THE FRENCH BANK-NOTE FORGERIES. ■ The capture of the gang of French bank-note for- gers is the great social topic of the day in Paris. Seven members of the gang at present arrested are described by the police M follows: Joseph Barreau, aged 27, living at Neuilly, chief of the gang; Jean Barreau, aged 20, his brother, residing in the Faubourg, Pois- sonniere; fasten Jobet, aged 17, Jlne St. James; Mdlle. Jobet, 88 years of age, mother of Gaston Jobet and mistress of Jeaeph Barreau, living in the Rue St. Jamea Madame Jobet, widow, aged 61, mother of the prisoner just named, living in the Rue du Bac; Madame Barreau, widow, aged 60, mether of the two Barreaus mentioned above, Faubourg Poissonniere; and Mdlle. Philomine Bar- reau, 16, daughter of the preceding and sister of the two principal prisoners. It will thus be seen that the gang, so far as is yet known, is composed or the members of two families, and that they lived in various parts of the town. The youngest prisoner, Mdlle. Philomene Burreau, is said to be a pupil of the Conservatoire. She is a brilliant pianist, and played in several talons during the past winter. She says she knew nothing about the traffic of her brother, and was led to believe that her father, who died some years ago, left her 60,000t. The police did not think she was an accomplice, so that she will probably be released. The history cf the gang is very romantic. About ten years ago the eldest daughter of Madame Barreau and a certain rich personage made a tour through Italy together; they were ac- companied by Joseph Barreau, who is said to have received a good education, to be a capital musician, and a clever painter and engraver. During the tour Joseph met with a tragic adventure. An officer insulted his sister; he called him out, and kiUed him in with pistols. On returning to France, he made the acquaintance of MdUe. Jobet, who kept an hotel in the Bue de la Chaussee d'Antin. She possessed a little fortune. The couple went to Hombourg, and lost all their money at the gaming-table. Joseph Barreau then came back to the French capital, and set up a painter's studio in the Bue dAssas, where he earned a living for some time by painting por- traits. In 1873, however, he turned his attention to forgery. He began by forging 20f. notes, which his brother Jean was charged to pass off, but they found they could not make enough money with these small notes, and moreover the Bank of France had detected the forgery at once. The two brothers then removed to Montmartre, and thence to Puteaux, where they tried their hands at forging hundred-franc notes, but the paper was badly made, and they only succeeded in passing off a few of them. They now came to Neuilly, and having perfected themselves in the art of forgery, organised a wholesale emis- sion of hundred franc notes. It was arranged that Joseph Barreau should carry the notes, and that his brother Jean shonB pass them one by one and retorn the change to Jeseph, So that if he were arrested nothing would be found on him. This arrangement went on for some months, till Jean Barreau got afraid, and his place was taken by daston Jobet, who appears to possess an amount of aplomb far in advance of his age, and who did not scrapie to fill his pockets with the forged notes. His arrest at the Magasin du Louvre, while trying to pass off some of them, and the cap- ture of the other prisoners which followed, was made just in time. A few hours later the police would not have found them in the house at Neuilly. as it had been arranged that if Gaston Jobet dii not return towards the evening they should disperse till they knew what had happened to him. In addition to the implements with whieh the forgeries were made, the police found in the apartment no less than 15,000 francs in gold and silver, and 000 forged notes. The notes bore neither number nor letter; the space was left, blank. so as to enable a fresh number and letter to be used as the forgeries were discovered, and thereby throw the public off suspicion. It is estimated,, that the total amount of forged notes put in circulation by the gang duriag the past twelve months reaches at least 200,000 francs. The greater part .of these notes have found their way to the Bank of France. Two more women, it is said, have been arrested as accomplices, and the police are on the track ef others. The event has caused the greatest sensation everywhere, and peeple find some difficulty in changing a hundred- franc note.
CAROLINE GRAVIERE. (From the Globø.") Caroline Graviere, the eminent Belgian novelist, whose name was incidentally mentioned by the Brussels correspondent of the Globe a few days ago, died at Saint Josse Ten Noode, near Brussels, on the 20th of last month. Like most writers of the French tongue who have not lived in Paris, the centre of French literary life, she wuleøø known in France than in French-speaking lands, such &3 her native country and the western cantons of Switzer- land. In the latter she had obtained a wide fame, and she has been the subject of a very interesting sketch by Professor Born of the Academy of Neuchatel. She has not fared according to her ex- traordinary merits in our country, if we may take the catalogue of the British Museum Library as a test of renown, for her name does not occur in it, either under the rubric of Graviere—which she retained as pseu- donym to the end of life—or that of Ruelenl, the name of her husband, the keeper of the manuscripts in the Royal Librafy at Brussels, some of whose own works are duly catalogued. Professor Born claims for her an abiding place amongst the novel writers of our cen- tury, and compares her with Ourrer Bell. Elise Polko, and Ottilie Wildes muth, preferring her to all three, and setting her between them and George Sand. She was born in Brussels on the 21st of May, 1821, her real name was Estelle Orevecoeur. She spent her young days in the still and solitary house of her parents, dividing her time between stady, writing, and painting, until her marriage with M. Buelens. She never published any of her writings until late in her married life, after she had com- fleted the careful education of her children. far 'aim was intensely serious; and the fact that her first appearance as authoress was restrained until so late a period in life, when opinion was solidly fixed and her gift of observation had reached its full ripe- ness, has given a peculiar strength and independence to all her works. They are not likely to become popu- lar in any "railway series." There is certainly an undertone of pessimism in them, but at the same time a profound sympathy with the human warfare which she describes—the fight against poverty, against misery, but chiefly against hypocrisy and superstition —as she saw them in Belgium. Indeed, the Belgian Ultramontane* are rid by her death of one of their most powerful adversaries.
A LEECH BAROMETER. Some of the lower animals are particularly sensitive to changes of weather, and by their movements and habits foretell impending variations of temperature and barometric fluctuations. The leeeh has long been known as one of these. A correspondent of the Stimtifio America*»gives the following simple way of making a "leech barometer." Take an eight-ounce phial, and put in it three gills of water and a healthy leech, changing the water in summer once a week, and in winter once a fortnight. If the weather is to be fine, the leech lies motionless at the bottom of the glass, and coiled together in a spiral form if rain may be expected, it will creep up to the top of its lodgings, aad reomin there till the weather is settled; if we are to havewind, it will move through its habitation with amatnng swiftness, and seldom goes to rest till a high wind begins; if a remarkable storm of tbunder and rain is to succeed, the leech for some days before will remain almost continually out of water, and show great uneasiness in violent throes and convulsive- lik* motions. In frost, as in clear, summer-like weather, the leech lies constantly at the bottom; and in snow, as in rainy weather, it moves to the very mouth of the phial. The top should be covered over with a piece of mnslin.
