NOTES FROM LONDON. —-—-e"——- Those people who regard the House of Commons as an assembly of overworked and weary states- Men should have seen it oil Monday. The fine physical condition—the contagious happiness and jollity—the freedom from care-the gay dress- the buttonholes—was ever a smarter club got together St. Stephen's is, indeed, the finest club in the world. And an air of smiling humbug seems infectious, because everyone knows that no more business will be done, and that the'Ministry are only waiting, like Mr. Micawber, for "something to turn up" which may, even at the eleventh hour, give them something to go 'to the country with. At present they have only Mr. Chaplin—and though that gentleman is in high glee, the Party know that just now he is doing a very large business in the way of bounce on a very small capital. And, what is worse, the constituencies know it. And then, again, what course is Lord Randolph going to adopt ? If they could only get that doubt off their minds they might be happier. But Lord Randolph is just now as much a Sphynx as his great prototype used to be on critical occasions, and I shouldn't be at all surprised if he elected, as his revenge for the last three years insolence of the Tory party, to do j ust what Mr. Disraeli did— drag them through the mud, and then, when in a position, place them in a row like a lot of marionettes, brush them and sponge them. lecture them well, and then give them this position or that at his own sweet will. For a piece of unparalleled affrontery commend me to Lord Cross. Speaking at Manchester he said Their opponents had been saying it was quite time Parliament was dissolved, but now they seemed to have changed their tune, and were in no hurry for a dissolution." I hesitate to use the only word which can describe such a statement. Perhaps Lord Cross has been recently at another of the Archbishop of Canterbury's dinners ? The Standard says As the Session advances the force of the Government abates." True, 0, Daniel, but not flattering to the party you repre- sent. The same candid friend also says :—" The chances of the Unionist candidates after the dissolution will be appreciably affected by the failure or success of the Ministry in their last Session." I should think Mr. Chamberlain ought, like Captain Cuttle, to make a note of this, and urge on the dissolution. Mr. J. M. Maclean, one of the members for Old- ham, whose remarks were the real cause of the in- cident at that town, when Mr. Herbert Gladstone had to curb the indignation of Mr. Das, is a gentle- man of considerable experience as a journalist. At a very early age—about the same age as Delany, when he took the editorship of the Times—24—he used to write leaders for the Mafich-cstcr Guardian. He afterwards went to India and edited the Bombay Gazette. Of distinguished personal appearance and refined tastes, he appears to have adopted the old English patrician style of viewing the natives of India, of whatever caste, »8 mere beasts of burthen. Under his rule India would be little better than a slave depot. There is little wonder Mr. Das's rejoinder was in- dignant. Mr. Maclean has certainly an extensive knowledge of Indian affairs, and his object in entering Parliament was no doubt to be officially Useful in conducting the affairs of that great Dependency. So far, however, he has been un- successful. and his feelings may be imagined on seeing Young George Curzon appointed to a post he considered he (Mr. Maclean) was en- titled to. Much amusement has been caused here by the :annual meeting of the Theatrical Mission at Prince's Hall. There was in the chair a 'gentleman from Cardiff, as nice a gentleman as ever was," and several lady subscribers. The "figures are too-too comical. The manager of the Mission says there are 150,000 professionals in London. On all this crowd of theatrical type, "with their Bohemian ways, there has been spent the iprodigious sum of.£58 13s. in administering, '-On a. strictly evangelical, basis, to the religious re- quirements of the Continent and the rest of the world." Bibles, too, have been given to landladies of theatrical lodging-houses. and funds are wanted for 10,000 more. Why the landladies ? But the gem of the affair is this Although only £ 58 has been spent in converting the theatricals, Bibles and all, C450 has been laid out in salaries and wages, and £2,969 odd on buildings. If things go on in this ratio, I am afraid Ta-ra-ra-boom-de-ay artistes will never be converted, but Babylon will be covered with Theatrical Mission Buildings. And the picture Presented by the 150,000 professionals in London being "administered to on a strictly evangelical ml basis" is certainly a sweet one. Here is a point of law. Two young Cockney swains fought about some bedizenned Joan. One of them died. Coroner Baxter said he didn't see how the swain who killed the other swain could be held responsible, as it was a. perfectly fair fight." Now, I suppose both of these men were, in fighting, acting illegally, and liable to arrest, And more. Some years ago, soon after Mr. Justice Field had assumed the ermine, I recollect him interfering in a case at Manchester Assizes of a similar nature. "Several of the witnesses," said Mr. Justice Field, have used the expression 4 a fair fight.' Now allow me to tell you there is no such thing as fair fight.' It is illegal and Wrong to fight—consequently it cunnot be fair'' Now who is right—Coroner Baxter or Justice Field ? Of -course you see the advertisements in the Papers about so-and-so winning fabulous sums at Monte Carlo. But the other day came an item ^hich was not an advertisement—real fact. A Mr. Rosenfeld won £ 30,000. He went on and lost it back, along with £ 200,000 of his own—or rather his wife's and family's. Then he shot himself. These