AMERICA AND ITS FARMING. Mr. 0. 8. Read delivered an address at a meeting of the Farmers' Club, held at the Inns of Court Hotel, upon the subject of America and its Farming." He said, as regarded American agricultural development it was of very recent date, and was continuing day by day; therefore it was better for English farmer to consider the grave competition to which they were exposed. It wa< only by taking stock of that com- petition that they were likely to arrive at any satis- factory means of competing successfully with it. As his text he took the report of the two Assistant Commissioners, himself and Mr. Pell, who had been sent out to America by the Government to inquire into and report upon statistics and facts connected with agriculture on the other side of the Atlantic. To facts and statistics alone their instructions extended, and therefore the report was limited to an extent which would no doubt disappoint many. The chief subjects for considera- tion were wheat and b-ef, and in regard to this he did not think that the States where cotton and tobacco were grown would interfere with them much. As to the wheat-growing prairies of the Far West, he said that the Commissioners bad obtained some valuable information from farmers, agents, bankers, and othera, the result of which had been that they bad been able to place the cost of production at a proper figure; but with regard to freight there would necessarily be an essential difference, as the cost of transport varied with the season. There was no Sart of America, he asserted, in which they could pro- uce wheat at less than 3s. per bushel, whilst the cost of transit could not be less than 2s. He did not think that they would ever be able to deliver wheat in this country at lees than 5a. a bushel. Comparing the cost of growing wheat in England with that of America, he eaid tbat, in the first place, the Americans grew wheat every year, whereas in this country it was only grown once in four years; whilst labour was very much cheaper, and there was no necessity for manuring, without which the English farmer could do nothing; but the time would come, sooner or later, when exhaustion would raise the price of production. If Ingfish farmers could get over the next twenty-five years, they need not so much mind America, but between this and then they would find the American. most formidable competitors. They felt keenly the effects of the competition; but was not a great deal of it owing to their own poor wheat crops ? Mr. John Clay, jun., their fellow Commissioner, had been appointed to go to California, and from him some interesting letters had been received; his idea of farming in California did not appear to be a very exalted one. Farming there was wasteful and extravagant, and the yield was rapidly decreasing in the older lands, and that with wheat at 46s. at Liver- pool, the Oalifornian farmer could not live. There were three causes which militated against farming in California—the vast landed estates, the railway monopoly, and the mining ring. There wa3 no other market than Great Britain open to the Californian farmer, and his produce must be sent here, though the price reali-ed might be below the oost of production. He did not think that the sending of maize to this country would do the farmers any harm. He feared the com- petition in wheat less than the competition in cattle. Considering how cattle were increasing on the American Continent, they might expect, in no very distant future, to find an enormous importation of both live and dead animals. Their cattle already amounted to 331 millions, and the stock was increasing at the rate of about a million a year. He did not think they had much to fear from the cattle coming from the east or from Canada, owing to the oest of maintenance, but it was from the Far West and the slopes of the Rocky Mountains that he expected cattle to come in the greatest numbers. He was disposed to think that they would be able to land fine beef at Liver- pool at sixpence per pound. There would be a great development in the dead meat trade when cool stores were provided in the markets, and live cattle could be imported with a fair margin of profit when America could present a clean bill of health. American sheep were net likely to compete with Bnglish for many yean to come. England could defy competition with all countries in the world except the United States. He would not mind so much if America was in other hands. When they considered what the American was they would agree that he was the right man to develop the country. The Yankee farmer was not fond of hard work, nor did he love husbandry so much as the almighty dollar;" but he loved the exoitement in the race for wealth, and was ready to adopt every improvement. Moreover, he had the advantage of a higher middle-class education and a good Department of Agriculture. He believed that at no very distant date America would become one of the greatest nations in the world. After advising intending emigrants to select the middle States, he said that if a man worked as hard here, dressed as meagrely, lived as frugally, and was content to drink filthy tea three times a day, and to hunt and sport lesfr, the majority of farmers might live and die in the Old Country.
METROPOLITAN LONG SUFFERING. Scarborough has a bye-law whioh we, says a con- temporary, shopld not feel sorry to see included in the metropolitan code. The fashionable health resort on the Yorkshire coast will not allow refuse of any sort to be carted through the public streets except between midnight and six a.m., and tho e who disobey this enactment are at once brought before the magistrates. In a case which has just been reported, a man was fined 16s., inoluding I costs, for conveying fish refuse during the prohibited hours through the town, and we may take it, therefore, that the Scarborough municipal authorities have no intention of allowing their salutary bye-law to relapse into a dead-letter. What is there—except those terrible obstructive?, use and wont-to prevent a similar regulation being established in London ? It is a positive scandal that the inhabitants cannot take a stroll in the streets without running the chance of being half poisoned by horrible stenches. There is a time for all things, and it is certainly not the proper time to transport malo- dorous refuse through the busy haunts of men," when these are the most densely thronged.
SIXTEEN TIMES CONVICTED. Catherine Wright, an elderly woman, was brought up at the Middlesex Sessions by Mr. Clamp, the chief officer of the Mendieity Society, to be dealt with as a rogue and vagabond. The prisoner was one of the most successful beggars in the metropolis, and had given the officers of the Mendicity Society considerable trouble. She was in the habit of carrying a few flowers in her hand under the pretence of selling them, but merely as a guise to obtain money from the benevolent. There were sixteen previous convictions against hpr at this and other courts. When the prisoner was last before the Court she promised that in the event of a lenient sentence she would go into the union and amend her ways, but she had no sooner been liberated than she renewed her old practices. His lordship sentenced her to sixmonthi hard labour.