A CASK OF YELLOW FEVER IN BBLGBAVIA. —For the first time, probably, in the memory of any living physician, a case of yellow fever ending fatally is reported in London. It occurred in one of the squares of Betgmvia. The case was seen before death, in consultation, by Dr. Murchison; and both the symptoms before death and the anatomical conditions after death clearly established the nature ef the case. It was contracted on board a West Indian steamer in which several cases had occurred. Under some cir- cumstances and during periods of great heats such an announcement might have created serious alarm, but, with the present temperature, and considering the precautions taken, there is no reason to consider it possible that any local extension of the disease should follow.—British Medical JournaL FALL OF A GRAND STAND.—A Paris corre- spondent says: The Grand Stand at the Horse Show, erected three years ago, suddenly gave way, and three persons were slightly inj ired. Happily, nobody was underneath it at the moment. The iron rints by which the woodwork was fastened to the columns were not sufficiently tight and slipped down, carry. ing the seats with them. POMPEII.—The Academy says: In the excava- tions carried out on April 4, in the presence of Prince LeoDold at Pompeii the following objects were found: Gold—an armlet; a ring with engraved agate; and another plain ring. Bronze—a candelabrum; two vases in the form of a lagena a pastry-cook's shapes' n ring; soma bosses; a large vase in fragments. GlsiB-a blue vase with one handle, a bottle, two ampullae, one small square vase. Terra cotta—a | lamp, two small pots, two olive flasks, a porringer I Iroa-a cudeJabtum. lAM-three weights, (
rHE CONVICT OUTBREAK AT IS ANDY POINT. A correspondent says: I have received a letter from 3andy Point, Patagonia, dated March 4, which enables me to give some further information relative to the outbreak of the convicts in that distant settlement. Owing to the dilatory movements of the Chilian troops, the rebels succeeded in effecting thf ir retreat without interruption, and turned their course north- ward into the nearly unknown desert which extends from the Bio Ohico to the Rio Negro. A hunter one day came galloping into Sandy Point, saying that he, in company with a comrade, had unexpectedly en- countered the rebels, who had opened fire, killing his companion. No other news appears to have been heard of them during the march of 600 miles which they even- tually accomplished. On reaching the Bio Negro they crossed over into the territories of the Argentine Con- federation, and as soon as their arrival was known troops were despatched against them. Weakened by losses and worn out by cold and hunger, they seem to have offered no resistance. The survivors were seized and sent in irons to Buenos Ayres, whence they will probably be shipped to Sandy Point to be tried. Meanwhile, in the colony itself eleven more had been taken, tried, and condemned. The feeling against them is very strong on account of the many wanton outrages which they committed. Now that the revolt is over, men begin to inquire into the causes of its origia. It appears that the revolt originated among the troops, who had during their stay in the settlement been goaded to desperation by the severity of a discipline compared with which the disci- pline of Frederick the Great was child's play. Nor was this all; the soldiers were permitted to associate in every way with the convicts. They slept, ate, drank, and quarrelled together. The perfect unanimity of their action is therefore not to be wondered at. In the town, too, there were, as is always the case in new settlements, many who were ready to join in any com- motion, and these different ingredients becoming fused together formed a most dangerous and terrible body. The failure of the revolt will, however, not be with- out good effects, for now Sandy Point, forming as it does the only harbour in a long line of barren and storm-beaten coast, is freed from internal danger, and may look forward to a future of continually increas- ing proeperity.
THE THIRLMERE WATER SCHEME. Manchester has been, on the whole, auceeasaful in the Parliamentary contest carried on before the Select Committee appointed to inquire into the Thirlmere water scheme. Perhaps the result might have been slightly different had the opponents of the bill been better provided with funds, and in a position to call hosts of witnesses. But it must be owned that the sentimental view," te use a convenient, and, we hope, net offensive term, did not prove on examination te be nearly so strong as was alleged. The pro- moters of the bill met on their own grounds those who argue that the beauty of the lake would be spoiled and conquered. It was shown that the proposed embankment would restore the Mere to its ancient boundaries, and that the exposed mud, of which so much capital was made in the discussion carried on out of doors, was a chimeea. We do not suppose the report of the committee will in the main be questioned by impartial persons. But it ought to be noted that it incidentally lays down certain principles which, if ever applied to the metropolis, may have a serious effect. The committee are evidently of opinion that when a city such an Manchester draws water from a remote district it is bound to provide for the wants of towns along the route and nearer to the source. According to this view, if it were ever deemed essential that London should go, as has often been proposed, to Wales for a water supply, the various towns along the line of the aqueduct would be entitled to a reasonable share on payment of a moderate charge. It is needless to say that this would necessi- tate works of immense magnitude; and we must make up our minds to the fact that the principle virtually aflirmed by the Thirlmere Cemmittee establishes a not inconsiderable obstacle in the .way of London obtaining water from a distant source.
A RIVAL TO POET CLOSE. In a north country churchyard is to be found, if there be any faith in tradition, a strange epitaph to the following effect: Here lie I and my three daughters, All thro* drinking the Cheltenham waters; Whereas if we'd stuck to Epsom salts, We shouldn't be lying in these here vaults." This magnificent effort is altogether eclipsed by the recent achievement of a local bard, who lives not many miles from Wigglesworth, and whose effusion has been given to the public: "LINES ON THE SUDDEN DEATH AT WIGGLESWORTH. Death has visited Wigglesworth, How sad the news to tell; It's called our friend Isaac Wilson home, Hark to the tolling bell. "Most suddenly he was called away In to an early tomb,- Just in the morning of his day— Just rising in manhood's bloom. His company we did much admire; He was a kind young man He was also a member of our choir, But now he's past and gone. His iovely voice we'll hear no more Ameng the little few; We now behold the vacant seat In our singing pew." 'There are two more verses even more quaint than these, but they reach the debateable ground, which separates piety from profanity, and, after all, the stanzas which we have given are a sufficient sample of the whole poem. Poet Close, when he passes to the majority, will evidently be in no need of a suc- cessor.
