some- what sad-lookiin-, elderly preacher conducted the service. It wa? il in Welsh, so 1 had little beyond my own medifcss.:«>ns to edify me. stimulated by the occasional recurrence of the sonorous, and to me intelligible, words "Gogoniant" and ¡; Ar- glwydd." It was a peaceful and impressive sight, these two hundred or more shepherd-folk gathered from hiils and homesteads many miles around, now silent and devout and now rising with some quaint impassioned hymn to a perfect rhapsody of harmonious son, What do I think of the Welsh singing? Well, I had heard it now unmistakably, and my verdict was I should like to hear it ag<un. It was slow, but well sustained, and full of feeling. At first it seemed rough and artless, and I felt inclined to smile at it as a sort of go-as-you-please concert, one man throwing in his profound bass quite casually, and his neigh- bour suddenly breaking out into a soaring tenor. Yet they were all deadly in earnest; and presently the strange blending and dying away of half- formed harmonies would thrill one to the very marrow, with simple earnestness, I suppose. These people could sing, I thought. They meant it, and, further, could show that they meant it'; they could put their souls into sound, and that is genius and will thrill anybody. Talented singers can I sing cleverly, and force you to admire their clever- ness but men of genius are those who put soul into their work whether it be singing, or poetry, or preaching, or any form of art. And this Welsh congregation had genius. their singing may not have been very good, but it was real singing, and might have gone on for ever without tiring anybody. Two great sunbeams poured down upon us from the South windows and as I sat listening to the calmly delivered sermon, in which no approach was made to the familiar hwyl," I could see through the half-opened door across the valley to the sunlit sides of the distant mountain. At length we were dismissed, and I was told the sermon had been a very good one. And now I had a very difficult question to de- cide. Here was I, strong and eager for the fray there was Snowdon basking in sunshine, and appa- rently pining to be climbed before the weather should change. But it was Sunday. How much of a mountain constitutes a Sabbath Day's journey I wondered should I be making myself a stumbling block to Sabbath breakers if I tried to get to the top that afternoon ? On the whole I thought not, and determined to start, especially as I noticed the weather was inclined to be fickle. So I paid my reckoning, and munching my frugal dinner from a piece of paper, trudged up the road towards Rhyd-ddu, rrom which the shortest ascent of Snowdon commences. And here I must apolo- gise to the reader for another spell of bad weather. I couldn't help it, and it is really the last, all but a single thunderstorm that comes later on. Tire sunshine that brightened the morning went, and the clouds descended and the rain fell, and my boots were soon working on the hydraulic prin- ciple previously described. At a solitary farm- house I called and laid in as large a supply of fresh milk as convenient, and then faced what anyone would have told me was a wild and impossible task, under the circumstances, the ascent of Snowdon. The first disadvantage that I had to fight against was that I couldn't see the mountain. But the guide-book gave directions, and I pressed on along the main road till, reaching a great boulder- shaped curiosity like a man's head, and called the Pitt Rock, from a supposed likeness to the great statesmen. Here I turned aside and passed a farmhouse, and presently crossed an old cart road, at which, according to my book, I was to regard myself as genuinely at the foot of my mountain. But it was the wrong foot, as I fou-ndto my cost. The rain was beginning to swell the mountain torrents, and it was with great difficulty I clambered a few hundred yards, and looked fruit- lessly for the proper land-marks. So I turned back and pursued the old cart-road for a little distance, thinking I might have left it too soon. It led me temptingly alone till I came to a stream now greatly swollen and to my horror I found the bridge across had com- pletely broken away in the middle. So I had to go higher up and find stones on which. I could cross ankle-deep. Beyond this the road led upward past some rocks and sheep-pens not unlike those described in the guide book but the rain was awful; I was sodden and, moreover I was pretty clearly on the wrong track. so I took shelter for half an hour in one of these sheep-pens com- forting myself with biscuits and: condensed'milk. Then I retraced my steps, and after an adventurous recrossing of the stream I tried once more the road I had previously abandoned, feeling certain there were only these two alterations, and one must be right. And I struggled on for hours strangely exhilarated by the tempest. Sometimes the rain would cease, and the sweeping mist would lift itself from a great expanse of the tower ranges of the mountains. But I never saw the tops, and that was a pity, for if I had had only one true glimpse of Snowdon I should, have seen that I was'nt on it at all! Once, after a violent struggle up an almost perpendicular slope I found myself in a hurricane of mist, but at the top of something. There was no road on the right hand or left; and in front of me was only a roaring invisible abyss into which I felt all the winds of heaven were trying to sweep me. I had to turn round and creep down again as I could. Five hours I spent wandering over the hillsides looking for the road to Snowdon. I stooped on the brink of slate quarries two hundred feet deep, and flung great chunks of slate with a fine splash into the water at the bottom. I halloed, and sang, and ate biscnits, and began to get sick of condensed milk, and to think that this was truly the strangest Sunday afternoon I had ever spent. I had not got to the top of Snowdon yet; that was a fact. And I had better make my way back to civilization before nightfall; that was another. So I descended and made my way to the village of Rhyd-ddu, The villagers were all in chapel, even the hotel proprietress and her family so I went there too. But my physical condition was a distraction alike to myself and to the other worshippers so with a message I got the hotel people to put down their hymn books and attend to me. They provided me with some dry clothes, and I sat with them round the kitchen fire far into the evening. The chief singer from the chapel dropped in, and another young man, and these, with two sons and a daughter of mine hostess made up quite a sweet-voiced choir and sang for me again the hymns I had heard in the morniner. (To be continued.)