TOTE PUNISHMENT OF JtTVBNILE OFFENDERS. -The Leicester School Board, after a discussion in reference to the punishment of juvenile offenders, has come to the conclusion that to send children under 12 to prison is both unwise and unjust; that increased facilities should be given for detaining incorrigible children in industrial schools; that parents whose neglect contributes to their children's offences should be punished in place of their offspring; that street hawking after eight p.m. by children under 10 be an offeooe on the part of parents and employers; and tbat the practice of official flogging is to be deprecated. THB Birmingham Pott says that Mrs. Webb, of Ledbury, has just passed her 102nd birthday, and the aged lady is said to be still in the enjoyment of good health. ALLEGED ROBBERY IN HTM-PABK.—RONDB Pearman, a young woman, was charged before Mr. Mansfield, at Marlborough-street, with stealing a scarf pin, the property of Mr. H. S. Smith, of No. 69, Limmerston-street, Pimlico. The prosecutor said that while crossing Hyde-park the prisoner caught hold of him and took hit pin from his scarf. He detained her and gave her in charge. Police-constable Din- nage, 318 0, aid be found the prisoner and the pro- secutor surrounded by a crowd of women, frequenters of the park. The prisoner, who pleaded not guilty, was committed for trial. ACCIDENT TO A SPANISH PMNCMS.—WMlst out with the hounds, in company with her brother and several noblemen, the Princess of the Asturias, eldest sister of King Alfonso, was thrown from her saddle by the horse stumbling in a rabbit hole. She fell on her head, and sustained a considerable bruise, but with her usual decision of character shj remounted pfter her hurt had been dressed with plaster, and took an animated part in the chase during the whole afternoon. The same evening the Princess went to the Italian Opera to hear Gayarre in PuritanL" LoAD DEBBY writes to a correspondent that if this country had not been convinced of the sound- ness of the free-trade principle, it would certainly not have been led to adopt it by the advice or remonstrance of foreign States. The only hope of inducing foreigners to look with favour on this economical idea lies, his lordship thinks, in the effect which must be produced by the spectacle of our own great faith in it. TIm LIVERPOOL STIPENDIARY remanded two young men named Joseph Ward and Thomas Hyland, who are charged with having thrown Patrick Needham out of a garret window, in a oourt in Addison-street. Needham's depositions were taken, his recovery being doubtful. JOHN SMALL, late assistant postmaster at Meigle, Perthshire, has been sentenced to seven years' penal servitude for stealing a registered letter con- taining bank notes to tbeamouat of AM
ESCAPE OF A POLITICAL PRISONER IN RUSSIA. Oar St. Petersburg correspondent writes: The fal- lowing account of the escape of a political prisoner is eminently typical of the proceedings of the revolu- tion&ry party and of Russian life and manners, espe- oially illustrating the rile played by women in the revolutionary party, in which they take such an active and resolute share. The prisoner in question was being taken by rail from Kiev to Odessa, escorted by two gendarmes. In the adjoining carriage two women were travelling, who expressed their desire to travel in the same carriage with the prisoner and the gendarmes. This request was complied with, and an animated con- versation took place, the women sparing neither trouble nor expense to make the time pass agreeably. All eat, dranir, and smoked together, and at one of the stations tea was procured and partaken of. Night came on, and when approaching the station of Vinnitz, the collector came to collect the tickets. On the seat which should have been occupied by the pri- soner, was found a heap of clothes arranged to re- semble the figure of a man, but the prisoner was gone. The gendarmes were aroused with great difficulty. At length one of them awoke and explained that after drinking the tea he was seized with an irresistible desire to sleep. His comrade who, when pushed, fell on the floor, afterwards explained thnt he had ex- perienced the same symptoms. The women of course had made off. The prisoner, it need scarcely be stated, did not drink any of the tea provided evidently with a special infusion for the gendarmes. There is no report of his capture or that of his lady friends. It may be mentioned that political prisoners who have not been sentenced by the Courts are always escorted by two gendarmes, and are not manacled. This absence of manacles of course made the escape easier in the above case."
THE LATE M. JOLY. The funeral of the late M. Joly at Versailles was attended, at the early hour of half-past nine o'clock on a misty morning, by M. Gambetta, M. L6on Say, and a large number of senators, deputies, and political men, who left Paris by special train to get to the cemetery. Speeches were made by the Mayor of Versailles, Colonel Langlois, M. Deves, and M. 8puller. Last of all, M. Gambetta said he could add nothing to what was already known of the life, the talent, and the buried hopes interred with Albert Joly; but he desired to say a werd of a friend -a man cut off in the flower of his age, who bad left behind him a track of light, the true light of immortality. He had left an example of practical virtue which would not perish. He had given lessons of union, tole- rance. and concord, which were of much worth, especially in the Seine-et-Oise, which had been neatly divided. Of humble origin he had raised himself, and had death not suddenly stricken him down, there was no borixon he might not have reached. He could say over his grave without fear of contra- diction, for the religion of death was one of the tra- ditions of the Democratic 'party, that all French Republicans shared their grief. His spirit would always hover over them amidat their turmoils and deliberations.
A TENANT-FARMER'S ELECTION EXPENSES. The following are the particulars of the election expenses of Mr. Duokham, the tenant-farmer member for Herefordshire, who won a most for that county at the general election, after a smart contest: Messengers, posters of bills, olerks, &e. £ 43 14 3 Committee-rooms and rooms for public meetings 68 IE 9 Printing and advertising 128 6 8 Conveyances 3 2 0 Postage 52 19 9 Sundries 9 5 8 Returning officer 147 11 3 Total 443 15 4 Bearing in mind that Herefordshire has over 8000 electors, says the Echo, this is certainly the oheapest thing of the kind that we have ever seen, and reflects no small credit upon Mr. John Lloyd, Mr. Duckham's agent. Sir J. Bailey and Major Peploe, the Tory candidates, spent between them more than £ 6000.
MR. SHAW LEFEVRE ON THE LAND QUESTION. Mr. Shaw Lefevre, in addressing the electors of Beading, advocated a change in the English land laws and the creation of peasant propretors in Ireland, but gradually, and net by expropriation. He had no sym- pathy with the Land League, which was trying to get up a rule opposed to her Majesty's Government, and this atate of things could not be allowed. The Ministry must propose measures to put an end to it, and to remedy the discontent of the Irish, in which they would be supported by those who placed them in power. Put legislation must be improved. It had failed because of the compromise forced upon the then Government by Parliament, and particularly by the House of Lords. Changes were gradually, but first brought about by popular movement, and remedies could be devised to make the Irish contented and prosperous.
ANARCHY IN TURKEY. A correspondent, writing from Constantinople on November 29,says: "From Macedonia we continue to receive most heartrending accounts of the condition of the people, and the Turks there are carrying on a ayatem of extermination differing only in degree from the havoc they wrought in Batak four years ago. In Armenia things have not improved a whit. On the contrary, they seem every day to be growing worse and worse. The central Government here is perfectly paralysed, and does nothing. Anarchy reigns compile tn. rywhere" and the poor people are ground (Jo vn by exorbitant demands for-money. Where this will all end no one can foretell, but assuredly it cannot continue for a very long time. The end of it must come some day, but if Europe does not interfere promptly to improve things, it is too dreadful to think of what the consequences must be. The Turkish Government have never been free from corruption, but now it pervades all classes of the officials, from the highest to the lowest. The city is infested day and night by thieves and robbers, and the police are united with them in plundering the people. There is perfect stagnation in business, and the courts are little better than dens of thieves and extortioners.
MURDEROUS ATTACK ON A WIFE. At Burslem Stipendiary Court, Arthur Heigh, labourer, Stake, was charged with committing a terrible assault on Mary, his wife. Prisoner was seen to strike the poor woman several times with a formidable poker, which was considerably bent from the violence of the attack, and she was also stabbed in various places, on the head, arms, and hands, with a table-knife, which was bent at right angles from the force of the blows, and was covered with blood. The woman lies in the North Staffordshire Infirmary in a very exhausted and critical condition, and her depositions are ordered to be taken. Prisoner, who threatened the life of a witness while in court, was remanded for a week. _n
THB CHARING-CROSS, the Dreadnought, and other hospitals have received consignments of game from the Duke of Edinburgh at Eastwell-park. RAILWAY ACCIDENT.—An accident has oc- curred on the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway, near Bury Station. A train of empty coal waggons was passing when the cross-bar of one broke, leaving twenty-five waggons on the line. Another train coming up, and the driver seeing a collision was inevi- table, leaped off the engine, and was seriously hurt. Some considerable amount of damage was done to rolling stock. THB SHEFFIELD POISONING CASK. The charge against a nurse at Sheffield for attempting to poison her mistress has again been before the magis- trate. Evidenoe was givpn by Mr. Booth, the prisoner's master, showing that a bottle of strychnine which be kept in his surgery bad been emptied, but he could not remember for whom he had prescribed any. A chemist deposed that he had supplied laudanum and morphia in two bottles to a servant from Mr. Booth's house. (The ease was again adjourned.
lTKE DUKE OF RUTLAND AND THE BURIALS ACT. A correspondence has taken place between the Bishop of Lichfield and the Duke of Rutland on the subject of the Church Extension Fund. The duke says tbat since the confiscation, by the passing of the Burials Act, of land specially given to the Church for the ex- tension of churchyards, he hesitates to subscribe tronev er take a part in any movement when he can have no security or faith that the intention of the donor will be carried out. This is more particularly called to his attention by the letter lately written iby Dean Stanley, in which he advooates the use of the chuiches by the Dissenters. The Bishop of Lichfield, in reply, says: The Church BDenaion Fund is expended on objects, a number of which are beyond the reach of any conceivable adverse legislation, such as that which haa taken place with regard to the church- yards. The grants to the clergy are annual, and all mission rooms, as well as new churches, which are not parish churches, will be vested in a body of trustees appointed for this purpose by the diocesan conference. A number of new burial grounds have already been conveyed to the same body, and I hope to secure the same arrangements in many instances in the future." On this assurance the Duke of Rutland consents to renew his subscription to the fund.