W IN DING UP OF THB GOLD COMPANY.— Vice-Chancellor Malina commented somewhat strongly upon the transactions of the Gold Company," which he spoke of as having been of a most extraordinary character." The company was formed in 1873, with a registered capital of £100,000 in 100,000 shares of XI each, the object being to work mineral properties and especially an extinct gold mine in Wales. One of the articles of association was to this effect--that the directors might allot shares on such terms as they should think fit; and, if at any time it should appear to the directors that the capital of the com- Jiany for the time being subscribed would be sufficient or the purposes of the company, they might allot any shares which then remained unallotted to and among the then shareholders in proportion to the number of shares held by them, and such shares might be allotted as fully or partially paid-up shares, although no moneys might be received by the company in re- spect of such shares from any allottee thereof. Under this article, 75,000 free shares were allotted among existing shareholders, although at the time, as his lordship pointed out, it was impossible for the com- pany to know what amount of capital they would re- quire. He ordered the compulsory winding up of the company, instead of a voluntary windmg-up as desired by the company itself. KILLED ON THB RAILWAY.—Dr. Hardwioke held an inquiry at the Coroner's Court, Islington, as to the death of a man, unknown, who on Thursday evening was run over by a railway train between the York-road Junction and Barnsburv Station, on the North London Railway. John Bowlinson, an engine driver, stated that he was proceeding with the 6.20 p.m. train to Broad-street, when he saw a man walk- ing along the-four-foot way in the direction the train was going. The witness whistled, and the brake was applied, but the deceased took no notice and was knocked down and killed. Police-sergeant 2 Y said the body had not been identified. The deceased had on a blue pilot coat and a dark tweed suit under, side- spring boots, and leggings. The jury returned a ver- dict that the deceased was killed by a train while trespassing on the line. but whether by accident or suicide there was no evidence to show. MB. OGLE'S FUNERAL CEREMONY, which took place at Athens on the 10th inst., was attended by tens of thousands. All the shops were closed and draped in mourning. The King was represented by an aide-de- camp. All the Ministers of State and the civil authorities were present. The coffin was covered by heaps of wreaths offered by the municipalities, corpo- rations, societies, and citizens. Such a display of sympathy is unprecedented. The pall was borne bv the British Consul, the Mayors of Athens and the Piraeus, and the Cretan chieftain Oostaro. The funeral oration was delivered by Kurios Philemon, member t er Athens. RIOTING IN GLASGOW.—A riotous disturbance occurred in Glasgow. While M'lntye, a well-known anti-Popery lecturer, was preaching on G asgow- green, boys began to throw stenes. The congrega- tion retaliated with their fists and with stones. Riot- ing became general. Barricades were broken down, and the fragments used as missiles. Many persons were hurt. One was sent to hospital. Ten rioters were apprehended. THE RAJAH OF PooME.—The Rajah of Poo- ree, who on the charge of murder brought against him was transported for life, has appealed to the High Court. The trial excited great interest. He is entitled to the hereditary charge of the temple of Jng- cernaut as head Shivaitp, and is regarded as the In- carnation of Vishnu. The Ooryia people prostrate i themselves and pay him divine honoura whenever he i appears. The alleged motive for the murder waa that I the victim worked incantations against thtBajab. ]
THE FENIAN PRISONERS. In reply to the memorial for the release of the prisoners confined in Ireland for offences arising out of the Fenian movement, the Chief Secretary for Ire- land has addressed the following letter to Mr. O'Connor Power, M.P.: Dublin Castle, April 8, 187i.-Sir,-With reference to your letter of the 11th ult., and to the resolutions of which a copy was en- closed therein relative to four prisoners confined in Spike Island Convict Prison — namely, Edward O'Kelly, Robert Kelly, James Dillon, and Edward O'Connor—and to your further letter of the 14th ult. on the same subject, I am directed by the Lord Lieutenant to acquaint you that the cases of Ed- ward O'Connor and Edward O'Kelly will be considered after fifteen years from the date of their conviction, and that the case of Rebert Kelly will be considered at the expiration of eleven years and five months from the date of his conviction, the above being the periods at which, under the rules of the convict service, they will be eligible for release on licence. As regards James Dillon, I have to ac- quaint you that his case was considered by his Grace in the month of January last, and that, pursuant to orders then given, it will shortly be again brought under his notice. His Grace has made special inquiry into the truth of the allegations made in the news- paper slip forwarded in your letter of the 14th ult. with reference to the treatment of Edward O'Connor, and also into the truth of the state- ments which have appeared in the public prints relating to the treatment of Robert Kelly and Edward O'Kelly; and his Grace is satisfied that these allegations are not consistent with the facts. His Grace desires me to state that, as in the cases of the prisoners Clancy and Ahearne, referred to in Mr. Cross's letter to you of the 19th ult., none of these men have ever been looked upon as political prisoners or treated with greater severity than ordinary con- victs, nor will they ever be so treated.-I am, sir, your obedient servant, JAMES LOWTHER." None of the prisoners referred to were sentenced for treason- felony. Mr. O'Connor Power has had an interview with Clancy during the past week, and has been in- formed that both he and Ahearne will be liberated towards the end of November. By permission of the Home Secretary, Mr. Callan, M.P., has also had an interview with the Manchester prisoners, Melody and ismeara vonoon, connnea at rortlana for complicity in the murder of Sergeant Brett.