EPPS'S COCOA.—GRATEFUL AND COMPORTING —" By a thorough knowledge of the natural laws which govern the operations of digestion and nutrition, and by a careful application of the fine properties of well-selected COCOA, Mr. Epps has provided our breakfast tables with a delicately flavoured beverage which may save us many heavy doctors' bills. It is by the judicious use of such articles of diet that a constitution may be gradually built up until strong enough to resist every tendency to disease. Hun- (treds of subtle maladies are floating around us ready to attack wherever there is a weak point. We may escape many a fatal shaft by keeping ourselves well fortified with pure blood and a properly nourished frame.Civil Service. Gazette.-— Made simply with boiling water or milk. Sold only in packets, by Grocers, labelled—"JAMES EPPg <fc CO.,Homoeopathic 10 Chemista. London." [522-1
MINERS' PROVIDENT FUND. --♦—
MINERS' PROVIDENT FUND. ♦— CONFERENCE OF THE CENTRAL ASSOCIATION. PAPER BY MR. LOUIS TYLOR. The thirteenth annual conference of the Central Association for dealing with Distress caused by Accidents in Mines was held to-day at the Mansion House, the Lord Mayor of London (Alderman David Evans) presiding. There was a numerous attendance, including the Earl of Crawford. Sir John Llewelyn, Sir F. S. Powell, M.P., Mr. Tomlin- Son, M.P., Col. Blundell, and the Rev. Canon Kirby (Barnsley). The Lord Mayor, in opening the meeting, said that the object under notice at once appealed to their generosity and sympathy. Distress was a word, unfortunately, not unfamiliar to a Lord Mayor. Where the appeal was made to the Mansion House on account of a flood or famine or a fire, either at home or abroad, it was never made in vain. (Cheers.) This was not a new appeal. The association of the Mansion House with this organisation extended over sixteen years, while it was to be hoped that there would be no occasion to seek aid from the Mansion House during his year of office. If, unfortunately, an accident should occur, there need be no hesitation what- ever in appealing to him and there would be an immediate response. (Cheers.) In conclusion, I his Lordship referred to his recent visit to Wales, and expressed the pleasure with which he then received an address from Welsh miners. Lord Crawford, the president of the Association, moved the adoption of the report of the Council, I which showed that the total membership of the societies was 287,090. The total accumulated funds amounted to £423,ô1L and the revenue to £ 258,305. The number of widows in receipt of annuities was 2,384, the number of children 3,881. and the number of disablement cases dealt with during the year was 40.153. There had been in- creases of 18,705 in the number of members, and of £ 56,656 in the accumulated funds. The total number of deaths amongst the members in 1881 was 542, as compared with 71G in the previous year. With the exception of 1888 the mortality rate was lower than in any year since 1880. As the continuing results of efforts on the part of the societies to adjust their revenues to their liabilities, there had been a substantial increase m the revenues. The valuation reports of two of the largest societies recently issued illustrated what could be effected by determined efforts. To place the organisation on a sound financial basis there were the South Wales, and Lancashire, and Cheshire societies. An approxi- mate deficit in the funds of the former in 1885, amounting to £30,000, had, notwithstanding the disastrous explosions of Llanerch and Morfa, been reduced to £25,000, while with regard to the latter, a deficit of £53,000 had been reduced to £ 30,000. The Council had not been able to do anything on the question of re-insurance, interest in the subject having slackened no doubt because the public mind had not lately been excited by any great mining disaster. Mr. Louis Taylor had instituted an inquiry as to whether mining accident risks were diminishing. It had been pointed out that while some of the Government inspectors endeavoured to secure a return of the most serious cases of non- fatal accidents, the attempt was only very partial, and the particulars were not of practical use for purposes of investigating the rate of these casual- ties. Therefore it became necessary to look to the Miners' Permanent Funds for reliable data, and the collection of this information must have a very important bearing on the future working of the organisation. Parliamentary action during the last session affecting the interests of the miners' permanent funds, and the question of superannuation was also dealt with in the report, and the hope was expressed that the members of the Association would be satisfied with the record of the year as one of steady growth in numbers, and substantial progress in the direction of finan- cial stability. Lord Crawford aaid that the growth of the Association this year was as remark- able as last year, though possibly not so great. The increase of membership, although there had been no serious mining accident for about twelve months or more, was very satisfactory. They were advancing steadily towards a satisfactory state of finances, and upon this being reached he hoped they would be able to go into the question of the distribution of risks over the whole kingdom, instead of the risk of one country being held by itself. He expressed the opinion that the Society ought not to take up superannuation T as it could not be done without enormously increasing the taxation of members. Sir John Llewelyn seconded the reuort. which was adopted. -r Mr. Louis Tylor (the chairman of the Mon- mouthshire and South Wales Miners' Permanent Provident Society) read a paper on the question "Are mining acccident risks diminishing ? He said the subject was of vital importance to the great benefit societies, and was of national interest. Recognising this, he had decided to make a systematic inquiry, and to report to the Conference the conclusion at which he arrrived with regard especially to their risks in giving disabled relief. He had been able to form an estimate both of the variations in the disablement rate for the individual societies composing their Central Association, and also of the fluctuations in their total dia ablement experience. But how was be to give these results in such a way that the figures should tell their own stocyP. Now if they omitted the Midland district, which- did not deal with disablements, and if they pat the two Yorkshire societies together they had seven districts represented in., one- Central Association. So far at least as disablements in. their societies were concerned, they are decreasing in five out of the seven districts. He had prepared charts, which showed the lines of disablement rate for every hundred members. The lowest rate which any society had experienced7 in any year was nine dis- ablements for one hundred members, the highest experienced for any society was 33 disablements for 100 members; therefore, the scale was graduated from nine to 33, and' the line of pro- gress passing across the chart showed the ex- perience for each: year, while at the foot of every column was given the reading for the year therein represented. In Northumberland and Durham the rate of disablements in their society had fallen from 18*4 per cent. in 1879 to 14-7 per cent. in 1891 in North-Staffordshire from 17'2 to 9.5 in Lancashire and; Cheshire from 19-2 to lfi-3 while in the West Riding of Yorkshire the rate of disablement had risen from 15'4 in 1871 to 15-9 in 1391. In North Wales the disablement rate had decreased from Ji5'5, in 1879 to 12-4 per cent. in 1891; in the Midland- counties the rate had been exceptional, haviing risen from 16-9 per cent. in 1880 to 19-2 per cent, in in 1891 in Monmouth- shire and South Wales the rate of disablement had decreased from 17v5 per cent. in 1882 to 14-9 per cent. in 1891. There our calculations, however, had been vitiated' by the abnormal experience of initiating the society. The combined ex- perience of all oar societies together as corrected proved that the general rate of disablement had fallen from 1S.-1 for every 100 members in 1879 to 15.0' for every 100 members in 1891. In other words, where at the formation of the Central Association they had to afford annual relief to six disabled persons, they now had only five disabled persons to provide for. Satisfactory as they might deem this diminution in the risks to which their societies were exposed in respect of disablements, they must remember that they were only Insurance Associations, and that some other causes than actual diminution of danger might have operated so as to lessen the claims upon their funds. A diminution of relief pay might have lessened the temptation to get a few days' holiday in respect-, of some trifling accident which was only just enough to swear by, or an advance in wages might have aoted in the same direction by making work very much more attractive than play. Doubtless both these causes have had, and alway will have, their effect, but he did not think they could give the name of accidents to casualties which were so slight as to come and go with the rise or fall of benefits, or with a depressed or buoyant labour market.. There was no doubt that both in 1890 and 1891, wages were so good as to prove a great incentive to work in spite of trifling accidents. and it is also true that these two years show by far the most favourable rates of disablements. Sir Francis Powell moved a vote of thanks to Mr. Tylor for his paper, which Mr. Braybrook, Chief Registrar of Friendly Societies, seconded, and which was cordially adopted. On the motion of Mr. Tomlinson, seconded by Mr. N. R. Griffith (North Wales) the Earl of Craw- ford was re-elected president for the ensuing year, and other officers were appointed. The proceedings terminated with a vote of thanks to the Lord Mayor. At the close of the proceedings the address pre- sented to the Lord Mayor at Cardiff was exhibited in the salon, and the Welsh delegates present sang Land of my fathers."