are the tragedians who keep Monte Carlo, "There English Dukes and Duchesses go—and even an English chaplain has been appointed to such a .Place-to attend to the religious English aristocracy who daily frequent and use these hells. When I wrote on Women's Sufferage last week I had mot, of course, seen Mr. Gladstone's pam- phlet. It had not been seen by anyone. But lay conclusion was very like his — the fruit is not ripe for plucking. It is no Use arguing the point—it will not do. No one '6ver dreamt of the question coming to a head for twenty years, and it has onty been thus precipi- tated amongst us like a bomb through peculiar Political circumstances, which will not happen again. But I certainly do think both political parties '^ave acted most ungallantly to the ladies in this Matter. They have on both sides used the agitation a means of securing support, and now, when it Stand and deliver it seems they have simply g fooling with the question. This much I must j and it should teach the ladies a lesson. .The telegram which the London correspondent 1 the Manchester Courier sent to that journal the other day, definitely announcing the engagement of Prince George to Princess May, was the merest gossip-though most people have their own opinion as to its extreme probability. Just the same word-spinning, sensation-mongering stuff is the World's solemn statement that the rumour has caused Prince George's family the greatest pain." After which it proceeds to do just the same thing as it condemns by stating that the Queen is most anxious Prince George should marry another cousin-Princess Alix of Hesse. Always a cousin There is only one thing certain, and that is, if the Prince marries half the ladies who have been selected for him he ought to be the next Sultan of Turkey or Shah of Persia. It is a pity even society papers have nothing better to do than chronicle such small beer. The people don't really, care for these domestic details -how long Royalties sleep—whether they snore- what they eat—how far they walk—and a lot of domestic twaddle only fit for such gatherings as Mrs. Genuine's tea-party. Captain Verney will be at liberty in three weeks. Daring the whole time of his incarceration he has been in the infirmary of Pentonville prison. Baron de Hirsch, a German-Jewish edition of the • American Almighty-Dollar idea-just such another instance as Colonel North-has decided to devote his winnings on the Turf to hospitals and other benevolent institutions. Now, if the Archbishop of Canterbury had published his intention of devoting a portion of his hard-earned and niggardly income to the endowment of public-houses or music-halls, people would have been surprised— shocked Yet one suggestion is just as reasonable as the other. The Turf of the present day is, beyond dispute, one of the most pernicious and degrading institutions in existence. A whole army of judges, magistrates, lawyers, police and jailers have to be supported by an industrious, plodding public to watch its sharps and protect its flats. To win money on the Turf is ignoble. To plead that it is an institution to improve the breed of horses in this country is bosh. What possible interest in the English racehorse can Baron de Hirsch have And how are the winnings made What are they ? What do they represent ? I would not care, personally, in my hour of languish, to feel that my pillow was paid for by the evil gains of horseracing. If the Baron de Hirsch wishes to benefit hospitals, let him open his prolix cheque- book like a man, and say nothing about winnings on the Turf." Just one word about Dr. Allon. Very likely many of your readers have been to Union Chapel, Islington, in this locality, and will have an aifec- tionate recollection of its pastor, who has 'just joined the Majority. I use the word "affectionate" intentionally. Dr. Allon was a man to produce that feeling. He was neither a silken-phrased Court preacher, nor a stool-hurling John Knox. c Ambassador of the Prince of Peace, he simply preached that religion whose ways are ways of pleasantness, and all her paths are peace." He soon followed Charles Spurgeon. Par noliile fratrum. There is the usual grumbling by rejected suitors for Academy smiles—and no wonder. At the Burlington House Exhibition there were 6,000 pictures rejected. The whole system of examina- tion seems a farce. Why should four or five Academicians of certain pronounced styles sit down and be able to say yes or no while a lot of brokers' men swiftly pass before them with pictures in their hands. The process of selection should be conducted by a larger tribunal. And then again, if space is limited, why are the judges themselves so avaricious ? Is it necessary, for instance, for Sir Frederick Leighton to have fire pictures exhibited ? Let Sir .Frederick remember that the object of the Academy is to give an open- ing for new talent, not merely to provide variants of the old. Blow on, bagpipes! Sir William Gordon- Cumming's tenantry have given a banquet atForres, saying all sorts of nice things, and Lady Gordon- Cumming has given Sir William Gordon-Cumming I the sweetest little baby-girl that ever was a Cuinniing-coi-ne I And they do say, the "great dailies," you know, that William Gordon-Cumming is a-coming up to town to beard the Douglas in his. Den. the Lion in his Lair. Not having been to Z, Tranby Croft lately, I cannot say how the news is regarded there; nor is my friend, the Duke of Sapolio. able to tell me what the highest autho- rity thinks. There is a very easy remedy for the abuse of cramming for examinations complained of at the important conference of school teachers at Leeds. Let the Examiners pop in promiscuous like, as Paul Pry use to do, simply saying, I hope I don't intrude." Then the results would be genuine, not got up.