THE MUTUAL SOCIETY. The matter of the-windinir-up of this society came before the Master of the Bolb. The society had a ten yflJlJid existence. At the date of the winding-up the assets were on loans and securities, as estimated by the liquidator, .SIOO.OOO. By a later computation he found this was over-estimated by £ 25,000 or £ 30,000. The amount due to outside oreditors was £5000. The loans outstanding at the winding-up were .£887,000, t589,000 of which were loans on certifi- cates alone of the borrower, or by the forms adopted by the society, the personal security of the borrowers; £ 252,000 consisted of loans on other secu- rities and certificates combined. It was be- lieved that 8-9ths of the amount of the total assets were loat, and of the whole loana it was not believed t-ere would be a realisation of mere than £ 70,000. The defalcations amounted to £ 656,000. It was stated that the accounts had been- kept in such a way that a re-adjustment of them was now required to be made, and the accountant, by his affidavit laid before the Court, said that he believed it to be im- possible, unless there was It new set of books prepared. to arrive at the true state of the affairs of the society. The Master of the Rolls refused to have the expense incurred, being quite sure that such an experienced accountant as Mr. Waddell would be able to get at a nearly correot result in a rough and ready way.
THE CITY OF LONDON POLICE. A statement of estimated expenses and income of the City of London police establishment for the year 1881, says the City Press, has been issued. The estimated expenses include the salaries of the chief commissioner, chief superintendent, surgeon, and receiver, and clerks, £ 4595; superintendent, inspectors, station «ergeants, detective sergeants, and constables, in all 828, £ 69,395 14s. 8d.; extra allowance to plain clothes constables, to men regulating street traffic, boot money, 828 officers and men (at 3s. per month) Ac., .£3152 4s. 8d.; contribution from the police fund to make good the deficiency of superannuation fund, as per the City of Lead on Police Act, £1400 rents of offices, stations, Ac., XBW7 5s.; rates and taxes, £ 1300; repairs, painting, whitewashing, Ac., at the several stations and dwellings, £ 2000; and other items making up a total of .£101,337 7s. lid. The estimated income includes produce of fivepence in the pound on the assessable rental of the City ( £ 3,304,120), after deducting 6 per cent, for poundage and defici- encies, £64,705131. 8d.; proportion of expenses from City's sash (one-fourth), less receipts for watching bridges and private services, £23,627 7s.; payment for men on private service, AIM; fines, rents from constables, and other items make up a total of receipts of £ 97,378 6s. 8d.; balance (provided for by surplus of assets), £ 3959 Is. 3d.; grand total (as on other side of the account), £101,337 7a. lid.
THE PRICE OF BREAD IN PARIS. The price of bread, says the Standard, has been raised latterly in Paris, the four-pound loaf of what is called ordinary bread, which was sold at eighty cen- times, being now one sou more. This slight augmen- tation in, of course, absolutely devoid of importance for persons in easy circumstances, and even for the poor it would be a relatively trivial rise were it possible to divide the additional sou into four, so that the pur- chaser of one or two pounds of bread had but to pay the real price of his purchase. As it i., however, the four-pound loaf being eighty-five centimes, two pounds of bread are forty-five centimes, and one poundtwenty- five, the result being that a poor person who buys one pound pays at the rate of one franc the four pounds, and a person buying two pounds at the rate of ninety centimes the four pounds. This is manifestly unfair to the very poor, and many complaints have been made in consequence by working men, who petition that centimes which are recognised as'current coin, shall be put into circulation in order that they may be able to buy a peund or two of bread at the current price of the two kilos loaf. The press has taken up the matter, and pleads in favour of the working man's demand, which is evidently reasonable. The bakers, it is true, or some of them, have written to the papers to declare that centimes would not be accepted by them in payment, and that they would prefer to square accounts with the purchaser of less than a four-pound loaf by giving him extra weight. But all bakers might not agree to this; in fact, ene is inclined to think that the simplest manner of settling the difficulty would be to azcede to the working men's request, and place centimes rt their disposal. If the bakers refused to acoept them, customers would have but to apply to the authcrities, whose duty it would be to bring the former to submission. — «
SOAP AND WATER. A rather striking assertion is made by a German publication on the somewhat unsensational topic of soap. Every housekeeper knows the advantage of allowing her stock of soap to dry thoroughly before using it, though very few probably ever think of noticing the difference the process of drying makes in the weight of her stook. They can hardly be very much astonished to hear, however, that there are manufacturers who designedly make their soap re- tain as much water as possible in order to increase the weight. The difficulty in the way of this decep tion is, of course, that unless got quickly off hand the aoap dries and the advantage is lost. Scientific roguery, however, seems to have been equal to this difficulty, and, we are told, has found a chemical which may be mixed with the soap and will hold the excess of water. The authority we are quoting asserts that there are articles in the market con- taining no less than 75 per cent. of water, so that a person who should buy a pound of this precious compound would get four ounces of solid matter representing the soap, and twelve ounces of water. This article, it is added, cannot in the ordi- nary way be distinguished from soap containing only twelve per cent. of water. The good old joke of taking two jugs, one for the milk and the other for the water, seems to be capable of considerably more extensive application if properly modified. Water, however, is not the only adulterant used. Starch, chalk, gypsum, barytes, and several other things were found in ana- lysed specimens of soaps, more especially in those manufactured in Berlin. These charges, indeed, all refer to German manufactures. They suggest, how- ever, just the possibility that soaps not manufactured in Germany might be analysed occasionally without doing much injury to anybody who deals fairly, and with decided advantage to buyers, many of whom, under the bed of circumstances, are not likely to get too much W&P.-GIOU.