No MORE GRAY HAIR OR BALD HEADS.—SE« the People's fireside Journal} this week. All news, agents, Id.; post tree, 2d., frqjn 33, Newman-.j^et London, W,
I BRIDGEND NOTES. The Bridgend Union bids fair to maintain the high character given to it by the Local Govern- ment Board Inspector. It will be seen that at the last meeting of the Board a report was presented showing a marked diminution in the expense of relief-indoor and outdoor—and this is a sure indi- cation that the decrease in pauperism in the district is still going on. Perhaps this result is due to some extent to the additional labour which the farmers require in the hay harvest. The recklessness of those employed in dangerous employments is a theme which has often" been commen ed upon, and a fact which has been often deplored. The risks to which men will sometimes needlessly expose themselves are not always narrated in the Press, but occasionally such events obtain publicity in the courts. At Bridgend last Saturday two colliers were mulcted in penalties of £ 3 and £2 respectively for reckless conduct in the lynewydd Colliery—details of which we report in another column. It is to be hoped that the fines inflicted in these cases will act as a salutary warn- ing to others similarly employed. The charge preferred against Mr. Edward Davies, of Maesteg, evoked much interest, and the state- ment by Mr. Scale that the accused had a complete answer to the charge will give great satisfaction to the many friends of Mr. Davies, who has alwavs been regarded as a man of honour. The magis- trates expressed their wish that the case should be decided by a jury. Evidence for the defence was not adduced, and as, therefore, only one side of the case has been stated, the further hearing at the assizes will be watched with interest. I The selection of Mr. Tom Richards, conductor of the Pontycymmer Glee Society, to act as con- ductor at the next Whit-Monday Musical Festival, I which will be held next year at Bridgend, has given much satisfaction in this district. Mr. Richards will be the first local man selected for that position. Preaching at Nolton Church last Sunday morn- ing the rector of Coity (Rev. F. W. Edmonds, M.A.) denounced the universal tendency to pro- crastinate in spiritual affairs, and asked what would be thought of a man who instead of at once deciding and dealing with matters of business put off and procrastinated waiting for a more convenient season which never arrived. It was easier for to come to God at once than to put off doing so until after years of habitual neglect of Him. The sermon was listened to with marked attention, and at the close a collection was made in aid of the sufferers by the great fire at New- foundland. The local Freemasons had an agreeable time on Monday upon the occasion of the opening of the new Masonic Hall, when there was a large atten- dance of members of the Lodge and their friends. The Salvation Army has been busy in the district around Bridgend this last week celebrating the 27th Anniversary of the foundation of the Army. We are glad to hear from the various district officers that the work of the Army has met with a large degree of sucaess, and that the ministers of other denominations have given them what assistance they could, an instance of the benefits of co operation on the part of the various denominations may oe seen at the united open-air services which are held on the Common at Aber- kenfig every Sunday. The temperance party in Bridgend held a meet- ing on Tuesday evening which was a great success. We are glad to observe that the local temperance workers have not fallen into the error which many temperance organisations do of going to sleep during the summer months, and only rousing to active work on the commencement of the winter. If any appreciable progress is to be attained in combating the drinking customs of the age, constant and systematic work should be carried on by all advocates of temperance throughout the year-in summer as well as winter. In the hot weather the temptations to drink is stronger hence the need for every encouragement being given by teetotallers to their weaker brethren. There was a large attendance of magistrates at the petty sessions court last Saturday, :nl as it happened there was plenty for them to do. It was a great convenience to those interested in the cases that the magistrates decided to form a second court as many were thereby releast d from attendance at the court at a much earlier hour thau would otherwise have been the case. One hears so much nowadays of the action of justices that when they do a good thing it is only right that due publicity should be given to the fact. Probably one of the hardest-worked magistrates in this district is Mr. Charles Price Davis and from the questions which he puts to thoze appear- ing before him, it is evident that he takes an in- telligent interest in all the cases which he has to decide, and does not by any means discharge his magisterial functions in the perfunctionary manner of some of his more easy-going colleagues on the bench. I
ITHE WELSH DISESTABLISHMENT…
THE WELSH DISESTABLISH- MENT CAMPAIGN. SECOND ONLY TO HOME RULE, The Welsh Disestablishment Campaign Com- mittee held a meeting on Tuesday at Shrews- bury. Alderman the Rev. A. Davies presiding. Resolutions bearing on the Welsh national question were unanimously passed, delaring that, while fully sensible of the absolute necessity of the harmonious working of the different sections of the Liberal party at the present junc- ture. the committee desired to impress upon the Welsh members of Parliament the great impor- tance of firmness in securing for the question of Welsh Disestablishment: its proper position in the programme of the Liberal party in Parliament. The committee accorded its thanks to the National Liberal Federation for placing the question in their programme as second only to the Irish Home Rule, but they regretted to notice in the speech of some prominent Parliamentary leaders and in the leading articles of many Liberal newspapers a tendency either to ignore the question or to rele- gate it to a very unsatisfactory position, far different from that in which it appeared in the Newcastle programme. Attention is also called to the fact that the people of Wales have declared emphatically in favour of Disestablishment and I Disendowment; but, while so strongly in favour of this, they have hitherto been most loyal to the Liberal party.