THE SWITZERS AND SPRING. A curious ceremony is performed every year in Zurich on the eve of the so-called Sechselauten, the ancient spring festival of the Tigurines, as our fore- fathers often classically named the people of Zurich. The Sechselauten now serves as a kind of Protestant carnival for the mass of the population, while the old city guilds fignre in it much as our City com- Sanies do, or rather, used to do, in the Lord [ayor's Show. The principal group in this year's procession was a satirical composition representing the last novel reform for which the handful of Social Democrats in the city of Zwingli have been agitating during the past winter, the monopoly of the corn trade by the State." But the most popular ceremony, as we have already hinted, belongs to the eye, rather than to the festival itself. This is the solemn condemnation and execution of the hated winter. It seems to be the theory of the Sechselauten that winter ought to end on the 31st of March, and that spring should begin on the 1st of April. After sunset en the last day of March, multitudes of men, women, and children collect together on the Stadthausplatz, in order to witness the burn- ing of the unlucky cc Bögg." The hard, cold winter-god is supposed to be incarnate in this Tigurine Guy Fawkes of the name of Bogg, and there is the most jubilant exultation over this curious auto da fl—a survival of old German Paganism which the iconoclasm of Zwingli and Bul- linger left untouched. We are told that during the burning ef the winter-god this year, the crown of the neighbouring Uetliberg was white with snow, a sign that the hard-Zurich winter was not over, so that tho experiment with the Bogg was a little daring and venturesome. The execution of the Bogg has occa- sionally been put off until a later, and less wintry, day in April. This was the case last year. Yet, when the citizens arose next morning, the Bogg seemed like the phoenix to have arisen from his ashes and declared that his reign was not ended, for the city and the whole neighbourhood wore the appearance of a winter landscape, every street and field being white with snow.
CHEAPSIDE IN THE OLDEN TIME. Wondrously different (says the City Press) was the Westchepenof the eleventh century when the Norman Conqueror granted his brief and pithy charter to the citizens of London, from that of the nineteenth, with its stately edifices, its aspbalted pavement, and its rush and roar of riever-ceasing traffic. It was then somewhat like an ill-tended country rpad, in the summer rough and uneven and full of deep holes, and in winter a quagmire of mud and filth knee deep, with better beaten causeways at the sides for pedes- trian traffic. It is recorded by Stow that in 1091 a ter- rible hurricane passed over London, when 600 houses were blown down, and the roof of the church of St. Mary-le-bow, erected a few years previously, was lifted off, carried some distance, and dashed into the street with such violence that four of the rafters, 25 feet in length, were driven into the earth, the ground being of a moorish nature," leaving only four feet exposed, which were fain to be cut even with the ground, because they could not be plucked out." The houses stood apart from each other like cottages in a village, and were thatched with -straw, which was the cause of many fires, one occurring two years after the great storm, in which nearly the whole of the remaining houses were con- sumed and so did the citizens continue to rebuild their habitations after each successive fire, until 1245, when it was ordained that for the future they should be covered with tiles or slates, instead of straw, in the chief streets, "especially those close together, which were but few in number, for in Cheap- side was a void place called Crown field, from the Crown Inn, which stood at the end of it." This field was at the end of Soper's-lane, by Bucklersbury, and upon it were erected stages for spectators of pageants. It was sold, 2 Ed. IV., to Sir Richard Cholmley, but does not appear to have been utilized immediately for building purposes, as we hear it spoken of in the time of Henry VII.
THE RUSSIAN BALTIC Fi.BBT.-We are in.. formed that the following six Russian frigates have been ordered to prepare for an "ocean cruise" the moment navigation in the Baltic opens: The Admiral Tchitchagoff, the Admiral Spiridoff, the Admiral Greig, the Admiral Lazareff, the Prince Pojarsky, and the Peter the Great. The four "Admirala" are vessels of the Monarch type, with a length of 260ft, a breadth of 436ft., and a draught of 19ft. Each is provided with engines of 1800-horse power, and carry, the two former armour-plating of lijin. thickness at the waterline, and the two latter 5in. The Tehitchagoff and Spiri- doff are armed with four 36-ton guns apiece, and the Greig ana Lazareff with four 26-ton guns. Their displacement is 3430 tons apiece. The Pojarsky is a much older vessel, but she has the advantage over the rest in the fact that her engines are quite new, having been placed on board only last autumn. It is 280ft. long, 49ft. broad, has engines of 1800-horse power indicated, carries ten 12-ton guns, and 4Jin. of armour. The particulare of the Peter the Great are too well known to be repeated, but we may mention that she carries 14in. of armour and four 36-ton guns. When she went into dock last autumn her hull was very spongy," and nearly all her cylinders were cracked. A RESERVE OF HORSE-FLESH NEEDED. Ii has been officially announced (says the Observer) thai the Second Army Corps is fully equipped for foreign service. Special stress is laid upon the fact that the corps possesses its full complement of horses. The truth is that the Govemmmt agents have attended every market and fair, and have bought up every likely looking steed. The dealers' yards have also been laid under contribution, with a 'result to the public purse that can easily be imagined. It is now suggested that this horse-lovuur, horse-breeding, and horse-racing country should import its horses. No doubt we can obtain horses of a certain class from Canada, South America, and the Cape, but it is scarcely necessary to say that the great need of the present, and also of future, time is a reserve of horseflesh. Importation is well enough for the supply of omnibus and draught horses generally, but for military purposes we must be able to rely upon something nearer home. PRINCESS BEATRICE, the youngest child of her Majeety, has completed her 21st year, having been born on the 14th of April, 1857. How TO PRONOUNCE <F SCHOUVALOFF."—The Examiner says: It is much to be desired that the House of Commons could make up its mind as to the pronunciation of Count Schoutaloff's name. Some members call him Scheuvaloff"; a few describe him as Schovalow"; one or two speak of him as Shoveloff while one member the other night con. vulsed the House by alluding to him as Lord Schou- valoff." The House of Commons should not allew itself such license as distinguished a drama which appeared on the London stage some ten years ago and in whieh the name of the Duke de Choiseul, who appeared in it, was pronounced some fifteen different ways, from chisel to "ehuzzle." DOG LICENSES.—All persona ab present hold- ing 53. licenses to keep a dog will be exempt from the new duty of 7s. 6d. until December 31st next, but in a few days the executive will issue no other than 7s. 6d. licenses for the current year.