CARDIFF COLUMN. [BY TRIBUNE. JI So Cardiff is to have a column of its own in the SOUTH WALES STAR, the organ of Young Wales. This is a compliment to Cardiff, and it is in the fitness of things that. if Cardiff is to be the future capital of Wales, it should be put upon a metro- politan footing in this respect. Wales needs a capital. Nobody fails to realise what a drawback it has been to our country in the past to have no recognised centre of national life. Even to-day we see joint-committees and other bodies representative of all Wales crossing the border to meet in the English town of Shrewsbury. Loyal Cardiffians resent that, but perhaps the rail- ways are chiefly to blame. One of the first essentials to a united Wales is a Welsh railway system. But if Cardiff is to become a worthy centre for Welsh thought and organic life, it must qualify for the position by getting thoroughly into touch with the rest of Wales. One of the tasks before the Young Wales party is the capture of Cardiff. There must be no more talk of Cardiff being an English town or a Scotch town, or anything else than a Welsh town. And it is gratifying to observe the strides that have recently been made in this direction. At a recent meeting in connection with a municipal contest, one of the speakers dwelt strongly on the national side of Cardiff's existence, and his remarks were received with hearty applause. For after all it is this which makes Cardiff in- teresting. not the fact that it has sprung within the lifetime of the "oldest inhabitants" from being a little more than Bridgewater to being a little less than Liverpool. Cardiff by itself would be merely a second-rate provincial town, inferior to Bristol, to Belfast, to Dundee, to twenty other place in the kingdom. But the patriotic Cardiffian thinks scorn of a comparison with such towns as these. His ambition is higher. He wants his town to rank with Dublin, and Edinburgh, and Melbourne, as one of the imperial cities of the world-wide British realm. That is the standpoint from which the destinies of Cardiff loom large on the horizon. Cardiff is a self-made town. It suffers, there- fore, from a certain lack of experience. It does not trust itself, and is too ready to defer to the ex- ample, and even the precept of others. The County Council cannot decide even so simple a matter as the salary of an official without elaborate investi- gation into what is done in other towns. This is, I understand, about the only place in the kingdom in which Mr. W. T. Stead's proposals for a Civic Church" have been taken seriously. Yet there are few towns which stand less in need of Mr. Stead's Church than Cardiff. We have strong and successful Temper&nce organisations, an active branch of the Vigilance Association, a branch of the Society for the Protection of Child- ren. which would be active if the Stipendiary would let it, and numerous other unsectarian bodies doing admirable work. Another weak spot in Cardiff is the foreign element. By foreign I do not mean people from other parts of the kingdom who have thrown in their lot with their new home, and loyally accepted its traditions. But there are a certain number who appear to regard Cardiff as a mere temporary stop- ping place, a place to make money in, and spend as little money on as possible. The municipal spirit is weak in Cardiff at present, and municipal life suffers accordin gly. It is true we have wrested the government of the town from Tory hands. But it would be premature to say that we have placed it on a really democratic basis. Latterlv there have been some signs of an awakening in this direction. Two thoroughly sound representatives have been put on the Council, in the persons of Councillors John Jenkins (Trades' Council nominee), and Edward Thomas, better known as Cochfarf. The recent battle over the right of public meeting has been a healthy sign, and shows that the democracy are beginning to realise their power, and are prepared to take a firm tone with the somnolent figure- heads who obstruct instead of leading the Liberal party. The battle has to be waged in the face of greater odds here than in many places. For years Cardiff was a Marquis-ridden town. John Batchelor was the man mainly instrumental in breaking the Bute yoke, and it would seem that, now he is gone, there are plenty who still hanker after the flesh-pots of Egypt—or shall we say the loving-cups ? it was a mean business, take it how you will, that selling of the mayoralty for a mess of pottage for the British Association. But I do not think it will occur again. This fortunate split over the Docks Bill, in which the Bute agent tried the old tactics of bullying the Corporation, has given just the antidote that was needed and the principal traces of the brief lapse into slavery will be another unsightly statue in our streets, and an expensive drinking" cup for our temperunce Council. However, Cardiff is certainly one of the best advertised towns in Britain. The succession of big things which have come off in our midst within the last few years is surprising. Chambers of Commerce, Church Congress, British Associa- tion, and now. on the top of them all. we art to have a Musical Festival. Mr. Joseph Barnby, the selected conductor, was in the town last week, and his remarks must have been very gratifying to the gentlemen who have succeeded in so short a space of time in floating such a big affair. To accomplish anything in the musical world without offending at least half the musicians interested, would be too much to expect. Of course there are plenty of bleeding bosoms in musical Cardiff just now, and they have found solace in the friendly arms of the Western Mail. If the festival had been started by their" Qlli Vine." instead of the Echo's Man about Town," no doubt the unfortunates would have received similar succour from the South Wales Daily News. So wags the journalistic world. Lord Halsbury has come and gone, and if it had been Lord Salisbury, it would have made no difference to the political outlook. The only interesting thing about his visit was the duel between the Lord Chancellor and Mr. Beynon Harris, a young solicitor who is coming to the front as the Randolph Churchill of Cardiff. For his somewhat daring repudiation of fossil Toryism. Mr. Harris was severely beaten and bruised by the solemn Chancellor. Why is it that the Tories always make such a dead set at a man who tries to popularise their party with the people ? Never mind, Mr. Harris may console himself with the fact that he is only going through the experience which awaited Disraeli, and Lord Randolph him- lelf at one period of their careers. So the Cardiff Corporation have borrowed £15,000. They seem proud of these small sums. Why .do not they borrow £ 150,000 at once, and put up a decent Town-hall. A respectable English country town would recoil from their present structure. Every one in Cardiff. with the ex- ception of forty inhabitants, is clamouring for some building more worthy of Cardiff's future. But then those forty happen to be members of the Council. What is the reason that they cling with such romantic fondness to their battered ruin ? Well. it is a great secret, but I think I will let the readers of the South If ales Star into it—on the strict understanding that it goes no further. The Town-hall contains the most comfortable council chamber in the world Palaces are not in it. There is a beautiful easy chair and a desk for each man there is a raised dais for the aldermen and a perfect throne for the mayor. And not one seat for the private citizens no, not so much as a wooden form! Further comment would be superfluous indeed. Quarter Sessions has been dull. Such is the verdict of those present. An occasional flash from the brilliant and accomplished Recorder has irradiated the gloom, and the legal fraternity have derived a faint excitement from watching the pro- gress of the Clerk of the Peace along a path apparently beset with pitfalls. When his pre- mature recitation of the formula Gentlemen of the jury, are you all sworn ?" resulted in an organised whisper from the Recorder's clerk There's not one of them sworn yet!" several of the young solicitors in court felt they had not lived in vain. The posters are just out for the great Labour demonstration on Monday next. The importance of this occasion, cannot easily be over-rated. The whole of the federated trades of South Wales are to be represented, with Mabon in the chair. Among the speakers who have promised to attend are the Right Hon. Mr. Stansfeld, Sir Charles Dilke, Sir E. J. Reed, and other members of Parliament, and prominent Labour leaders. It was, perhaps, a little indiscreet on the part of the committee to invite Sir Charles Dilke without giving due notice to their other friends. Without-in any way sym- pathising with the Stead persecution, I recognise that there are persons who feel conscientious diffi- culties with regard to Sir Charles Dilke. and they ought not to be placed in the false position of accepting an invitation in ignorance of what it may involve. The demonstration is to be held in the Roath Park, so narrowly rescued to the people from the Conservative officialdom of the Corporation. It is to be hoped that the working men themselves will spare no effort to make the occasion imposing, and worthy of the great interests at stake. Let there be no holding back, or depending on the counte- nance of this or that Right Honourable. If the labour classes are ever to obtain their proper weight in the councils of the nation, it can only be by using every possible opportunity to emphasise their strength, their unity, and their determination.