BLAENGARW NOTES. [BY HOSTIS."] I trust, Mr. Editor, you will allow me a short space in your valuable paper to pen a few notes occasionally from this quarter, strictly pro bolUl publico." Our annual Sunday School demonstration was a mighty success, and spoke volumes of the healthy relationship that exists between the different denominations at Blangarw. The singing of the respective schools was excellent; and the render- ing of Dr. Mason's Jerusalem (unitedly), under the baton of the famous party conductor, was a rich treat. Unquestionably we have at Blaengarw sufficient material for a grand united choir; Why do. not some of our leading vocalists take a step in this direction ? Now that we have the celebrated Ap Glyndwr" in our midst, if he can be induiced to yield the baton, success must follow. Posty- cymmer covered itself with glory through the excellent singing of the male voice choir, although a strong contingent of Bloongarw vocalists has at all times swelled the refrain at each competition. The Congregationalists worshipping at Nebo held their anniversary on Sunday and Monday last, when powerful sermons were preached to large audiences by the Revs. D. Thomas, Cymmer, and Evans, Lampeter. The collections were ex- ceptionally good. I am pleased to understand that this Church, of which the Rev. John Hughes is pastor, is in a most flourishing condition. The high rents demanded for houses is a topic which creates no little interest here at present, and the action of a certain colliery company in having given notice of an advance to their tenants, has oaused great indignation on all hands. We hope to hear something further on this subject soon. Can this tyranical step be a sequel to the celebrated document which was presented to a workmen's committee for signatory re- stoppage question ?
IISENSATIONAL AFFAIlt AT MAESTEG.…
II SENSATIONAL AFFAIlt AT MAESTEG. A PROPERTY OWNER CHARGED WITH THEFT. COMMITTED FOR TRIAL. At the Bridgend petty sessions on Saturday Edward Davies, landlord of the Maesteg Inn and an owner of considerable property was charged on remand with stealing 35SI.is. of brass, the property of the Maesteg Tin- vvorks. Great interest was taken in the case as the defendant was well known, and had hitherto been held in high esteem at Maesteg.-—Mi-. Charles solicitor, Neath, prosecuted on behalf of Mr' Edwards, proprietor of the Llwydarth Tin Works Maesteg and Mr. Scale (Scale and David), solicitor, Bridgend, appeared for the prisoner, who had been arrested and let out on bail.—Mr. Charles having opened the case, the following evidence was adduced r—Jonathan Perkins, roll-turner. Liwv- darth-road. Maesteg, said that he worked at the Maesteg Tin Works, owned by Mr. Edwards. Last Wednesday evening he was called into the Maesteg Inn, kept by Mr. Edward Davies. He was shown the pieces of brass (produced). Davies was present, his son. Sergeant Hill, and another police- man. Witness examined the bearings, but did not measure them. The woodt-n pattern handed to him he got from Havod's foundry. Mr. Havod had made bearings for the works Witness compared the brass bearing with the pattern, and they resembled each other but the pattern was a little bit longer than the bearing. Ihe pattern had been altered by the addition of a piece of wood. Another alteration had been made on the FLANGE of the pattern. The bearing COUJ- pared with the pattern if- the adder! piece of wood were taken off. The pattern was altered at the works since Mr. Edwards took possession. Witness went to the Maesteg Inn the next day on the Thuisday with Robert Gray. They again examined the bearings in the presence of the prisoner Sergeant Hill, and Mr. Edwards. Witness said to prisoner they had some at the works of the same size, and went with the measurement of them.— In cross-examination, witness said he could not say when the pattern was made, but it was an old one. It was usual for different Tin Works to have patterns of the same size. He could not say that the articles produced belonged to the Tin Works but they belonged to a Tin Works. He could not identify any of the articles produced, He had never missed anything from the works, but Mr. Edwards had been complainincr of them usino- ton much brass. The pieces on the table were of no use except forsale as old metal.—Re-examined: If a bearing broke and was too warm it would be thrown on the ground, and not taken dircct to the store. He had not compared the bearings in other works with those at Maesteg.—Robert Gray,.Llansamlet, and lodging at Llantrissant, said he was a fitter or mechanic. He said he worked at Mr. Edwards' tin works at Llantrissant and Maesteg. He was at the Maesteg Inn on the Thursdav, and; saw some pieces of brass there like those produced. He had not compared them with patterns, but compared the measurements of the brass with bearings at the store of the MaestcgTin Works He found they were very nearly the same. He had seen brass rods like those produced at many tin works, and at the Maesteg Tin Works. Witness first went to the Maesteg Works 18 months ago with Mr. Edwards. It was about half a mile from the Maesteg Tin Works to the Maesteg Works. There were no other tin works nearer than Llantrissant or Port Talbot.— Cross-examined Witness said that for several months the works were idle before Mr. Edwards took possession. He was not able to identify any of the arfcices produced, and could not say to whom they belonged. The pieces had been idle-for some time, but he could not say how long. At the Maesteg Inn Mr. Davies did not make the slightest attempt to keep anything back, but gave every assistance. Witness "had lodged with Mr. Davies, but he could not say about others who worked for Mr. Davies staying with htm. He had never heard of anything being lost from the tin works.—Re-examined Although he. had been staying in Mr. Davies' house, off and on, for 18 months, he had never told him about having a large quantity of brass.