THE PROPOSED AGRICULTURAL EXHIBITION. A meeting of the Executive Committee appointed to promote the holding of a great Agric ultural Exhi bition in London next year, under the auspices of the Royal Agricultural Society of England, was held at the Mansion House. Alderman Sir Charles Whetham, in whose mayoralty the show will be held, presided, and there were also present Colonel Kingscote, M.P., Presi- dent of the Royal Agricultural Society; Lord Richard Grosvenor, M P,, Lord Reay, Sir J. Heron Maxwell, Sir Thomas White, the Rsv. William Rogers, Mr. Gil- bey, and others. Mr. Jenkins, the Secretary of the Agricultural Society, reported that the Sites Committee of that body had been viewing many suggested places for the holding of the exhibition in and near the me- tropolis, and that the society had every reason to think that by the next meeting of the Mansion House Com- mittee a highly convenient and easily-accessible site of nearly 100 acres in the west of London would have been selected and rented for the purposes of the show. The site having once been obtained. the society had t,O doubt that a large, interesting, and important ex- hibition of agricultural stock, produce, and implements from all parts of the kingdom, and nossiblv from autuau, would be gatnerea together. The Prince of Wales had accepted the presidency of thesociety during the year of the show, and the Queen had subscribed 100 guineas towards the Mansion House Fund. As in the provinces in past years, the Royal Agricultural Society was disposed to contribute very largely towards the cost of the exhibition; but there were certain ex- pensive items, such as the renting of the site and the offering of special prizes for stock and implements, of which the city or town in which the show was held usually undertook to bear the cost. Repljing to the chairman, Mr. Jenkins stated that about £20,000 would, he thought, be required for the purposes of the London Exhibition. Colonel Kingscote said the Livei- pool people last year were exceedingly liberal, and contributed JE7000 towards the expenses of the show, which was naturally on a much smaller scale. Sir Charles Whetham said he had every hope that, when once the site was settled, the public would largely subscribe, and especially the tradespeople, whom the shew would considerably benefit. About X2500 was reported as having been promised to the Mansion House Fund, including, among later contributions, from the Marquis of Salisbury, XW; Earl Oadogan, £ 50; the Earl of Ellesmere, £ 50; the Duke of Sutherland, .£20; the Aylesbury Dairy Company, £ 25; Mr. Thomas Brassey, M.P., £ 50; Mr. Odams, £ o2 10s. The names of the chairmen and deputy- chairmen of the South-Eastern, Brighton, and South- Western Railway Companies were added to the com- mittee, and the meeting then adjourned until Monday, the 6th of May.
EMBALMING. At the Society of Arts in London, Dr. B. Richard- son, F.R.S., delivered the second of the course of Cantor lectures on some researches on putrefactive changes and their results in relation to the preserva- tion of animal substances." Having in the first lec- ture given an historical summary, he now proceeded to describe some of his original work. He had to bring forward a new theory, based on experiment, and he hoped a new progress would ensue. His work had passed through four stages, commencing with his attempts in 1850 as a teacher to preserve specimens for anatomical and pathological purposes. His later experiments on the preservation of animal substances for foods had been tested by sending preserved specimens to Bio and back several times, and had caused an outlay of ab(,\ut.£4000. When he commenced in 18W he started with the popular theory, probably derived from Liebig, that decompo- sition was purely the result of oxidation. He still believed that when decomposition is once commenced, it is oxidation that continues it, though it cannot be said that it is oxidation alone that originates it. But his earlier attempts were solely experiments on the prevention of oxidation. For this purpose he tried the immersion of portions of meat in vessels charged with negative gases, in many cases with good results. In preserving meat for food the following characteristics must be maintained: Colour, odour, chemical reaction, the water of the tissues, the consistency, the structure as seen by the microscope; and the colour and odour must be maintained after removal from the preserving vessel. The odour and natural taste and flavour must be pre- served during cooking, and this has not yet been ac- complished. The following must be avoided: The odour of putrefaction, the odour of other taints, some of them, though new, not always unpleasant, and acid fermentation. After a long series of experiments, keeping these points in view, he had come to the sug- gestive inference: It seemed that decomposition was first set up by the decomposition of the water of the tissues, and the way to approach the question of pre- venting decomposition is to consider the stoppage of the decomposition of water.
THE YANKEE PRIVATEER. (A Story for the Marines.) The steam-schooner Coon, her snowy cloud of canvas contrasting with the dark cloud from her funnels, was cleaving the waters like a thing of life at the rate of fifteen knots an hour. The crew, consisting of some fifty desperadoes of all nationalities, had cleared the deck for action. Her guns had been crammed to the muzzle with shot and shell. Every man of her picked crew carried a rifle in his hand, and revolver and cutlas in his belt. My lads!" cried Captain Scudder, pointing to a ship under English colours in the distance," do you see that darned Britisher ? There floats your fortune You've sailed and steamed a couple of thousand miles, you've left the august shadow of that glorious bird of freedom, the American Eagle, but there's your reward. It's a tarnation fat prize, and darn me if we don't chaw her up in the twinkling of a handspike." This eloquent speech was cheered to the echo, and part of the crew went below to sit upon the safety- ralm nf tho nnfiiae. The Coon flashed through the waves with re- doubled speed, and soon was alongside the unfortunate Britisher. „ "Now, my lada cried Captain Scudder, waving his Gatling gun over his head, "ene well-aimed broadside, then lay her alongside, and boarders away!" Stop, Massa!" exclaimed the B^ack Cook, II Sambo see some British genelam a coming off in the jolly-boat. Golly I how dey make her walk!" "Avast, my lads!' shouted the Captain, after verifying the Black Cook's assertion through his marine binocular. As Sambo says, we have visitors. Darn me, but we'll teach them manners." By this time the boat from the Britisher had ap- proached the Coon, and two of her crew, in the persons of the Captain and a Barnster-at-Law, had presented themselves before the Yankee commander. What do you want," asked the American. "To know what you want," replied the English sailor. "Gueøø ni tell you that considerable slick" eaid Captain Scudder. We are going to blow you out of the water." "But you can't," returned the Englishman, firmly. I We have letters of marque." Won't do." We have got a crew of the greatest scoundrels un- hanged, and I don't mind telling you that they are small pumpkins to me." That doesn't matter in the least." Then I guess you are stronger than I suppose. You mean to show fight ?" No, we don't. We are too weak for that." Then what is to prevent me from blowing you into the middle of next week ?" This!" And the Barrister-at-Law (at the request of the Captain) read the Treaty of Washington to the American Commander. 'Bout ship!" shouted the baffled Scudder, turning deadly pale. Of course you and I, my lads, are not at all the sort of chaps to break the law of nations." So the Englishmen returned to the Britisher, and the Coon put her head about for the nearest American port. Upon their arrival, the crew of the Yankee privateer got religion to a man, and spent the re- mainder of their days in pieus respectability, listening to the orthodox sermons of the Rev. Parson Scudder —once their Captain, and now their Paetor.-Punch.