BARRY RAIL WA Y-TRAFFIC RECEIPTS. Week ending 23rd April, 1892 £ 5,410. Accountant's Office, Barry Dock, 27th April, 1892.
SERIOUS SWING ACCIDENT AT BARRY DOCK. A DOZEN PERSONS PRECIPITATED TO THE GROUND. Are there any bye-laws or regulations dealing with the control of s.tngs, roundabouts, and similar things. If not, there ought to be, as the serious incident we report below will readily show. During the last week or so, a number of travelling shows, (tc., have visited the Barry district, and on Monday evening last one of these concerns was located en a piece of land on the Holton-road, nearly opposite the Gas Works. The various induce- ments to pleasure were splendidly patronised by crowds of people, and when the gaiety was in full swing, a large wooden erection with six swing boats attached gave way, and fell to the ground with terrific force. All the swings were engaged at the time, consequently a dozen persons were precipitated to the ground as well. There were several of them got out of the general debris with some difficulty, and although terribly scared, shaken, and bruised about, did not receive much further injury. It is evident that the concern was very insecurely erected, and the pro- prietor is deserving of the severest censure. It behoves either the local authority or the police to fully gauge their locus standi in regard to regulating and controlling these viaiting shows, and if they are possessed of any such powers, they should be used as a much needed security against this public danger.
PASSENGER TRAFFIC BETWEEN BARRY AND PONTYPRIDD. ANOTHER ATTEMPT TO BE MADE. At the ordinary meeting of the Pontypridd Local Board on Friday last. Mr. David Leyshon in the chair, Mr. James Roberts called the attention of the Board to the importance of pushing forward this much-needed improvement in the railway system of the town. The inhabitants in the rural parts were very anxious that passenger traffic should be established between the two towns, and the rural authorities would willingly join the Local Board in pushing the matter forward. It was very important that passenger trains should be run on the line, and no doubt, were they to obtain the co-operation of other authorities, much good would ensue. He believed that the heaviest pressure ought to be brought to bear upon the Barry Company.—The Chairman fully agreed with Mr. Roberts' remarks, and it was resolved that the clerk be instructed to write to the various authori- ties interested, and ask for their assistance. .1'1'0,
THE CONDITION OF AGRICULTURE IN THE CIT VALE OF GLAMORGAN. PUBLIC INQUIRY AT COWBRIDGE. [BY OUR SPECIAL REPORTER.] On Tuesday last Mr. D. Lleufer Thomas, one of the newly-appointed Assistant Commissioners under the Royal Labour Commission, held his first public inquiry at Cowbridge Town-hall into the condition of the agricultural labourers in the Vale of Glamorgan. There was a very good and repre- sentative attendance of farmers at the two meetings in the afternoon and evening, though I did not notice a single labourer or landowner present. For me the result of the inquiry was, I confess, a surprise and a disillusion. I had always been taught to look upon the Vale of Glamorgan, Bro Morganwg, as a district where the conditions of life were much in keeping to those prevail- ing elsewhere in Wales. I was prepared to find that farmers were better off than in other Welsh parts, and that the dis- tinction between farmer and labourer was more marked. But I was nQt prepared to find that the conditions of agricultural life in the Vale were so different to those in the rest of Wales, and that the relations of master and man rested so largely on a strictly commercial basis. Mr. Lleufer Thomas, in opening the inquiry, said that assistant commissioners had lately been appointed to gather facts, and to lay them before the Royal Commission on Labour, with regard to the condition of the agricultural labourer. He (Mr. Thomas) had been appointed to inquire more particularly into the condition of the Wel-h labourer. The Royal Commissioners had instructed him to hold his first inquiry as to the state of things in the Bridgend and Cowbridge Union but he had exercised his discretion in extending the area of the inquiry so as to include the whole of the Vale of Glamorgan, Much information was not, perhaps, to be expected in a public inquiry, for farmers were as a rule a reticent race but he hoped to supplement the facts elicited that day by private inquiry and personal observation amongst the people. He wished it to be known that he would receive evidence in private, and in the Welsh language, if necessary. The first witness, who volunteered to give evi- dence, was Mr. John Lewis, of Brigam Farm, Llansannor. Mr. Lewis holds a farm of 350 acres, half of which is arable and half pasture land. During the last 20 years he has been constantly increasing his pasture land at the expense of the arable land. For the last eight or ten years he has found the supply of labour very insufficient, as so many leave for the mineral districts. He can't get women to do any out-of-door work for the last eight years, as their husbands earn plenty of money. The consequence has been that he has had, like other farmers, to abandon dairy farming almost entirely. Sheep in the good old times used to be milked, but for 20 years this has had to be given up. It is impossible to get a Welshman to work on the farm now for less than 5s. or 6s. a day, as he can easily earn that in the mining districts. The consequence has been that English labourers have had to be introduced wholesale, who are willing to work for 15s. or 16s., with cottage and garden^ rent free. In spite of the fact that English labour had been so generally in- troduced, and that labour-saving machinery is so largely used, Mr. Lewis knew