A BRUTAL ASSAULT.—At the Marlborough- street Police-court Renry Hurrell, an elderly man, a shoemaker, of No; 13, St. Ann's-oourt, was charged before Mr. Mansfield with assaulting his wife. The complainant said that last week her husband, who had been drunk for about six weeks. came home, pulled her off the bed, and struok her. On the previous night be struck her a severe blow in the side. The prisoner was committed for two months with hard labour. THE SALT tAx has just been abolished in Russia, and the fact has given the utmost satisfaction throughout the country. It was generally felt to be a grievous impost. But ita abolition is not the result of the ifinancial prosperity of the country; and it is hinted that probably import duties will have to be imposed to make up for the deficiency caused by the abolition of the aalt tax. It is stated that the cost of watobng the line over which the Czar travelltd from Livadia to St. Petersburg cost in all £ 15,000. A GERMAN CBITIC has made the singular dis- covery that the master of Lord Beaooosfield is Mr. Carlyle. The powerful fancy of the author of "Endymion," he says, "plays him oftentimes sad pranks, and when it gains the mastery a confusion is produced such as we meet with in many pieces of Dis- raeli's master (!), Thomas Carlyle, when the reader finds himself at a loss to distinguish the writer's real meaning." What would the Sage of Chelsea say to such an imputation? Was it not he who not long ago asked how long John Bull would allow a miserable Jew to dance on his belly f—Echo. A DISTRESS WARRANT has been granted against Lord Hardwicke at the Aocrington Police-court for £ 24 18s. 5d., poor's rate due from his lordship in Wimpole panah, in respect of his manaion, garden, dog kennels, and so forth. The overseers declared thev would themselves have to pay tbe amount if his lordship did not.
GALLANT RESCUE IN GIBRALTAR BAT. The Gibraltar Chronicle of the 30th ult. contains the particulars of a boat accident which occurred in the bay on the previous Sunday afternoon. After a con- siderable fall of the barometer, with an easterly wind, rain began to fall early in the afternoon, and was followed by a succession of violent storms. This con- tinued far into the night, the fall of rain being registered as one and a-half inch during the twenty-four hours. The easterly wind, increasing in violence, was blowing very hard on Monday morning, and a number of vessels tookshelter in the bay, steamers riding at double anchor and long cables. On Sunday afternoon some officers were sailing in the bay in the yawl Ariel, belonging to the officers of the 93rd Sutherland Highlanders, and were unable to get her back to her moorings off the New Mole before dark. Shortly after six o'clock an attempt was being made to tow the yacht up against a strong tide which was setting into the bay by means of the dingy, in which were Mr. J. Oampbell and Private Buchanan, 93rd Sutherland Highlanders. The Artel was at the time down the bay inside the outer line of hulks; it was quite dark, and the storm which had been gathering ell day was just breaking over the Book. While the boat was already towing, a sudden puff filled the yacht's sails and surged her ahead, the strain of the towrope pulling the dingy's stern under and filling her with water without a moment's warning. Its occupants were precipitated into the water, and both the yacht and boat drifted rapidly away from them. Up to this time Mr. F. Aitken, 93rd Sutherland Highlanders, had been at the helm of the Ariel, but, seeing what had hap- pened, he put it hard over, so as to throw the vessel up in the wind, and without an instant's hesitation he jumped overboard as he was to the assistance of his comrade. In the meantime Mr. A. Middleton, 93rd Sutherland Highlanders, rapidly divested himself of hit olothes, and, seizing a lifebuoy. followed with but little delay. Mr. Campbell and Buchanan had struck out fer the vessel, but the tide was strong against them, and Mr. Oampbell soon became exhausted. When reached by Mr. Aitken he was just sinking, and was actually seised by him under water. By the time Mr. Middleton arrived he was himself exhausted, and, Mr. Oampbell still continuing to struggle, all three were for a time in a most peri- lous position, the whole of them sinking beneath the water more than once, together with the buoy. Happily, Mr. B. Orde, 2nd Battalion Rifle Brigade, was also on board the Ariel, and, acting with great judgment, he let go the anohor as soon as possible, and then, seeing that alone he could be of no assistance, he swam out to the dingy, which was floating full of water some forty yards off, and managed to push her down about the same dis- tance to the spot where the three were struggling in the water. Mr. Campbell having been got to hold on to the gunwale of the boat, she was then hauled in to the Ariel by the towrope, which, luckily, had re- mained attached to her; and Mr. Campbell, now totally unconscious, was got on board. It was only then'that Mr. Aitken was heard calling out, and it was seen that in place of coming in with the boat he had remained floating with the lifebuoy. Steps were at once taken to rescue him, Mr. Orde and Buchanan proceeding in search of him in the dingy, partially emptied for the occasion, and he was picked up in a very exhausted condition about 250 yards from the yacht, after having been in the water for at least twenty minutes. After being taken on board Mr. OampbeU soon recovered consciousness, and about half an hour later the yacht was boarded by Captain S. Buckle, colonial engineer, who had come out in search of her from the New Mole on board the steam launch. There is no doubt that but for Mr. Aitken's prompt and gallant assistance Mr. Campbell would have been drowned, and it is more than probable that Mr. Aitken would have been unable to effect his rescue without the courageous help afforded by Mr. Middleton, while Mr. Orde, by means of his, oool judgment, was enabled to bring them all help at a most critical moment."
THE DISTRESS IN RUSSIA. The distress, particularly in the South of Russia, has miled for the following important ukase: Desiring, during this distressing year of bad harvest, which has affected several of the Eastern and Southern provinces of the Empire, to show fresh proofs of our interest in the prosperity of the people confided by God to our care, we have recognised it as expedient to abolish from Jan. 1,1881, the excise levied on salt, and in pro- portion to diminish the duty on salt imported from abroad. Confiding to the Finance Minister the further arrangements on this matter, and at the same time the making good to the Imperial revenue the loss from the removal of the salt tax by augmenting some existing taxes, and by equalising their distribution, we hope to diminish the burden on the poor, and to assist the developmentof the cattle trade, the improvement of agriculture, the encouragement of fishing industry, and some other branches.—Signed, ALEXANDER." The means of increasing the revenue are still under con- sideration and not yet determined. The value of the abolished excise was eleven and a half million roubles; the duty on imported salt amounts to about seven millions.
TWO CHILDREN BURNT TO DEATH. A fire broke out at the premises, Maplin-street, Bow- road, Bow, in the occupation of Mr. Walpool, oil and colour dealer. Owing to the inflammable nature of the stock the flames spread rapidly, and, although the engines were speedily on the spot, the building was completely gutted before the fire eould be subdued. Mr. and Mrs. Walpeol, with their children and a servant, slept on the premises, but they all managed to escape with the exception of two little girls, aged respectively 5 and 3 years, who occupied a room just over the place where the benzo- line, paraffin, &c., was kept. This portion of the build- ing was instantly in flames, which burnt so fiercely as to render rescue impossible. After the fire was got under the bodies of the children were found under the ruins, so shockingly burnt as to be past all recog- nition.
THE NEW KNIGHT. Mr. Edward Baines, formerly member for the borough of Leeds in the Liberal interest, on whom her Majesty has been pleased to confer the honour of knighthood, is the second son of the late Mr. Edward Baines, of Leeds, many years also M.P. for Leeds, and founder and editor of the Leeds Merewy; his mother being Charlotte, daughter of the late Mr. Matthew Talbot, author of an "Analysis of the Bible." He was born in the year 1800, and was educated at the Protestant Dissenters' Grammar School, at Manchester. Mr. Baines, who succeeded in 1859 to the seat once occupied by his father, has been for some half a century also proprietor of the Leeds Mer- •ury. He is the author of The History of the Cotton Manufacture," The Woollen Manufacture of Eng- land," and other works of a similar character. He is an alderman and magistrate for Leeds, a magistrate and deputy-lieutenant for the West Biding of York- shire, and has been president of the Yorkshire Union of MeehanW Institutions. The new knight married, in 1829, Martha, daughter of Mr. Thomas Blackburn, of Liverpool.