SHOCKING OCCUBBENCE.-There was a dread. ful occurrence in Hodson-place, Everton-village, Liverpool. A labouring man named George Arm- strong and a shoemaker named Fenlond quarrelled in a cellar oocupied by the latter. Fenlond kicked Armstrong as he lay on the floor of the cellar, and, it is alleged, caused injuries from which the poor fellow died in about half an hour. LEO XIll. AND MADAME MONTALEMBERT.— A provincial paper relates that Leo XIII., hearing a few days after his accession that Madame de Monta- lembert bad arrived at Rome, expressed a desire to see her. She accordingly went to the Vatican, accom- panied by her daughter. The Pope epo&e of the eminent services rendered to the Church bv her hus- band and her brother, Monseigneur de Merode. He also laid his hand on her daughter's head, saying, 1 give you my blessing, Theresa, for yourself and for your renowned father." SHOCKING DEATH.—JAMEA Burdon, a youth of 14, was killed at Messrs. Willis and Oo.'s carpet mill, Kidderminster, by an inadvertent act on the part of his brother. He had been cleaning under a loom, when his brother, without being aware he was there, started the loom. Some of the machinery struck his brother on the head, crushing the skull, and causing immediate death,
RUNNING THE BLOCKADE AT CRETE. The special correspondent of the Daily News with the Cretan insurgents writes as follows from the head- quarters of Korakas, at Bobva, in the province of Pyriolisa: My voyage to Crete wits oi the simplest kind. We ran the blockade, as far as there was any blockade to run, and landed on the southern coast of the island, at a point where no Turkish officials were likely to be found. Not only were no officials likely to be found, but one may go a step further and say that they were certain not to be there, for the country about Cape Littinos is completely in the handn of the insurgents. Our only risk in sailing from the Piraeus to Crete was a possible encounter with a Turkish cruiser. This encounter might have bad very serious consequences, and the chance of this gave a smack of dangerous adventure to the voyage. We were not fast enough to have slipped merrily away, as the Arkadi would have done, from a stray gun-boat, or an over curious corvette, and the Turks have a rough-and-ready mode of dealing with suspected craft, which leaves Wheaton nowhere, and takes all the sting from an Admiralty Court. But if. on the one hand, we sailed in a quiet matter-of-fact ten. knot Dassensrer steamer, instead of a dashing sixteen-knot clipper, it must be admitted that, on the other hand, our task was proportionally lighter. In those stirring days of 1867-8 there was a swarm of Turkish cruisers hover- ing round Crete, and it required no little skill and during to slip between them, even at sixteen knots. At the present time the blockade of the island is very loosely enforced, and could be run by shrewd Greek sailors in almost any steamer. So our humble ten knots an hour, or perhaps eleven at a pinch, were quite enough for the occasion, though one would cer- tainly have preferred a better chance of getting out of range in case we should unluckily stumble upon a Turk. The wind was northerly and very fresh as we came in sight of Crete, and there was a heavy sea running upon the northern coast of the island. But our destination being on the opposite or sheltered side, this mattered nothing, save as a temporary damper to the cheerfulness of several returning Cretans. Our gallant craft certainly rolled in a most provoking manner, and I think that all the passengers were glad to pass Cape Sidero and to head due southward, with thp water smoothing at every cable's length that wa made upon our course. Turning the eastern end of the island we steered cautiously towards Cape Littinos, keeping tolerably close to the dark rocky coast upon our star- board side. The water seemed quite smooth in com- parison with our afternoon's experience, though the wind came off in fierce gusts from the mountains, and lashed the surface of the sea into sharp ripples, which sparkled in the moonlight. It was very cold for the time of year m this latitude, and the Cretans huddled together upon the deck, were wrapped in blankets and capotes like so many huge bundles of clothing roughly packed for exportation. All was chilly above and sombre below, as no lights were allowed in the cabin, and those who sat there were left in absolute darkness. Presently the young moon had disappeared, and we steamed en more cautiously than ever under the pale glimmer of thousands of stars. I well remembered sailing the same course eleven years ago on board the far famed Arkadi, and could picture to mvself beforehand the manner of our landing how we should come to an anchor almost in the shadow of the rocks, and quickly lower our boats, and begin the work of disembarkation in breathless haste. I could fancy what a hurry and scramble there would be, and how handy the Greek sailors would prove m plymg to and fro, till everything was got ashore. They certainly had net degenerated when the time came to try, and though rather short-handed for such a service, our quiet passenger steamer was discharged with a smartness not unworthy the tradi- tions of the Arkadi herself. We anchored in the mouth of a snug creek, pretty well sheltered from observation, and as the day slowly dawned a heap of sacks and boxes might be seen piled upon the lonelv beach. Now a party of Islanders, half afraid of f ali- ing into an ambuscade, came cautiously down the mountain side, and told us that they had thought the vessel was a Turkish cruiser when they firsteaughtsight of her. Then more and more Cretans appeared upon the scene. It was broad daylight, and the blockade-runner must soon be off. Her sailors worked with a will to get the cargo landed. The Islanders carried everything out of sight as fast 58 was bustle and excitement. One had scarcely time to realise the fact that one was, for a while, cutting adrift from Europe, from regular postage and telegraphic privileges, from shops and hotels, and all that some are pleased to call a worn-out civilisation," when the last boat had pulled away, and the steamer had taken her cleparture. Here we were, new arrivals and old inhabitants, a motley crowd, of many different costumes, treading the classic shores of Crete. We might eae-ily reach the mysterious Cretan Labyrinth within the limit of a day's excursion, or visit the site of ancient Gortyna. But such plans were for the moment thrust aside by pressing modern instances. and -1 was content to gather the latest political news of the island whilst eagerly discussing the means of transport and the choice of roads for a march up country.