that there was a lot of land in every part of the Vale which was neg- lected because of insufficient supply of labour. Though the farmers had to take men, sometimes from England without a character, the morality of the English settlers was not below the average. The hours of work were, generally, from 6 a.m. to 5 p.m. with about two hours off for meals. In addition to his wages and cottage and garden, the labourer received the manure for his garden for nothing and got his coals hauled by the farmer. The gardens were well cultivated, said Mr. Lewis, with a smile, for they have plenty of time." There was a great deficiency in the supply of cot- tages, very many having been allowed to go down both on farms and in villages. Mr. Lewis was of opinion that the labourers should hold their cot- tages of the farmer. Are the labourers indepen- dent ?" asked the Commissioner. Very much so," drily replied Mr. Lewis. And are the farmers independent, too ? asked the Commissioner. "No, they dare not," said Mr. Lewis, still more drily. Mr. Lewis is no believer in the economy of keeping pigs, and had even persuaded his labourers to give up keeping these unclean beasts. Don't you think," asked the Commissioner, that keeping live stock, such as pigs, would tend to make the labourer more settled ? No," answered Mr. Lewis. You can buy bacon cheaper than you can make it." Mr. W. V. Huntley (Welsh St. Donat's) gave somewhat similar evidence. In 1841, when he first came to the district, labour was plentiful. Since that time, and especially during the last seven years, there had been a great scarcity. The scarcity was first acutely felt in 1875-6, when many of the Rhondda coalfields had been opened up. Farmers in his district generally advertised for labourers in the English papers, and all the farm labourers in the district were Englishmen. Do they ever return ?" asked the Commissioner. Oh, no, never, by any chance," said Mr. Huntley, with such emphasis that everyone laughed. It was im- possible, almost, to get boys from Industrial Schools, and from his experience of them he did not think 11 was a. great loss. Mr. Huntley's evidence as to wages, dairy farming, pig keeping, and gardening, was similar to Air. Lewis's. He found it better to give as much work out as piecework as he could. During the harves.. the labourer earned not only his usual wages, but food and beer ad lib as well, said Mr. Huntley, amid gener.,1 laughter. Mr. William Jenkins, Llanfihange!, also spoke of the scarcity of labour, though in his immediate district, Lanmaes, Landough, and Lantwifc Major, the introduction of English labour had not been so prevalent as at Llansannor and Welsh St. Donat's. The labourers were mostly native, and very respectable. Dairy farming had almost entirely disappeared; his maid-servants would do nothing but nousework, and his milking and dairy work was done by the labourer's wives. The quality of the labour was not so good as it used to be, the country being drained by the towns of skilled labourers. The land was pretty well culti- vated, except in certain portions. The supply of cottages was insufficient. The gardens—from 12 to 30 perches each—were well cultivated, and a pig or two was kept by every labourer. Most of the labourers belonged to friendly societies. Mr. J. Spencer, Gilestone, said that though there was scarcity of labour, it was not very acutely felt in his district. The average of a labourer was 15s. or 16s. a week, with cottage and garden rent free. A ''casual'* would earn 3s. 6d. a day. The water supply was good the labourers generally kept pigs; and they generally belonged to friendly societies, such as the Oddfellows and Ivorites. The food of the labourers was now very much better, but the wives, he considered, were not so industrious. Councillor Howell. Peneoed, said that there was a scarcity of labour felt in his district, except when there was a depression in the mineral districts. There was a growing and a reasonable objection to the employment of women on the fields. His neighbourhood was chiefly Welsh. There were a few instances still of migrations from the counties of Cardigan and Carmarthen, but those were much fewer than in old times. There was a great dearth of skilled labourers, the farmer having practically to teach all his men. Sometimes men went to the mineral districts for the winter, returning for three or four months to work on farms in the •ummer. The cottages were all in villages, none on farms. The supply was inadequate; but the condition of the cottages was tolerably good and improving. Most of the labourers belonged in friendly societies, but these should not meet to public-houses. To some extent there was a deterioration in morals owing to more time and more money. There was no differ- ence in the food of the labourer and the farmer. He considered that there was no one so comfortable as those who had 10 or 12 acres, and who worked on farms as well. These showed no tendency to migrate. The old clas., of freeholders, which he well remembered (20 or 30 being in his parish), had almost entirely dis- appeared. Councillor T. J. Hughes gave evidence as to the old custom of gleaning," which survived to within 10 years ago and to another custom, which was fast disappearing, of keeping two pigs—one for use and one to pay the rent. Mr. Arthur J. Williams, M.P., made some observa- tions on the question of allotments and the Cottagers' Mutual Help Society at Coychurch. He thought that small farms were better manured and grew better crops but the hedges, gates, &c., were not so well kept as they were on big farms. In the evening the Commissioner again sat, mainly for the purpose of hearing evidence from agricultural labourers. Mr. Lleufer Thomas, in re-opening the inquiry, said that they might, perhaps, take the absence of