—David Rees Jones, iron and brass founder, Neath, said he had been in the habit of supplying Mr. Edwards with brsss bear- ings. The pattern on the table (No. 2) was his pattern. He had compared two pieces of brass with the pattern. The pieces originally formed one bearing. As the result of his examination, he considered that they were as nearly as possible similar to the pattern, but he could noc swear that they were made from it. He supplied other tin works with brass bearings, but did not suppiv any with bearings similar to the pattern produced. Last Tuesday week he went bo the Maestetr Inn for dinner, and there saw Mr Davies. who spoke to him about some brass. Mr. Davis began the conversation by asking witness if he was melting brass, and asked how much a pound it was worth. Witness said that he could not say without seeing it, so as to know what quality it was. The con- versatioR stopped then, but after dinner Mr. Davis asked him to go with him. They went into the beer cellar and saw some yellow metal stuff in a bucket. After that Mr. Davies showed him some brass, like that on the table in court, underneath an old sack. It was on the floor of the cellar. Witness agreed to buy the brass at 5d. a pound, and what was in the bucket at 3d. a pound. That was a fair price, and he had paid fivepence and an eighth for similar stuff. After witness suggested to Mr. Davies to have it weighed and sent by rail to him, he said perhaps it would be better to send it by dray and not by train. Nothing more passed between ¡ them, but afterwards he made a com- them, but afterwards he made a com- munication to Mr. W. H. Edwards. Cross-examined: It would be nearer to send by dray instead of by train. One would be about 8 miles and the other would be about 30 miles. Witness added that he never sent his goods by dray to Maesteg. Others made patterns as well as he, but he had never in his experience found other founders using patterns exactly similar to those he used. Witness had been to Mr. Da-vies' house in company with officials from the Tin Works, and it was possible that Mr. Davies might know that he was a brother-in-law of Mr. Edwards.—Police- sergeant George Hill said that from information received he went to the Maesteg Inn about 7 o'clock last Wednesday evening in company with Police-constable Williams. There he saw Mr. Davies inside and called him to one side. They went into a little room at the back of the bar. He said to Davies Is it true that you have offered a large quantity of old brass for sale recently ? He said Nothing of the sore." Witness said Have you not offered any brass to any one for sale?" He said Yes. I offered some to the man at the foundry here, about a month ago." Witness said,) "Have you offered, it to anyone else?" He said "No." Witness-again said Did you not offer brass to a man, named Jones about a week agaJ." He said" Yes. I did. Mr. Jones was here having dinner, and I asked him to buy some." Witness then said Wi.l you kindly show me the brass that you. have offered for sale." He took witness into the back kitchen, which formed a cellar as well as a back kitchen, and pulled out about a hundred- weight of scrap brass in a large bucket from under the tablo, Witness looked at it,, and he said "That is-not a large quantity; is it?" Witness said, Is that all the brass y&u have got in the house?" He said: "No.; there's a bit more here," and stooped down and pulled out two bear- ings. faem under the table, from, under which he had;taken the bucket. Witness- said: "Is there any a&orc?" and he made JbØo answer. Witness wenli, on his knees, and pujledi out a sack, which. covered 15 pieces of brass. He pulled the bag away, and pulled the pieoos of brass out-rods and. brajs bolts. They wore all together in a. heap. He said This is a large quan- tifcy of brass for- you to have ih yimr possession, how do, you account for having it here?" He said," WelLifc must have been brought here by somebody," and after a little pause--say a minute or two—he said, I found it in a hea^ on my premises, but I oant tell how it came tberc. About five or six nusaths ago." Witness saj £ I don't want you to tieil me where yoa found, tt, but if you wish to diD. so you can." Mr. Davies, not seeming willing so show him where he. found it then, so witness, pulled it all out from ander the table and called in Jonathan Perkins,. who was waiting outside. Perkins examined, the brass carefully andi took measurements. After he had done he said,. That brass is exactly similar to the brass bearings in our works." The defendant was present. Tble-y left the house together. and witness told Mr. Davies that he should make further enquiries into the case. The following evening witness was sent for by Mr. Edwards, and afterwards went with others to the defendant's house. Polioe^eonstable Ings was with him. Mr. Davies went with them into the b¡)Qk kitchen. It was about three o'clock. The brass bearings were examined and the measure- ments were taken. After witness said to Mr. Gray and Mr. Perkins 11 Are you prepared to sweat that this brass is fro;o your works ?" they both said they were. He then said to Mr. Davies, U I have nothing to do, hut to take you into custody, and I charge yon with stealing this brass since February, 1891, from the works." He said,vl Well, I have nothing more to tell you than that I found it where I described, and I will show you the place," Wi%t.4 WPnt with him iq tl\e loWQr end hrnSn and that the W!lU been broken and again built up. Witness also ex- annned the outside. Mr. Davies said that he got it through the hole from the outside. Prisoner went with him outside. There was a garden, and for about a foot of the wall there was a gulley 72ft. deep. The gulley was covered with thin flags, one of which had been removed. Witness then conveyed prisoner to Bridgend, where he was admitted to bail. The brass weighed 353 Ibs., and at 5d for the lb. was worth £ 7 7s. Id. Cross- examined, prisoner said that when the stuff was found it was in a bag. He had always considered Mr. Davies as a very respectable man, and the owner of considerable property in Maesteg. He was confident that the men said dis- tinctly that they could swear the brass came from their works.—Mr. Gray, re-called, said he did not say to Sergeant Hill that he could swear the brass CTJ. u°no the W°rks.—Mr. Perkins said that when a^ked by Sergeant Hill he replied I can swear that it is tin mill brass." Mr. Scale stated that it was merely a case of suspicion, and said that no jury would convict upon the evidence adduced.—The magistrates, held, however, that it was a proper case to be decided by a jury, and the prisoner (who pleaded ? • ?nd r,eserved his defence) was com- mitted for trial at the assizes.
BRIDGEND PETry SESSIONS. ..