STRANGE SCENE IN .LONDON.-Between eight andnmeinthemorningthegreatestexeitementprevailed for some considerable time in Oxford-street, London, by the appearance of a man who behaved in an ex- traordinary manner. He was dressed in an old and tattered suit of military clothing, wore a brass helmet, and carried an old swerd. At the corner of Great Portland-street his antics caused a large crowd to gather; and, some boys having jeered him, he struck out with the weapon, injuring some persons nearest to him. Before he could be secured, however, he made a dash across tho road in the direction of Regent- street. At the corner of the Circus some men were painting the front of a house, and a ladder leading to j*?0* "nding there. He mounted the ladder, and before he could be prevented reached the roof. Here he resumed his grotesque antics, and it was momentarily feared that he would lose his balance and fall to the ground. Meanwhile, two police-constables had ascended to the roofs of the houses by a trap door from a house in Regent-street. While the man was going through his performances, they approached him from behind and managed to secure him. By the aid one or f other persons, his legs and arms were secured, and he was got into the shoot of a private fire escape on the roof of Louise's shop. He was then gent.y lowered through the canvas into the street, amid peat excitement, and was thence conveyed to the police-station. BREACH OF PROMISE CASE.—The case oi Newcombe v. Simpson was heard at Bristol (We3.ern Circuit). This case, an action for breach of promise of marriage, was tried before Mr. Justice Grove and a sPecial jury, and was chiefly remarkable for the fact that the verdict was in favour of the de. fendant. The plaintiff, who was 33 years of age, was the widow of a house decorator. According to her account the defendant, who was a retired licensed victualler of 50, after her husband's death, courted her and promised her marriage. She said he used to kiss her, and put his arms round her wais", and treated her in the usual manner; and the lady, who gave her evident in a most business like manner, indignantly denied that she had ever herself kissed the defendant unless asked by him, or that she asked him to kiss her. It was, she said, the gentleman's business to do that." The defence was that the plaintiff was a designing widow and bad been doing all she could to catch toe defendant. The defendant said he never had the least intention of marrying the plaintiff, and distinctly told her so; and although he did kiss her, it*, on.v when she made him do it. At the close of the evidence the jury said they did not want to hear any speeches or summing-up and found for the defendant. BRICKLAYER V. BUILDER.—Mr. Wm. Sparks, sen., a omider, of -Notting-hill, was summoned under the JfimployerB and Workmen Act to show cause why he should not be committed to prison for not paying a 81?1 15s. 4^d., under an order of the Court, on the complaint of William Preston, a bricklayer, Worked for him. The defendant said he had not the means of paying the money, but Mr. Farman, who appeared for the complainant, elicited from him that he had an interest in a house. Mr. Paget ordered the defendant to be committed for one month, or until such time as the money was paid within that period. The defendant said he had not any money with him, and asked the magistrate to give him time to see his friends. Mr. Paget refused to grant any time, and expressed an opinion that when a master employed a servant and did not pay him, it was just the same as taking money out of his pocket. The defendant was then removed to the cells, evidently much surprised. COIXIEBY ACCIDENT.-An aooident, causing the loss of four lives, has occurred at the Western Moor Colliery, Neath. A collier struck into an old mine which had been closed more than 100 years, and thus caused a rush of water which could not be checked. Most of the men managed to escape, but four of them, named John Rees, David Williams, Ree Llewellyn, and David Davis were drowned. Great damage was done to the workings. FURTHER REINFORCEMENTS FOR THE CAPE. -—The condition of affairs at the Cape of Good Hope ia creating a demand for special war material at Woolwich, and it is understood that the Government is arranging to send out further reinforcements of men and stores. The Royal Carriage Department, Royal Arsenal, Woolwich, is manufacturing high- I wheeled gun-carriages of the Caffrarian pattern for the 7-poynder gun in bush fighting, and these are I being urged forward with all speed. I J1.
THE COST OF WAR. (From Truth") There are not a few idiots who imagine that the country is likely to gain, pecuniarily, by a war with Russia. Trade, they say, would revive! In what ? allow us to ask. In warlike stores. And who would pay for them ? We, the taxpayers. Take gunpowder, as an example. We should buy a vast amount. We should transport it, at considerable cost, to the East. We should then put it in iron cylinders, in order to propel from them spherical masses of steel. This steel might destroy Russians, or fortineations, or houses belonging to Russians, but we, in the end, should be the poorer by the amount of labour which has been expended in bringing this powder into existence, and by the price which we should have had to pay for this unproductive labour. According to the theory of war enriching those who engage in it, we should reap much advantage by burning down London, because bricklayers, and others, would find work in rebuilding it. Certain trades and certain industries would be benefited by a war with Russia, but this would be at the expense of the entire community. Let us suppose that war is declared. Taking the ex- penditure of the France-German war as a standard, we might eatee n ourselves extremely lucky if we were to get off with an increase of £100,000,000 to the National Debt. This we should have to borrow at 3! per cent. interest, and this would amount to a perpetual increase of the present income-tax by about two-thirds of the amount now paid. Our indirect Joss would, however, be even greater. The labour of all those engaged, directly or indirectly in the war would-be absolutely lost. So far as improve- ments, such as making roads, railroads, wharfs, &c., are concerned, there would be an absolute standstill. Privateers would issue from a hundred ports, and would prey upon our commerce. The result would be, that we should lose, not only the carrying trade of the goods belonging to others, but of our own. We are a manufacturing country, and our business is to obtain the products of foreign countries, submit them to some process, and then sell them to the entire world. But the caution of capital, and the difficulties of conveying products, either manufactured or un manufactured, across the ocean, would enable foreign manufacturers te drive us out of the field. On all imports that reached us, there would be an increased cost, in order to meet the higher rate of insurance charged for war risks; therefore corn, meat, sugar and every other article of primary necessity, would aug- ment in price. In addition to all this, there would be a general stagnation in commerce and trade. People would not make profits, and, consequently, would have to sell the securities in which they had invested pre- vious savings, and the very fact of these sales, which would be met by no counter-purchases, would depre- ciate the value of all securities. Stagnation would produce its usual effect. Thousands om thousands of working men 'would be thrown out of work, and the poor-rates would rise in proportion.