labourers to mean that they were pretty well satisfied with their condition. Mr. Rees Thomas. Boverton Place, was the first witness. He bore witness to the decline of dairy farming, and to the increase in pasture land owing to the scarcity of labour and cheapness of corn. The standard of intelligence among the was high. The work was let out, as a rule, by piece, and a knowledge of machinery and was con- sequently useful and necessary. A high standard of intelligence was, therefore, attained. The land wat sufficiently cultivated in:his district. The cottages were few. He considered that a labourer was more settled when he possessed a useful garden. Most of the labourers kept pigs. Mr. E. John. ex-Mayor, considered that the. condition of the labourer was vastly improved, greatly owing to Free Trade. Tha Vale of Gla- morgan was differently circumstanced to other districts, and the farmers were more severely handicapped, because it was almost surrounded by mineral districts. The cottages were seldom on farms, but mainly in villages. Those on farms, however, being of more modern structure, were better than those in villages, which were generally bad—those existing till lately in St. Mary's being a serious reflection on a wealthy landowner. The water supply was very bad in three villages out of four. Mr. Huntley here gave a short account of an in- teresting experiment that had been made in allot- ments at Ystrad Owen and Welsh St. Donat's, com- menced some 22 years ago. The overseers let them out free to the labourers. This worked well for two or three years, but gradually fell off, till now there were none cultivated. The spot was conven- ient to the cottages, being only 400 or 500 yards away. Mr. John ascribed the failure of allotments to (1) The land falling into bad order through the labourer becoming old. (2) The poorness of the soil,and (3) to the distance and unget-at-ableness of the allotments. He was of opinion that allotments, to be successful, must be attached to the cottages. Labourers, as a rule, belonged to friendly societies, even the unmarried. Fully 80 per cent. of the mem- bers of the friendly societies were labourers. These clubs did not allmeetatpublic-houses. AtSt.Atha. they met in a schoolroom, and at Wick and Lantwit at Oddfellows' Halls. At Llancarvan, Llanharry, and Llanharran they met in public-houses, though the old custom of paying for a room by order ng beer had been abrogated. It was a curio is fact that English immigrants, who did not, as a rule, belong to friendly societies when they come to Wales, join these societies soon after settling down in the district. He was of opinion that unless cottagers held of the landlords, not of the tenant farmers, and unless they had better security of tenure than they now enjoyed, allotments would be of no use. Mr. Bird. district surveyor, gave exidence with regard to 15 or 20 allotments at St. Fagans which, are working well, and to the deplorable drainages system in the villages, such as St. Hilary and. Tythegstone. This concluded the public inquiry. The Com- missioner thanked the Mayor (Mr. Jenkins) for so kindly giving them the use of the Town-hall, for the occasion.
RELIGIOUS CENSUS OF THE BARRY DISTRICT. LAST SUNDAY'S ATTENDANCES. COMPARISON WITH LAST YEAR'S RETURNS. IS THE PROPORTION OF WORSHIPPERS ON THE INCREASE ? On the last Sunday in April of last year we took a Religious Census of Barry and Cadoxton The result oaused a great deal of interest, as it was the first occasion on which any Religious Census had been taken in the district. We expressed our intention at that time to take another census this year for the purpose of instituting a comparison of last year's results with those of this year, and of having some means of guaging the growth or the decline of religion in our midst. The official census of last year showed that the population of Barry and Cadoxton in April. 1891 was something like 13.500. It is estimated that the population has increased to 15,000 or 16,000 during the last twelve months but, in order to be on the safe side, we will assume that the resident population is 14,000. To each enumerator last Sunday a printed copy of instructions was given. The attendances at the morning and evening services were to be counted; children and adults were to be counted separately: and all over the age of 12 were to be classified as adults. No effort has been spared to make the list as complete and accurate as possible, and we have every confidence, that, however disappointing the figures may prove, and however discouraging they may be, they faithfully represent the actual attendancss at the various places of worship last Sunday. The following is the list of attendances, given in the order of merit: "— I BARRY. Place of Worship. Morning Service. Evening Service. Total I, Adults. Children. Total. Adults. Children. Total. Attendances 1. English Wesleyan — — 90 — 165 — 255 157 — 36 — 193 448 2. English Congregational — 94 — 54 148 190 — 33 — 223 371 3. Welsh Independent — — 85 — 12 — 97 136 — 13 — 149 246 4. St. Paul's Church — — 47 — 36 — 83 111 — 35 — 146 229 5. Welsh Methodist — — 63 — 7 70 101 — 20 — 121 191 6. English Methodist — — 39 — 17 — 56 81 — 19 — 100 156 7. Parish Church — — 49 — 9 — 58 64 — 7 — 71 129 8. English Baptist — 46 — 22 — 68 50 — 8 — 58 126 9. Railway Mission— — — 22 9 31 15 28 43 74 Totals — 535 331 866 905 199 1104 1970 BARRY DOCK. Place of Worship. Morning Service. Evening Service. Total Adults. Children. Total. Adults. Children. Total. Attendances 1. English Wesleyan — — 94 — 93 — 187 210 — 41 — 251 438 2. English Church Mission — 107 — 25 — 132 201 — 46 — 247 379 3. Welsh Independent — — 86 — 22 — 108 122 — 43 — 165 273 4. Bible Christian — — 41 56 — 97 70 30 — 100 197 5. English Baptist Mission — 38 — 44 — 82 75 — 30 — 105 187 