BRIDGEND PETry SESSIONS. SATUEDAY.—Before Mr. R. R. Pritchard (chair- man), Mr. C. P. Davis, Mr. R. L. Knight, Mr. W. S. Powell, Mr. W. Llewellyn, and Mr. D R. David. IMPECUNIOUS DOG OWNER. — Robert Williams, Taibach, was fined £ 1 including costs for keeping a dog without a licence.—Defendant pleaded that he had not been able to pay for the licence owing to the illness of his wife. He said that he only got 18s. a week, and that when the oLicer called the same evening he sent his wife to pawn his watch at Aberavon to raise money for the dog licence which was then taken out. He produced the licences for 1890 and 1891. ASSAULT AT NEWCASTLE.—George Carr, New- castle, Bridgend, was summoned for assaulting- Morgan Strandling, also of Xewcastle.-Com- plainant stated that last Saturday, about 6.15 n m defendant came to his house, and called him out to fight. Defendant collared' him bv the throat and gave him three kicks.—Mary "Davies gave corroborative evidence, and added that defendant said it was not the first time he had wished to fight complainant, and that he had been there three Saturday nights looking for him.—Defen- dant denied the a.sault.-Surah Ann Stevens gave evidence on behalf of defendant, and stated that complainant first kicked defendant.—The magis trates fined defendant £ 2 including- costs BREACHES OF COLLIEHY RULES.—Christopher Sparks, collier, Tyiiewydd, was summoned for committing breaches of th3 rules of the Tvne- wydd Colliery. Mr. W. R. Randall prosecuted — Daniel Evans, fireman, Tvnewydd Colliery, said that on July 9th he noticed, about six o'clock in the morning, at Sparks' stall, that there was a danger signal stating that a shot had missed firing in the bottom. Defendant had left his work the previous evening, and the signal had been there all night. The colliers fired shots themselves. Defendant should have reported that the shot had missed- firing to witness or to a superior oHicer.— Defe.nd.vnt said that there was no superior officer to report to at the time he left the colliery.—John Bennett, overman, Tynewydd, said that on Friday, July 8th, he was on duty from a.m. until 5.10 p.m.. and during that time defendant made no report about a shot missing fire.-In answer to Mr. C. P. Davies, witness said there was no gas iu the colliery,, and naked lights were used.—Mr. Randall said that the second charge against defendant arose out of defendant un ramming a shot that had missed firing.-Daniel Evans, fireman, stated that about six o'clock in the morning of July 9th, he went into the face of defendant's stall, and. saw that the shot had missed firing. Witness later on met defendant and told him not to unram the hole, and not to approach to it nearer than six inches. Defendant said that he would do so.—John Bennett, overman, said he found that defendant had unrammed the hole. Defendant said that he had pricked it out with a wire and-a scraper. Witness pointed out to defen- dant the danger he and his brother ran in acting in such a manner.—The Chairman said it was a very serious offence, and defendant would be fined for the two offences £ 2 including costs. John Wareham, collier, Tynewydd, was also summoned far similar offences, at the same col- liery, on Thursday, July 7th, and July 6th.-Daniel Evans said that on July 7th he saw a hole in defendant's stall that had missed firing. No danger signal was-usp, and no report of the circumstance had been made to him. -John Bennett. over- mm. said that he was at the colliery until about five o'clock in the afternoon. On the day in question, but no report was made by defendant. A message was sent to defendant not to fire another shot near to that which had missed.—Daniel Evans said that on July 7 he gave that message to defendant. Later he discovered that defendant had fired the hole and cleared it.- Defendant said he had never had any copy of the rules given him. He had seen a copy of the rules posted at the pit, but had not read them. The Chairman said it was defendant's business, both for the sake of his own life and for the sake of the lives 6f his comrades, to pay attention to the rules, and it was very important that the rules should be carried out. Defendant did not appear to have been at any trouble to make himself thoroughly acquainted !with the rules or to have reported°the mis-fire. Tlie other defendant had put up the danger signal, but he had made no signal. Again he had bored out the hole contrary to the rules.' He would have to pay a fine of £ 3— £ 2 in the first case and, 4,1 in the second case.
NEW MASONIC HALL AT BRIDGEND.
NEW MASONIC HALL AT BRIDGEND. THE" OPENING CEREMONY. On Mont&y, the new hall built at Bridgend by the members of the Ogmore Lodge of Freemasons was formally opened, when there was a. large attendance of the fraternity. The hall is situate in Adare-street, and is a striking architectural; I addition to the main buildings of the town. It was designed by Mr. G. F. Lambert, architect Bridgend, and built by Mr. William Francis, of the same town, at a cost of £1,150 including extras. The building has a front of white brick, and is freely treated with Bath and local stone. The upper rooms consisting of a spacious hall, reception and ante-rooms, offices, &e.. .1 are specially laid out for masonic use, and on the exterior front, emblems of the order are displayed. On the basement are three suites of offices, all vw;li lighted and roomy. There are two entrances, the main oise leading to a fight of stairs by which tha-: masonie hall is reached the side entrance leads to offices on the ground floor. The masonic hall is lighted from the coved ceiling, and it is fitted' up specially for the purposes for which it is- deds- catedL The opening of the hall was fixed for the instal- lation day, or annual meeting of the brethren, when the newly-elected Master is always àly installed in office for the ensuing twelve months, or- until his successor has been appointed and installed in his stead. The choice of the brethren tMs year fell upon Bro. David McLelSaa, the Senior Warden of the past year, and; from the interest he has taken in the welfswe of the i lodge for some years past, there is every rea- son to believe that his year of office will be a successful one. The lods-e was opened; at three r o'clock, in the presence of a large gabfeering of members and visitors, by the retiring master, Bro. E. T. David. After some preliminaries the cere- I mony of installation was proceeded with, the onerous duties of installing master being ably performed by Bro. T. B. Boucher,. a pastmaster of the lodge. At th, conclusion the usual con- gratulations took pJace, and then. Bro. MeLellan invested his officers as follows :—Bros. E. T. David, I.P.M.; R, Scale. S.W.; William Francis, J.W.; James Jones, chaplain; J. Herdman, treasurer; W. Jones, secretary R. Conibear, S.D.; W. H. Morgaa, J.D.; R. Emlyn Jones. Inner Guard; T. C. Forrester, D.C;; D. J. Williams, organist; F. W. Nicholls, steward A. D. Webster, tylter. In addition to the members of the lodge there were present:—Bro. Marmad«ke. Tennant, D.P.G.M., Bro. Hughes, P.M. Caradoc. 1753, Bro. J. A. Leyshon, Windsor Lodge, Penarth T. R. Hsnt. W.M., Talbot Lodge, Swansea H. F. Clarke^ 883, P.M., P.G.S.B., L. Jenkins, W.M., Afan M. G. Roberts, secretary, A fan • J. L. Jenkins, Avondale, U.S.A.; T. O. Williams, Yer- boraugh; Jno. Lewis, Prov. Grand Lodge, Austra- lia D. Roberts, W.M. 36, Glamorgan. 1578, and among the company were the following past masters of the lodge :—Bro. John Hemming, P.M., Past Provincial Grand Registrar, L. Behn P.M." J. C. Coath, P.M., T. B. Boucher, P.M. At the close of the Lodge the brethren reparod to the Wyndham Arms Hotel, where a banquet was well served by Mr. and Mrs. Jones, to which about fifty sat down. After discussion of the repast, the usual Masonic, toasts wero given and interspersed with some excellent vooalism, the singers being ably accompanied hy Bro. D. T. Williams on the pianofotto. t
ISOUTH WALES COAL TRADE. I.
SOUTH WALES COAL TRADE. MASS MEETING OF MINERS. A mass meeting of the miners was held in the Cricket Field, Ferndale, on Monday evening, hear the result of the meeting of the Sliding-scale Committee held on Saturday last at Ystrad, and also to take into consideration the question of abiding by an amended Sliding Scale or joining the Federation of Great Britain. Mr. Daniel Evans, checkweigher, occupied the chair.—Mr. T. Daronwy Isaac addressed the meeting in English and Welsh, and concluded by asking those present to consider well their position before signing their* voting papers, as he believed more in the benefits of a sound Sliding Scale than in any Federation, although he considered the present one was unjust and wanted re-modelling.—Several of the work- men also addressed the meeting, all speaking in favour of an amended Sliding Scale. — '0
THE SLIDING-SCALE ARRANGEMENT.