THB REMAINS OF MB. JAMBS M'INTOSH, one of the Queen's footmen, who died somewhat suddenly at Windsor Castle, have been interred in the Spital Cemetery. Her Majesty, from the Vandyke room of the State Apartments, witnessedthedepartureofthefuneral cortfge from the castle. At the cemetery the Burial Service was read by the Hon. and Very Rev. Gerald Wellesley, Dean of Windsor, Mr. John Brown, the Queen's personal attendant, Mr. Rower, Mr. Brewley, and a large number of the servants of the Royal House- hold being present at the interment. CAm OF ARMS SEIZED.—By direction of the chief constable of Bangor, three large cases, containing rifles and sword bayonets, which arrived by rail at Pen- maenmawr, consigned to a stranger giving the name of Fisher, have been detained pending instructions from the Home Office. The discovery has caused great excitement in the district, it being surmised that they were forwarded to Penmaenmawr, where they would be likely to escape observation, to be carried to Ireland by one of the small steamers which trade with setts from the quarries. THB NATIONAL RIFLE ASSOCIATION.—A cor- respondent, signing himself "Queen's Westminster," suggests, with reference to the shooting arrangements at Wimbledon, that it would be far better to have re- presentatives from county rifle associations, possessing a practical knowledge of shooting, appointed on the Oounoil of the Association than to discuss whether the range officers should be regulars or volunteers. He thinks that while matters of general policy should be settled by a full meeting of that Council, the whole of the technical rules should be framed and the executive details carried out by men having the know- ledge and experience indicated. TJIK PBOOBAMMB OF THE COKING SBMION.— It is rumoured that, besides the measures relating to Ireland," the Government programme of legislation for next action will include a measure providing for the better government of London, a London Water Bill, a Bill relating to juvenile offenders, a measure for the prevention of floods, a Bill for the amalgama- tion of the customs and inland revenue departments, and a bankruptcy bill." A DEPUTATION, consisting of the Irish eight, waited upon the Lord Mayor and Dublin Town Council for the purpose of delivering into the custody of the Lord Mayor the Elcho Shield, recently won by the Irish riflemen. Captain Maxwell, who, in the absence of the Duke of Abercorn, headed the deputa tion, said this was the fifth time the Irish team bad carried off the shield. A resolution of congratulation was passed, and the deputation en leaving the Onuncil nboxiber was wwndy cheawl
FOREIGN AND COLONIAL. M. Baudry d'Asson, who was recently expelled from the French Chamber of Deputies, re-entered the House on the 9th inst., and asked M. Gambetta to read a letter in which he demanded that proceedings should be taken against those who caused his removal. M. Gambetta, however, declared that the letter was not one which should be submitted to the Deputies, and Befused to allow any discussion on the matter. A St. Petersburg correspondent states his belief that Lord Dufferin, soon after his return to the capital, will renew the negotiations between the British and Russian Governments for an understanding upon the affairs of Central Asia. Russia will put as little difficulty as possible in the way of an amicable arrangement, and will renounce the idea of taking Merv. The Spanish subscription to the Panama shares is quite a success. In Madrid, 35,000 shares were de- manded in two days, and provincial telegrams report that 15,000 have been subscribed. The probable total is likely to exceed 60,000 shares. There are a few large subscribers, mostly among firms and capitalists connected with Cuba, and a great number of small demands under ten shares. This result has surprised financial circles, as the first attempt, two years ago, only produced in Spain 762 shares. Most Spaniards believe that the opening of the Isthmus of Panama will benefit their West Indian Colonies. A Melbourne correspondent has the following with respect to the Melbourne Exhibition: The Fiji Court contains an interesting collection of native weapons, and the Ceylon Court displays some splendid speci- mens of plumbago, as well as all kinds of native work. The Italian Court contains some beautiful spe- cimens of statuary, very ifew of which will, I expect, be allowed to leave this country unpurchased. The Austrian pottery is beautiful and cheap; but in both respects is run hard by that of Messrs. Minto and Dalton, many of whose specimens have already been purchased. The pic- tures form a most attractive portion of tbe exhibition the German Gallery is, I think, on the whole, the most remarkable; though France has sent us very numerous pictures, few of which, however, seem very valuable. Nude ladies form a somewhat large portion of the French pictures, and I cannot say that they make up in beauty for what they lack in decency. In the Belgian Gallery there are some beautiful speci- mens of scenery, some of which have been already bought up. The Estimates of the Ministry of Publio Worship were discussed in the Prussian Chamber of Deputies. Dr. Windthont, the leader of the Centre Party, detailed at length the grievances of the Catholics, and conoluded by giving notice of a motion declaring that a priest should under no circumstances be liable to punishment for administering the sacraments or read- ing mass. Herr von Puttkammer, the Minister of Public Worship, said, in reply to the speech of the Clerical Deputy, that the Government fully shared in the sorrow and regret expressed by him at the little progress which the attempt to reconcile ecclesiastical and political differences had made hitherto, and it was with anxiety that he (the Minister) looked into the future of the relations between theOhureh and the State. The Government had by their last ecclesiastical bill afforded the means of concluding a peace, but by the rejection of that measure the material at the disposal of the Government for paving the way to an ultimate arrangement was totally demolished. The Ministry were, therefore, compelled to decline all responsibility for taking no further action in the matter, and it was now their intention to assume an expectant attitude, while administering the existing laws with an indulgent hand. Intelligence has been received at New York that Baron missy d'Anglas, the new-accredited Frenoh Minister to Mexico, presented his credentials to Pre- sident Diaz on the 28th ult. In the speech which he delivered on the occasion his Excellency said that the French Government would make no claim connected with past differences. President Diaz, in reply, made a similar declaration on behalf of Mexico. A San Francisco telegram, under date Dec. 9, says: The commander of a Mexican gunboat having refused to deliver on a writ of haheai corpus a Mexican arrested under the Extradition Treaty for felony and placed in his charge, the Judge of the San Francisco Court issued a warrant for the arrest both of the com- mander of the gunboat and the prisoner. The former at first refused to submit to the arrest or to deliver up the prisoner, but he subsequently handed over the man to the police authorities. The Novot Vremya, received from St. Petersburg, contains a letter from Krasnovodsk, from which we take the following items of news: Twenty wooden houses have been brought from Astrachan for the use of the officials at Krasnovodsk. Upwards of 1800 platelayers are engaged on the railway to Kizil Arvat, together with the soldiers belonging to the Moscow Railway battalion. An engine shed for four loco- motives has been erected at Michaelovsk. Prince Ehilkoff, the manager of the line, is bringing with him a quantity of gear for the workshops from Moscow. Thirty vents of line, recently inspected by General Annenkoff, was found to be in a most satisfactory con- dition, the levelling being good and the ballast firmly laid. Intendance stores for the army at Bamai are being carried along the railway, as well as material for the continuation of the line. Abundance of water has been discovered along the route. The health of the troops is good, only seventeen being in hospital at Michaelovsk. The weather is warm and wholesome. The service which was held on the 8th inst. in the Chapel of the Winter Palace, in celebration of the Festival of St. George, at St. Petersburg, was attended by all the knights of the Order, and the recipients of golden swords of honour at present staying in the capital. After the conclusion of the service, the Emperor, accompanied by t-be Gri-nd Duke of Olden- burg, passed along the line of the troops assembled in review order, and saluted them. In the evening there was a gala dinner, at which his Majesty, the members of the Imperial family, the Grand Duke of Olden- burg, and the Knights of the Order of St. George were present. During the dinner a congratulatory telegram was received from the Emperor William, after the reading of which the Emperor Alexander proposed the health of the German Emperor, the oldest Knight of the Order.