6. Welsh Baptist— — — 32 — 3 — 35 65 — 10 — 75 110 7. Welsh Wesleyan — — 21 — 4 — 25 21 — 6 — 27 52 Total — 419 247 666 764 206 970 1636 CADOXTON. Place of Worship. Morning Service. Evening Service. Total Adults. Children. Total. Adults. Children. Total. Attendances 1. English Wesleyan — — 104—27 — 131 210 — 17 — 227 35S 2. Roman Catholic — — 160 — 39 193 47 18 65 234 3. English Baptist — — 54 — 57 — 111 113 — .32 — 145 23G 4. English Methodist — — 41 15 5G 120 — 25 — 145 201 5. Welsh Methorlist — — 51 — 11 — 62 7iJ 10 — 89 151 6. Welsh Baptist — — 39 — 14 — 53 74 — 19 — 93 146 7. Parish Church — — 51 — 24 — 75 55 13 — 68 143 8. f English Church Misssion — 51 — 27 — 78 14 — 26 — 40 118 9. Salvation Army — — (Open Air Meeting) 106 — 12 — 118 118 10. Webh Independant — 29 — 5 -31, 56 — 7 — 63 97 11. Welsh Wesleyan — — 22 — 2 — 24 29 — 4 — 33 57 12. English Congregational 20 9 — 29 22 4 26 55 13. Free Church. Market-hall — 13 — 2 — 15 14 — 16 — 30 45 14. Welsh Church Mission — 14 — 1 — 15 18 — 3 — 21 3G 15. Merthyrdovan Church — 14 — 1 — 15 — — — — — 15 Totals — 663 234 897 957 206 1,163 2,000 WHICH IS THE STRONGEST BODY ? From the above table the relative strength of the various denominations in the different parts of the district will be seen at a glance. The appended table shows the relative strength of the religious bodies in the whole of the district. After much hesitation, we decided to count, in this table, the Welsh Methodists and the English Presbyterians, the Welsh Independents and the English Congregationalism, the Welsh and English Baptists, Wesleyans, and Churchmen as one body. The results are a-I follows :— Grand Total. 1. Weclevans — — — — — — 1,353 2. Church of England — — — — 1049 3. Congregationalists — — — — — 1.042 4. Baptists — — — — —- — 825 5. Methodists — — — — — — 693 6. Roman Catholics — — — — — 264 7. Bible Christians — — — — — 197 8. Salvation Army — — — — — — 118 9. Hail way Mission- — — — — • — 74 10. Fret Church (Market-hall) — — — — — 45 I 5,666 THE RISING GENERATION. The child is father to the man," says the old adage, and if we wish to guage at all accurately the prospects of our religious bodies, we must look to the number of children who worship with them. The following table will show the number of children who attended the two services last Sunday :— Wesleyans — — — — — — — 395 Church of England — — — — —. — 255 Baptists — — — — — — — 239 Congregationalists 202 Methodists — — — — — — — 180 Bible Christians — — — — — — 86 Roman Catholics — — — — — — 57 Railway Mission — — — — — — 37 Free Church- — — — — — -18 Salvation Army — — — — — — 12 1481 Perhaps it is not quite fair to take the attendances at two services in order to arrive at the relative strength of the different religious bodies. Some, e.,q. the Church at Merthyr Dovan and the Salvation Army, hold only one service the attendance in some cases at the mornirg and evening services is very disproportionate, in others it is very even. A fairer, way of estimating their strength, perhaps, would be to take only THE BEST ATTENDED SERVICE. The order would then be as follows :— 1. Wesleyans — — — — — — 818 2. Church of England — — — — — 653 3. Congregationalists — — — — — 629 4. Baptists — — — — — — 486 5. Methodists — — — — — — 455 6. Roman Catholics — — — — — 199 7. Salvation Army — — — — — — 118 8. Bible Christians — — — — — 100 9. Railway Mission — — — — — — 43 10. Free Church — — — — — — 30 It will be seen that the only difference which this entails in the tabulation is that the Salvation Army and the Bible Christians exchange places. RELATIVE STRENGTH OF CHURCH AND DISSENT. We are not blind believers in the principle of counting of noses," but the force of example is so strong that we cannot refrain from showing the relative strength of Church and Dissent in the Barry district. It should, however, be remembered that the Church of England is almost the only religious body which had some places of worship here when the district began to be developed. They had no need, therefore, to wait till sufficient money was collected or promised to hire a hall or build a mission room. They had three Churches, one at Barry, one at Merthyrdovan, and one at Cadoxton Old Village ready at hand. Of course these were by no means sufficient for their purpose, for mission rooms have been started in the three parts of the town. The appended table will show the relative strength of Church and Dissent Barry. Barry Dock. Cadoxton. Total. Church of England — — 358 — 379 — 312 — 1,049 Nonconformists — 1,612 — 1,256 — 1,748 — 4,617 It will be seen, therefore, that the Church in Barry Dock where it is strongest is, in proportion to Nonconformity where it is weakest, only a little over one-fourth. In Barry it is a little over one-fifth, in Cadoxton considerably under one-fifth. The proportion in the whole district is not one to four. If we only take the Welsh religious bodies, we find that the proportion is much smaller, being only 36 to 1,299, or one to 36. THE WELSH CAUSES. It is very interesting, in a new district like Barry, to know what proportion of the population is Welsh. The following table, showing, as it does, the relative strength of Welsh and English causes' does not give a fair and j ust estimate of the Welsh-speaking population for, as many of the English ministers are Welsh-speaking Welshmen, so very many of their flocks are Welsh by birth, training, association, and language. But, in lieu of a more trustworthy guide, we may take the appended table as giving the minimum number of Welsh-speaking worshippers at Barry :— Barry. Barry Docik. Cadoxton. Total. 