THE SLIDING-SCALE ARRANGEMENT. VIEWS OF COUNCILLOR MORRIS. TO THE EDITOR. During the past few weeks the above question has been prominently before the public through the Press pnd on the platform. The con- troversy between the members of the Committee and the officials; of the Miners' Federation of Great Britain has been very interesting, and though it may be presumptuous on my part, yet as the question affects me personally much more than it affects some of the gentlemen who have taken part in the discussion, it may not be out of place to express my views. It shall be my en- deavour to treat the subject dispassionately with a view to arrive at a just conclusion. In the first place, it will be necessary to attempt to discuss whether a Sliding Scale arrangement for the regulation of wages, based upon the selling price of coal, is right in principle or not. Secondly, if wrong in principle, is it expedient to adopt such an arrangement under the present relative positions of capital and labour ? Thirdly, granting that it is expedient under present circumstances, is labour fairly and iustlr treated ith reference to the first question, my object will be to prove that the regulation of wages based upon the selling price of any commodity is wrong in principle. It is false political econoiuv, contrary to the cherished opinions of all Trades' tj nionists, opposed to the material success of all commercial enterprises carried on upon sound basis, and in its essence and effects detrimental to the best interests of labour. Its natnral results carried out to its finality, may be seen in the Sweat- ing System so extensively prevailing in the large towns, undermining the very foundations of man- hood and society, creating a class devoid of self- respect, self-reliance, and independence, and caus- ing immense loss to the real producers of the wealth of the country. It appears to me that the great point is, who is to decide the value of a. man's labour ? Is it the capitalist or the man himself ? Is the price of any commodity to be fixed according to the amount paid for its production, with fair interest upon the outlay, or must the labour given in its production depend upon the price which the capitalist thinks fit to charge for it ? I have no hesitation in say- ing that labour being a necessity and that capital can only mean accumulated labour, or rather the overplus of labour, it is the inherent right of the first instance of labour, viz., that of the workman himself, to fix the value to be put upon it. The question for every working man is, what is the real value of hit labour, and not what is its relative value. What is it worth, not what can the employer afford to pay in order to secure a good dividend. If I mistake not this is a rale adopted in all commercial enterprises. The builder, when he tenders, takes into consideration the price of materials and the standard wages he has to pay, and fixes the price accordingly. He never bases the wages of his man upon the amount of his contract. The seller of any commodity fixes the price. If the buyer finds the price too high he need not purchase. The working man. upon the same principle, has tha right to put a price upon his labour as much right as the colliery pro- pnetor to fix the price at which he will sell his coal and it is radically wrong to base the value of labour which is the capital of one man, upon the price at which another sells a commodity which is his capital. The law of supply and demand will certainly have great influence in fixing the vaiua- of a man's labour, but the fixed price has nothing to do with the principle who is to put that price. I feel suie that miue owners-would reseat, and justly so. any attempt on the- part of buyers t& form a fyndicatc to fix the price of coal iiidiroii, yet, virtually, the wages of the oolliers is fixed by a powerful syndicate comprised of capitalists. I maintain, therefore, that the value of labour should not be based upon the selling price of any commodity, but Uiat tiie real value should be- taken into consider ion in fixing the price. The great object of Trades Unionism is to secure the just recognition and the true value of labour By united and concerted action it has been the means to raise the working man from a position of dependence, and: even slavery, to that of inde- pendence and respect, with full power to sell his labour at its fair market valtMh In order to secure the full recognition of the rights of labour in South Wales -It- is essential that a thoroughly democratic organisation-be formed, embracing all workmen in and about the collieries, and until that is done no Sliding-scale, whether amended or not, or no Sliding-scale at all, will afford to the, working man'the position he ought to occupy, or give him the power to exercise his right' of utilising, his capital, that is his labour, to the best possible advantage. With your permission I shall discuss the other two questions ii. another M.ter -I am, &c RICHARD MORRIS. Pentre, July 25th, 1892.
LAHOCH WAR IN AMERICA,
LAHOCH WAR IN AMERICA, The following letter which appeared in the Western A/ail of Tuesday will be read with in- terest by many of our readers. It is written by Mr, David Jackson, the son of Mr. Joshua Jackson of the Harbour Bnn, Porthcawl, who is employed at the Carnegie Works, where open war has broken out between the men and their employers. Mr Jackson writes I hope you will excuse my writing with a lead paacil, but I know you will be glad to have a line from me, as, I suppose, you have seen in the papers that have had a deadly conflict with our employers. But I am glad to tell' you that I esoaped without a scratch, thank God. Dear parents, to attempt to describe the battle would be useless, because it was so terrible I told you in my previous letter that I thought there would be trouble, and so it came to pass. The company employed about 300 men to shoot us down like dog6, and we were prepared. They came by boats no the river, but we would not lat them land. Then the shooting com- menced, when the Pinkerton men got driven back and they got defeated for the first time. They surrendered to us, and we got all their guns. So we are well pre- pared for tb-imt when they come next time, but the Pinkertons made it hot for us until we got the cannon to boom. r have got one of the Pinkerton'a guna it is a sixteen.sbooter-45 bullet, and a repeater rifle. I have sent you a good many papers, which I hope you. will read and preserve them for future reference. The papers sent give you a true account of the affairs. I will write you again in the course of a few days. We are watching the mills day and night. The women were bringing coffee and food to us in the ruills, as we could not leave our posts of deadly duty. But we could not eat much nor drink under such terrible con- ditions. The women wore with us night and day, and when ehe Pinkerton men gave up they had it badly with. the women." v
THE CARDIFF BUILDING STRIKE.
THE CARDIFF BUILDING STRIKE. A meeting of representatives of the Federated Trades was held in the Glove and Shears Hotel on Friday night, Mr. J. Collins presiding, but no busi- ness of general importance was transacted. The operatives still adhere to their demands. The employers are also firm in their determination not to give way.
COMMUNICATION WITH LIGHTHOUSES.