WILLS AND BEQUESTS. (BVon the IllustratedLondon News") The will (dated February 14,1879), with a codicil thereto (dated January 22,1880), of Sir Thomas Hare, late of Stow Hall, in the county of Norfolk, who died on November 14 last, was proved on the 3rd inst. by Mr. Anothy Hamond, Captain; Sir Michael Culme Seymour, R.N., and Mr. William Mel* moth Walters, three of tbe executors, power being reserved to Colonel George Howard Vyse, the remaining executor, to prove the same, the per- sonal estate being sworn under £ 300,000. The testator devises his Stow Hall estates in Norfolk to his eldest son, Thomas Leigh Hare, for life, with remainder to his first and other sons successively in tail male, with various subsequent limitations in strict course of entail. He also devises his Oadhay estate, in the county of Devon, to his second son, George Ralph Leigh Hare, if he attains 21, absolutely; and, m default, to his third son, Edward Philip Leigh Hare, if he attains 21, absolutely; with remainder to his said eldest son, Thomas Leigh Hare. The testator bequeaths to his exeoutors and trustees all his personal estate, and directs payment thereout of legacies to his daughter, Mrs. Hamond, and to his executors end others, and directs his trustees to set apart a sum of £ 125,000to be laid out in the purchase of real estate to be entailed on his second son, George Ralph Leigh JIare, and hisissue, and tosetapart a further sum of £ 65,000 upon trust for his third son, Edward^ Philip Leigh Hare, and his issue, and bequeaths his residuary personal estate to such of his three sons as shall fiist attain 21.-The will (with two codicils) of Mr. Robert Bell, of Copse-hill Wimbledon, and late of Norris Castle, Isle Of Wight, who was formerly proprietor of the Weekly Dispatch newspaper, was proved on, December 2, 1880, by Robert Bell, the only son and sole executor. The personal estate is sworn under .£250,000. The testator, after giving several legacies and annuities to friends and servants, bequeaths £ 100 each, free from legacy duty, to the Royal Mnannin Institution for Girls, the Royal Masonic Institution for Boys, the Royal Masonic Institution for Aged Freemasons and Widows of Freemasons, the Blue School for Girls, at Newport, He of Wight, and to the Oharing-cross Hospital; and all the residue of his real and personal estate to his said son.
ARREST OF SOCIALISTS IN GERMANY.— Sixteen Socialists who posted up treasonable notices at Frankfort during the Emperors recent visit there to open the new theatre, have been arrested. They are said to belong to a secret society conected with foreign associations of a similar character. Printing presses and type belonging to them have been seised. NATIONAL FISHERIES EXHIBITION. — The London Committee of the National Fisheries Exhibi- tion held a meeting at Fishmongers' Hall, under the presidency of Mr. E. Birkbeck, M.P., at which it was announced that the Baroness Burdett-Ooutts had given X50 towards the general expenses of the exhibition, and had also promised to add such a sum as the com- mittee might think it desirable to offer as a premium for an essay on 1! An International Close Time for Deep Sea Fishing." The committee are in communi- cation with the Prime Minister with the view of obtaining from the Government a grant for medals for the exhibition. IT IS INTENDED SHORTLY to apply for a charter of incorporation for Crojdon. It has 80,000 in- habitants, and it is urged that as an incorporated borough it would have a stronger claim than at pnaentto direct representation in Parliament.
STEEL GUNS The War Department officials, and especially those ,h of the Royal Gun Factories, Royal Arsenal, Woolwich have for some time past been investigating the merits of the new kinds of steel as a material for the manu- facture of guns, and various samples have been re- paired and tested to aid in the solution of this problem. The probability is that wrought-iron, which is at present the material almost invariably employed in the production of British ordnance, will have to yield to the superior claims of a suitable description of soft steel, the peculiar fitness of which for the purpose is due to its great strength and extensibility with- out the sources of weakness inseparable from wrought-iron owing to the existence of lamina and the presence of cinder. Practically, this steel is a wrought-iron without its faults, uniform in texture and strength, and made by the process of melting instead of puddling. Furnaces of the highest attainable temperature are essential for this process, and in the Royal Gun Factories the produc- tion of soft steel from the open hearth is accom- plished by the use of Price's retort furnace, of which class a new one, equal to the production of from seven to ten tons of steel, has just been started with the most perfect success. These furnaces are regene- rative," taking up and returning to the furnaces the escaping products of combustion, and the surplus caloric which might otherwise be wasted is further employed to heat the coal and air Drior to combustion, w uaall tup ICUIU auu air priur W COU&PUBUUU, by which system re-heating the temperature is regulated^ equal to the rapid and easy fusion of wrought-iron and its suspension in a liquid condition in the bath. Steel has thus been created of exceptional softness, in evidence of which it has been rolled out into 4in. bars, twisted into coils at the mills, and welded under the steam hammer into cylinders of remark- able soundness and ductility, and completely free from cinder or blemish. The new furnace is fitted with automatic feeding gear and all labour and attention are reduced to a minimum. If in the future soft steel should become a sine qud non in the construction of navy guns, and the Royal Gun Factories have to pass from the puddling to the melting process, it will be found that the authorities have not been remiss in fol- lowing close in the wake of metallurgical progress, and are prepared to work out the change in a fitting and efficient manner.
ALARMING SUBSIDENCE OF LAND IN THE CHESHIRE SALT DISTRICT. A subsidence of land recently occurred in the centre of the Cheshire salt district. It still continues, and has assumed alarming proportions. For some time land in the neighbourhood of Dunkirk, Witton, has been subsiding in consequence of the immense quan- tity of brine abstracted for salt-making. In the imme- diate neighbourhood of the scene of the recent subsidence, there is a large basin of water nearly two acres in extent caused by a similar subsidence in 1838, when several deaths resulted from the sudden giving way of the earth. On Monday symptoms of another disturbance beneath the sur- face were observed close to the bed of a brook running through Witton, and immediately over an old disused rock salt mine. A little later a most ex- traordinary scene was witnessed at the neighbouring pits, where, as the earth fell, the water-the brine rather-was forced or squirted up until it resembled huge boiling cauldrons, while on the banks the soft mud was being thrown up to a height of seven or eight feet. During the whole of the day a gradual settlement of the earth went on, accompanied by this curious pheno- menon. At six in the morning the surface had dropped to such an extent that the water from the Wincham brook commenced to low into the hollow formed by the settling ground, and the fall of the water from the old level of the brook to the level of the sub- mergence was so deep that the water rushed in in a great volume and cut for itself a new bed at least 15ft deep, while hundreds ot tons of earth were poured along with the rushing water into the chasm. Later on an immense quantity of land disappeared from view, and this attracted the water from the ^adjoining flashes or lakes, which rushed to it from all points. About four o'clock a tremendous eruption of mud and water occurred at the old salt pit referred to, mud and stones being out up with great violence to a height of 35ft., and was immediately followed by another sudden subsidence of land of 5ft. in depth. About the same time the foundation of Ashton s salt works gave way. Luckily, the manager had observed the disquietude of the earth's crust, and had speedily removed the engine and machinery. Half an hour later a chimney stack 90ft. high fell with a crash, while the Platt's-hw Rock Salt Mine, fifteen acres in extent, worked by Messrs. Thompson and Sons, became flooded and ren- dered absolutely useless. Before the mine was flooded it contained several hundred tons of rook salt, which, together with waggons, tools, rails, and plant were destroyed. The silting earth has created a chasm across the Dunkirk-road, rendering it unsafe for traffic and displacinganumberofbrinepipes. No accidents hare, fortunately, been caused, but the destruction of property is immense.