1. Welsh Independents— — 246 — 213 — 97 — 556 2. Welsh Methodists — — 191 — — — 151 — 342 3. Welsh Baptists — — — — 110 — 146 — 256 4. Welsh Wesleyans — — — — 52 — 57 — 109 5. Welsh Church Mission — — — — — 36 — 36 Totals — — 437 — 375 — 487 — 1,299 A comparison of the relative strength of Welsh and English caus?s yields the following results :— Barry. Barry Dock. Cadoxton. Total. English — 1533 — 1261 — 1573 — 4367 Welsh — 437 — 375 — 487 — 1299 The proportion in Cadoxton is slightly higher than in Barry Dock, and in Barry Dock again it is slightly higher than in Barry but throughout the district the proportion of Welsh worshippers to English is 1 to 3'470. THE PROPORTION OF WORSHIPPERS. In endeavouring to know what the proportion of worshippers is to the whole population, we do not think we can do better than to proceed on the same lines as last year. We assume that one-third of the whole number of attendants were present at both morning and evening service, i.e., out of 5,666 who attended, we have to asshme that 1,888 were present at the two services. We find therefore that the number of worshippers at the different places of worship on Sunday last was 3,778, or rather more than one-fourth, and less than one-third of the whole population. COMPARISON WITH LAST YEAR. What strikes one most on comparing this year's results with last year's is the remarkable similarity between them. The number of attendances last year was 4,558 this year the number was 5,666, showing an increase of 1,078. When the increase in the population, the better condition of the roads, and the greater number of places of worship are taken into consideration, it will be found that the increase is but slight. In Cadoxton two new causes have beeen started, a Free service at the Market Hall, and an English Congregational Mission while the Welsh Church Mission holds two services instead of one. The only other new cause started is the Welsh Wesleyan Mission at Barry Dock but the Church of England holds two services instead of one at Barry Dock Public Hall. We have said that there has been an increase of 1.078 this is made up of 250 Welsh worshippers, and 828 English. This shows that the increase in the Welsh and English causes has been very proportionate. Last year the number of Welsh worshippers was 1.049 this year it is 1.2S9. Last year the number of English worshippers was 3,539 this year it is 4,357. The following table will give, roughly, the increase or decrease in the attendance in the various religious bodies Increase. Decrease. Wesleyans — — — — 500 — — Congregationalists — — — 260 — — Methodists — — — 110 — — Church of England — — — 100 — — Bible Christians — — — 80 — — Baptists — — — — 60 — — Roman Catholics 10 Salvation Army — — — — — 60 Railway Mission — — — — — 90 Last year, the Church was the strongest body in the district this year the Wesleyans are easily first, and the Congregationalists run the Church very close for the second place. The others occupy the same position, except that the Bible Christians this year take the seventh instead of the ninth place. At Barry there has been an increase of 188 in the attendances in Barry Dock an increase of 911 while in Cadoxton there has been a decrease of 21. This seems to show either that the population of Cadoxton is stationary, if not on the decline while that of other parts of the district is increasing or that the fact that the district of Barry Dock is becoming more settled, that more convenient buildings are used, and that better roads have been made. are conducive to better attendance. A comparison of the number of children who attended last year, ana this go to prove that the former supposition is the correct one. Attendances of Children. 1891. 1892. Barry — — — — — 518 — 530 Barry Dock — — — — — 273 — 453 Cadoxton — — — — — 609 — 440 It will be seen, therefore, that there has been a slight increase at Barry, an increase of 180 at Barry Dock, and a decrease of 169 at Cadoxton. CONCLUSION. Is the religious condition of the district satisfactory ? Is the proportion of worshippers to the population such as to make us rest content ? We can hardly believe that any man will think it is so. It may be said that the numbers we have given do not represent the whole of the religious men of the district. We are far, indeed, from saying so, but a proportion of something like one to four of attendants is hardly what we should expect or rest content with in Christian" Wales. The result of the Census would seem to point to the necessity o': having Missionary Churches in our midst. We are aware that many of our ministers conduct prayer meetings and other religious services ic the homesiof the poor but there should be more of organised effort in this direction. It seems clear that nearly three-fourths of the people of Barry, ten thousand souls in all, do not attend any place of worship on Sundays. Since they will not come to the means of grace, the means of grace must go to them. The only Missionary Church in our midst, the Salva- tion Army, is falling off in numbers but that is no reason why an e .rnest, well-directed, and well organised movement should not succeed.
should be attached to, his cottage, and not situated a quarter of a mile away. When a labourer returns from his day's work, he cannot be expected to walk half a mile to plant a gar- den after a long day's toil. His allotment should be,conveniently near his cottage. o The object of legislation ought to be. not to lessen the wages of the labourer, but to give him more facilities and more leisure to make proper use of his increased wages. Farmers are afraid that increase of wages means a decrease of profits. This should not be the case. As a matter of fact, our whole land sys- tem needs reforming and reconstructing. The price of labour ought to be taken into account where the amount of rent is determined. The increase in the wages of the labourer should not mean a decrease in the profits of the farmer, hut a diminution of the rent of the landlord.