COMMUNICATION WITH LIGHTHOUSES. The Royal Commission on cicatrical communica- tion with lighthouses apd lightships met on Thurs- day, the Earl of Mount Edgouiabe presiding. After considering the proposed methods of establishing- communication by telegmph with lighthouses and lightships on the Scotch coast, th9 Commission arranged to go in the autumn on a tour of inspeo. tion. This will commence in the latter half of August, at Goodwin Sands and the mouth of the Thames. Visits will also be paid to Cromer, the Bristol ChaiHMti, and the Scilly Isles.
For aek-en years 1 suffered from Asthma, tried all known remedies, and LEWIS'S PKCTORAL Bai.SA* i« the best qt |*r
A LIBERAL UNIONIST ON WALES.
A LIBERAL UNIONIST ON WALES. The myth that the Welsh Radical Press sys- tematically boycots all Unionists' expression of opinion will be, so far as the SOUTH WALES STAR is concerned, falsified by the publication of a rather sensational interview between Mr. Marchant Williams and Aliquis. Aliquis What do you think of the elections generally ? Marchant (cheerfully) From a Liberal Unionist point of view they are most satisfactory. We are forty-six strong-, and our leader, Mr. Chamberlain, has enormously strengthened his position in the Midlands and the country generally. Aliquis But what have you to say to your crushing defeat in Wales ? Marchant: My belief is that Home Rule was not considered by the voters. The question at issue was the Disestablishment of the Church. The Welsh people generally care little for Home Rule with them Disestablishment overshadows everything. 17ow, some of us like myself, favour Disestablishment; but we could not recognise it as an issue before the country, nor ask votes on that ground; for we were obliged to hold that Mr. Gladstone could not touch the question until Welsh Home Rule was disposed of and our view I is that Home Rule can never be disposed of by any scheme that Mr. Gladstone is likely to suggest while he entertains his present views. Aliquis How do you account for the fact that, while there is a strong Liberal Unionist party in Scotland, Liberal Unionism hardly exists as a political factor in Wales Marchant: There are several reasons. In the first place, there is no Liberal Unionist organisa- tion for Wales. I have often urged that one should exist, and should be controlled by Welshmen versed in the language and history of their country, and in touch with the feeling of each district. Had there been a definite Unionist organisation Unionist candidates would have been found long since to contest every constituency in the Principality; but, except in one or two isolated places, as at Cardiff, we attempted nothing of the sort; at least, until the last moment. This is the first and most important reason. Remem- ber that in Scotland there was a separate Unionist organisation. And the second reason was the Press. In Scotland the electorate reads English papers, and the Unionists possess the best national papers. In Wales the working man does not go for his politics to journals like the Western Mail. The tin-plate workers and the miners of the South. the quarrymen of the North, and the farmers throughout the land go to the vernacular Press for their political views. And the vernacular Press suppressed everything that told against Home Rule. The Tories and Liberal Unionists also did not co-operate together, as in Scotland. This was particularly marked in East Carmarthen. Aliquis Why do you think the Irish Noncon- formist delegates produced no effect in Wales Marchant (indignantly) They were so shame- fully boycotted by their brother Dissenters. Aliquis Do you still adhere to the views of Irish Nationalism and the characters of its leaders that you expressed in the Missing Member ? Do Irish Nationalism and the characters of its leaders that you expressed in the Missing Member ? Do you think that the ideal of Grattan and Thomas Davis of a loyal and self-governed Ireland to be now impossible ? Marchant: I adhere to every word I wrote. What I said of the £500 paid for the betrayal of the Phoenix Park murderers is true. As a matter of fact, however, the sum paid was £90. The development of events has, I believe, rendered all such plans as those of Grattan's and Davis's hope- lessly impossible. They belong to a past age. The extreme Irishmen want absolute separation, and I will not trust the Roman Catholic priest- hood when one of its members justifies the Plan of Campaign and another congratulates Michael Davitt on his election. Aliquis And now, as to the great Welsh ques- tion. What will be the effect of Disestablishment in Wales, and what is your opinion of the present and future state of religion in the country ? Marchant: Let the Church be Disestablished and you will see strange things. Speaking-for my- self, if the Church were Disestablished I see no reason for my prolonging my existence as a Dissenter. The creeds and articles of my deno- mination-the Calvinistic Methodists—are those of I the Church, and when the State connection is ended I cannot see why we should continue a separate body. In the end I believe that the Church will become the Church of the Welsh people. but before this can be two reforms will be neces- sarry. The Welsh Prayer-book, unintelligible in some parts to the ordinary Welshman, and often obscure, will require alteration, and the morning service will require to be altered. If. however. the leaders of the Welsh Church continue to ex- hibit the interest in Welsh life and education which they exhibit at present, I have no doubt but that they will in the end be rewarded by the triumph of their cause, provided, of course, the State connection is ended, and such reforms as I have suggested are carried out. As to the con- dition of religion in Wales at the present day I cannot take a very cheerful view. It is an unfor- tunate fact that Nonconformity no longer posseses its old strength, for in these days it costs nothing to be a Nonconformist. Discipline is more lax now in the Nonconformist denominations than was formerly the case. I am certain that it is far more lax among the Calvinistic Methodists than was the case when I was a boy. We have lost our distinguishing peculiarities, and Calvinism no longer is the force that it was in former days. But what I like least of all is the changed attitude of our leaders. We have become political, and are tarowing more and more like the Baptists and Independents who are nothing if not political. I -object to Tithes on principle, but the Tithe agiitation. as conducted in some parts of the 'country, is, to my mind, immoral in the last degree. In fairness I should add that the continued ex- istence of the establishment is largely responsible for our changed position. I believe that when -Disestablishment has taken place the denomina- tions will become less political. Aliquis Are Welsh politics still in the hands of the contemptible creatures that you burlesqued in Land of my Fathers" ? Marchant: Yes. There is still a preacher alive who preaches the Gospel on Sunday and its repu- diation on Monday. I think, however, there is a change for the better. I differ, as you know, from men like Tom Ellis and Lloyd George on the burn- ing political questions of the day, but they are men of finer mould than the old gang that has so long controlled politics in Wales. Aliquis: Are you doing any literary work at present ? Marchant: I have a novel in hand at present -which deals with the religious life of Wales, and in which I try to show how much we suffer from denominational jealousies. I am also engaged with a work on the Eisteddfod, which will be illustrated by a well-known artist. Mr. Marchant Williams told me that political differences have not interfered with private friend- ship. He is still, socially, on the best terms with the Welsh National party. ALIQUIS.