ARRIVAL OF THE TROOPSHIP JUMNA." The Indian troopship Jvmna, Capt. Church, bu arrived at Portsmouth from Bombay, which place aha left on the 8th of November. She brought home the let Battalion of the 5th Foot, which left England 14 years ago, and was attached to the Khyber line force during tbe campaign in Afghanistan. It oonsists of Lieut. Colonel Rowland, Majors Harkness and Oldfield, Captaina Oreagh, Newbolt, Taylor, Thistlethwayte, Williams, Ormand, Beamish, and Dyke; Lieuts. Chancellor, Lambert, Buchanan, Pennington, Kays, Malet, Frend, and Harding; Second Lieuts. Whittaker, Cowley, Smithey, Neville, Sitwell, and Henry; Adjutant Boxwell, Quartermaster Drake, 8 staff-sergeants, 33 sergeants, 16 trumpeters and drummers, 33 corporals, 494 privates. 34 women, and 78 children. A man and a. child died during the voyage. The battalion has disembarked, and will march to Forts Grange and Rowner, on the Gosport side of the harbour, where it will be stationed.
SERIOUS CHARGE AGAINST CHBMISTS. — At the Cambridge Poliee-oourt, before the mayor and other magistrates, John Tepper, 50. chemist, and abo described as a surgeon, of Upper George-street, Bryan- ston-square, London, was charged with having unlaw- fully used certain instruments for an unlawful purpose. on Frances Stubbings, now staying in Cambridge, but who is said to have come from Wales. Edward Ransom, ehemist, Cambridge, and Ann, his wife, were also charged with aiding and abetting in the said transaction. Mrø. Ransom is a midwife. Mr. Cockerell, barrister, who appeared for the prosecution, said that the young woman Stubbing was dangerously ill, and could not appear for a fortnight. Should she die, the case would assume a much more serious aspect. Mr. Wherry, surgeon, proved the dangerous condition of the young woman. He stated his opinion as to the cause of the illness, which went to corroborate the charge. The prisoners were remanded, bail being allowed. THEFTa AT RAILWAY STATIONS.—For months past robberies f of goods have been taking place at Chatham Railway-station, and three of the officials engaged there—James Ellison, pilot engine-driver, Stephen Rigden, goods clerk, and Henry Pooley, fore- man platelayer—were committed for trial on a charge of stealing cigars, wines, Ac., some of which were found at the lodgings of Ellison and Bigden. SHOOTING AT A WEDDING PARTY.—While a wedding party was driving from Port Glasgow, a man deliberately stood in the carriage-way, and fired at them. The shot carried away part of the driver's hat, but injured no one. Great excitement was caused. No arrests have been made. THE MBBTING OF PARLIAMENT.—The follow- ing circular has been issued by the Prime Minister to the members of the House of Commons: Sir,—Her Majesty has been pleased to fix the 6th of January for the assembling of Parliament. Business of the first importance will at ones be proceeded with; and I hope it may suit your convenience to be in your place on the day I have named.-I have the honour to be, air, E»ur faithful servant, W. E. GLADSTONE. — 10, owning-street, Dec. 7,1880." COMMITTAL FON CONTEMPT OF COURT.—Vice- Cbancellor Malins committed Frederick A. Young to prison for contempt of Oourt, in marrying a Ward of Chancery while under injunction nottowritetoor in any way communioate with the young lady. His lordship told the young man he had committed a gross offence in making misstatements as to his own and the lady's age, and on other matters, and expressed regret that the marriage laws were in such a state that clergymen could marry two such ohildren on the declaration of a mere boy. The bridegroom's father repudiated any knowledge of the marriage, and implored the Vioe-Ohaneellor not to send the young man to gaol, but his lordship replied that no other course was open to him. A COJfBJIBVATIVBCLUB AT DARWEN.—Colonel Stanley opened a new Conservative Olub at Darwen, and spoke at some length upon the practical difficulties in the way of any remedial legialationfor Ireland. He ridiculed the notion of a peasant proprietor, of a tenement worth four pounds a year making both ends meet. The spirit in which any propoeal was likely to be received in Ireland was shown by the now undis- guised intention of the agitators to bring about a separation of the United Kingdom. He trusted that their plana would never succeed. THE RADNOBSHIBB MAGISTRATES AND THE REBECCA RIOTS.—The Radnorshire magistrates held a long sitting at Presteign to consider the course to be adopted to stop the Rebecca riots. It was decided that no application for military should be made unless matters became more serious. Meanwhile, ordera have been given to the chief constable to obtain the aervioes of twenty picked men from the English police force, who will be on duty in plain clothes.
THE BISHOP OF ELY AND THE BURIALS ACT. The Bishop of Ely observes in a pastoral letter which he has addresaed to his clergy: It remains that I should make known the change in my own episcopal action which the recent law in my judgment necessitates. As our churchyards, and the portions of our cemeteries which have hitherto been separated off for the exclusive burial of the dead, according to the rites of the Church of England, are not to be henceforth so set apart, the act of consecration, by which they have been heretofore solemnly appropriated to the performance of such rites, seems no longer to have place. As a bishop of the Church of England, I can only properly consecrate ground for the services of that Church. When a graveyard is avowedly designed for the common use of all denominations a bishop of the Church cannot be held to have any such special relations to it all to constitute him the proper person for opening it with a religious service; nor can he, as it appears to me, consistently exercise his episcopal office in consecrating an enclosure which is immediately to be used for services in which the doctrines held most sacred by the Church of England, even the worship of her Divine Head, may be not only ignored, but denied. I am therefore constrained to decline henceforth to use the religious service of consecration in regard to additions to churchyards and portions of cemeteries. Burial-places may still be vested in trustees for burial according to the rites of the Church of England exclusively. Such I shall, of course, be ready to ROTI secrate after the ancient form."
THE VATICAN AND IRELAND. A Rome correspondent, under date of the 9th inst., says: Dr. MacOabe, Archbishop of Dublin, has had, since his first reception by the Pontiff, a long con- ference with Cardinal Jacobini, and subsequently with Cardinal Nina. He was, after these interviews, again received by the Pope. I learn that the object of these conferences was to decide on a line of con- duct which should be uniform for all the Irish bishops. I learn further that Dr. MacCabe, to whose accounts of the state of things in Ireland the Holy Father paid very marked attention, is not wholly in accordance with the other Irish bishops who have been at Rome as to the conduct to be observed by the Irish clergy, being, in this respect, more entirely in accord with the views and ideas of the Holy Father. I have previously told you that the Irish bishops who have visited Rome made much difficulty, or, indeed, altogether declined to pledge themselves to discourage the agitation. The result, however, I am told will be that the Archbishop of Dublin will return with instructions for a uniform line of conduct to be communicated to the Irish bishops. Assujedly the Irish clergy have been in very many instances recently acting in very diametrical opposition to the spirit of the instructions which Dr. MacOabe will bring with him. And most Englishmen will probably share the opinion that the Pope i., in this matter, once again destined to and that the Holy See does not speak with so much authority or stretch out so long an arm as it once did.
THE RUSSIAN FLEET IN CHINESE WATERS. Admiral Lesaovski, commanding the Russian fleet at Vladivostok, has recently sent in an interesting report to the Admiralty at St. Petersburg, and part of his despatch has been published in the Russian semi- official organs. It appears from this document that the Russian naval force at present stationed in Ohineee waters consists of thirteen men-of-war and a con- siderable number of gunboats and torpedo launches. This powerful fleet has been divided into two squadrons, one of which has been placed under the command of Rear-Admiral Baron Staekel- berg, and the other under that of Rear-Admiral Adanbegoff. Some time before these dispositions were made for the winter, the entire force was lying at anchor before Nagasaki, when the Russian Charg6 d'Affaires at Pekin, Privy Councillor Struwe, arrived in that harbour with secret instructions for Admiral Lessovski, which he personally consigned to that officer on board the frigate Sahiaka. In compliance with these instructions Lessovski Eroceeded to reconnoitre the port of Ohow-foo, where e found a British squadron under Admiral Oocte, four German war-ships under Commodore Zirzow, two French frigates, two American corvettes, one Spanish and one Chinese man-of-war. The Russian fleet has been recalled to Vladivostok, where it will pass the winter months unless its services should be called for in consequence pf further complications between the Russian and Chinese Governments.
END OF THE KURDISH REBELLION. A Teheran correspondent, under date 4f the 9th inst., says: A deapatch from Sepehsular to-day states that tranquillity is now completely restored in Kurdistan. Kurdish chiefs report that Hammmglrp. and Sheik Abdullah are ready to give in their submission. The Kurds offer to pay Persia 40,000 tomans as an indemnity for the damage which they have committed, and to con- tinue to pay their taxes to Persia as before the out- break. The Persian troops have occupied Mergawar, and all Persian prisoners have been given up. Ker- mamshah letters state that the remainder of the Kurds, under Rizakuli Khan and Heiseinkuli Khan. attacked eight hundred Kerbela pilgrims, and killed a hundred f and sixty men, women, and children. While the massacre was going on a body of Persian troops arrived upon tbe spot and fell upon tbe Kurdish marauders, killing a hundred of them, and capturing twenty prisoners and a hundred hbrset.
MURDER WILL OUT. A few days ago the body of a man, who had evi- dently been murdered by blows "11 the head with a hatchet, was found in a cave » erossax, near St. Maurice, Oanton Valais. Owing < > the coolness and dryness of the place the body was little decomposed, and could be identified as that of a man belonging to the valley of Aoeta, who disappeared mysteriously about two years ago. Two women and a man of the neighbourhood are supposed to have been concerned in the murder, but they left the Oanton several months since, and their whereabouts is unknown.
EXPENSIVE RAILWAY TRAVELLING. — At Southwark Police-court, London, Mr. Samuel Overton, auctioneer and surveyor, 3, Canterbury-road, West Croydon, was summoned by Mr. Turpin, on behalf of the London, Brighton, and South Coast Railway, for travelling in a first-class carriage on three oocuionl from West Croydon Station to London bridge Terminus with a second-olass season-ticket. Mr. Brewer, jun., from the office of Norton, Rose, Norton, and Brewer, proaecutedon behalf of thecompany; and Mr. Knight appeared for the defendant. After hearing the evidence Mr. Slade said that he considered the defendant had committed himself in a very disgraceful manner, and for each offence he fined him 40*. and costs, making altogether £ 6 6s. A FIND OF ROMAN RELICS.—The Geneva correspondent of the Times says: A find of Boman relies, oonsisting chiefly of fragments of goblets, vases, and pottery, has been made at Schleitheim, in Schaff- hausen, about thirty centimetres below the surface of the ground, near a saline spring. Some of the frag- menta are ornamented with figures in relief, and the vases of which they formed part must have been of considerable size. The pottery is principally gray, yellow, and red, and much of it is covered with a coating of glass. The place where the find was made is said to be strewn with similar fragments. A LANDLORD KILLED AT A FIRE.—A deetruo- tive fire broke out at the cotton mill of Messrs. Wabns- ley and Co., Reddish, near Manchester. It soon ex- tended over the building, and by the afternoon the mill was almost completely gutted. The Lancashire mills at Ballinasloe, county Galway, have been par- tially consumed by fire. A large orowd gathered, and while efforts were being made to extinguish the men a atone fell on to the head of Mr. Daniel Burke, a. local landlord, killing him instantaneously. Mr. Burke'had the reputation of being popular. ATTEMPTED MURDER.—A determined attempt at murder was made in the Duke of Wellington Inn, Gooch-street, Birmingham, by a travelling artist, who gives his name as William Day, upon John Smith, wood-turner, 75, Heath Mill-lane, at whom he fired four shots with a revolver. Smith, struck in two places, was taken to the Queen's Hospital, whilat hia assailant was arrested. A HEALTHY WORKHOUSE.—During the past week eight persons have died in the Medway Union Workhouse, Chatham, whose united ages amount to 667 years. One died at 98, one at 96, one at 84, two at 80, one at 78, one at 76, and one at 75. These are the only deaths, with the exception of that of a child, which have occurred in the workhouse for more than a month. PENAL SERVITUDE FOR A CRUEL AND COWARDLY AcT.-At Salford, James Holt, horse- dealer, and Henry Scholes, farmer, were found guilty of maliciously wounding a cew, the property of Mr. W. Thompson, farmer, Chadderton, near Oldham. It was proved that revenge was the motive for the offence, and the chairman (Mr. Higgin), in passing sentence, said that a more cruel and a mere cowardly act was never perpetrated. The prisoners stood convicted of an offence which was a shame to any man to own. The prisoners were sentenced each to seven yeari penal servitude; and Holt, against whom there were several previous convictions, was ordered at the expiration of that time to be subject to police supervision for a like period. Printed and published by the proprietor. JOB. COVWTSOW ROBSBTS, at his General Printing Office, No. 1, Eben" lane, Cardigan, in the parish of Saint Mary's in tha Cosaty of Gaidiraa.—Saturday, Dsc. 18, If80.
CHARGE OF THREATENING. James Crefts, a wine merchant, of 74, Obeyne-walk, Chelsea, was charged on a warrant, at Westminster Police-court, London, with disobedience of a summons, and with threatening his wife. The complainant stated that her husband was agent to a wine firm in the City. They had been married ten years, and there were three children. He bad been drinking heavily for some years. He told her to go to her friends for a week, ana she said sbe could not do so, as she had a summons against him for threats, and he then threatened her, and sent her the following letter: December 4.—If you appear against your husband on Monday, I will put a bullet through your brains. I only request your friends to take you away. This must be." In answer to the magistrate complainant stated that be bad frequently threatened and beaten her. He had brought her and himself to ruin. Both their friends bad helped them, and it was their wish that they should be parted, for she could not live with him. Prisoner said he wrote the letter, but only to frighten his wife. She knew he would not hurt her, but the truth was that she was a scold," and that was the cause of all their troubles. The wife denied this, and said he drank so heavily that be could not be in his right mind at times. She swore she went in bodily fear of him. He was remanded for a week, without bail. ——"