CHANGES IN THE MEDITERRANEAN FLEET. Some important changes will be made in the Medi- terranean fleet at the beginning of next month. Already the Hotspur, ironclad ram, has been recalled, her boilers being defective. She will be either refitted or placed in the reserve as circumstances may turn out. The Duke of Edinburgh's ship, the Sultan, one of the finest ironclads of the fleet, has also been withdrawn from the advance squadron in the Sea of Marmora, and added temporarily to Lord John Hay's command at Malta, where the so-called Channel Squadron is now stationed. A large sum has been taken in this year's Navy Estimates for the thorough repair of the Sultan, which has been actively engaged in the Mediter- rauean for the past two years, and a twelvemonth will probably be required before the ship will be ready for commission again. The Devastation, tur- ret-vessel, our most heavily-armed ship on the station, has been sent into the Sea of Marmora in place of. the Sultan, and before the latter returns to England, the Monarch, turret-ship, and Invincible, ironclad, will be ready to reinforce Admiral Hornby's flag. The Tenedos, corvette, is also under orders for the Mediterranean, so that the withdrawal of the Sultan and Hotspur will be compensated for, although the Shannon being ordered to China will give us one ironclad the less. The number of ironclads will be but fourteen, under the commands of Vice- Admirals Hornby and Lord John Hay; but owing to the absence of the Hotspur there are only thirteen at this moment, together with sixteen unarmoured men- of-war of various classes. With the Commander-in- Chief in the Sea of Marmora just now are the Alexandra, T6m6raire, Achilles, Devastation, iron- clads, and two gun-vessels, with Bear-Admiral Sir William Hewett, the Captain of the Fleet, second in command. Our ships in the Dardanelles and at Besika Bay, which include four ironclads and several frigetes and corvettes, are under the orders of Rear- Admiral Sir J. Commerell. The remainder of our force is at Malta, and consists at this moment of five ironclads, but how long these, which nominally form the Channel Squadron, will be stationed in the Mediterranean is as yet undetermined. That another squadron will be formed next month is pretty certain, but whether it will be employed on Channel duty or for particular service remains to be seen. I Admiral Sir Beauchamp Seymour, recently in com- mand of the Channel Squadron, has been mentioned as commanding officer; and doubtless the Hercules, formerly the flagship of the Mediterranean fleet, now fit and ready for sea, will pgain be employed in that capacity.
FUNERAL OF THE BISHOP OT LICHFIELD.— The Bishop of Lichfield was buried in the cathedral, on the south side of the choir. Trains from Derby- shire, Shropshire, and North Stafferdshire were heavily laden with persons who went to attend the funeral. The procession formed at one o'clock, when the Mayor and corporation attended in state, and 490 clergy of the diocese in surplices preceded the body, as well as about 300 laity. The coffin, covered with purple velvet, was borne up the nave by six bearers, among whom were Mr. Gladstone, the Bishops of Hereford and Oxford, and Sir Percival Heywood. The pastoral staff was carried by the late bishop's chaplain. Lord Selborne was among the mourners, and in the proces- eion were Sir Charles Forster, Colonel Dyott, M.P., Mr. Hanbury, Mr. Arthur Bass, M.P., the Mayor of Derby, and many prominent laymen of the dioccse. Every shop in the city was closed, and the greatest solemnity characterised the whole proceedings. The Dean, Dr. Bickersteth, conducted the service, which was choral throughout. THE MARQUIS DE BABBENTANB.-The name of the Marquis de Btrbentane is among the list of those who have recently died. He will be missed, says the Paris correspondent of the Globe, by the habituis of the Champs Elysees and Bois de Boulogne who knew the kindly, witty old man, an observer of the manners and customs of the old school, wearing his hair long and straight, according to the fashion in 1830 as followed by Montalembert. The marquis diBliked the tall, hard hat society has adopted, and could never be. persuaded to wear one. The chateau a claque had gone out of date, so he chose a cap as the only comfortable covering for his head. The tourists and provincial visitors often wondered who the old long-haired man was who drove his phaeton and pair round the lake or up and down the Champs Elveeea wearing a cap. He, with Worth, the man-milliner, dared to defy custom, and respect a tradition which has become quite a dead letter. The cap is not even worn by railway travel- lers on long journeys. They prefer a turban or a glengarry, and would rather bind their heads up in handkerchiefs than wear the much despised covering which even our schoolboys reject as the distinctive badq-e of the working classes. HOTEL PRICES IN P ABIS. A "Traveller" writes as follows in the Times The hotel keepers of Paris some time since held a meeting at which it was resolved not to increase the prices at their hotels during the Exhibition. How far this resolve has been carried out the enclosed tariff of the Hotel du Louvre will enable you to judge, and if you think it right to direct the attention of your readers to it, you will do them a great service. Hearing they were about to raise the prices, I applied at the Bureau and got the enclosed. You will thereby see that some of the prices during the Exhibition will be more than doubled; a room on the third floor will be from the 1st of May 25 francs instead of 12 francs, and on the second floor, Rue de Rivoli, 32 francs instead of 15 francs. The attendance is raised from 1 franc to 1 franc 50 cents each person. Tea, plain, from 1 franc 50 cents to 2 francs, and dinner from 6 francs to 8 francs. I may add that, so far as I can ascertain, all prices will be raised to Exhibition prices, and I think you would do "hEl public a serv'ce to warn them. PAID ORATORY.—At the Lord Mayor's Court, London, before Mr. Woodthorpe Brandon, Assistant Judge, and a City common jury, the case of Mac- Donnell v. Walsh was heard, in which the plaintiff, who was said to be a frequent speaker at debating halls, sought to recover the sum of £10 for services rendered in making a speech at a meeting of the Board of Directors of the Varna Railway Company, of which the defendant was the secretary. The defendant did not deny that the work in consideration of which the present claim was brought had been done, but pleaded that an honorarium had been given to the plaintiff in the form of one share in the company. The jury found a verdict for the defendant. EXHIBITION OF SPORTING TOGS.—An exhibi- tion of sporting dogs of all kinds will be held at Frankfort next month, under the Presidency of Prince Solms-Braunfels, on the occasion of the general meet- ing of the German Jagdschuts-Yerein in that city.
CANADA. The Duke of Manchester presided over a meeting of the Royal Colonial Institute, held at the Pall- mall Restaurant, when a paper entitled Canada and its vast undeveloped interior," by Mr. Sandford Fleming, was read by Mr. Frederick Young, the hon. secretary of the Institute, in the absence of the author, who had been summoned by the Domi- nion Government to return to Canada immediately. Canada, it was said, covered fully more of the earth's surface than the comprised arens of Eucoj ean Russia, Lapland, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Hoi land, Belgium, the British Islands, France, Spain, Germany, Austria, and all the principalities between the Adriatic and Black Seas-in fact, leaving out Soain and Italy, Canada appeared to equal in area the remainder of Europe. It has been round convenient in describing the general characteristics of Canada to divide it into three great regions—the mountain region, on the western fide, the prairie region, in the middle; and the woodland regien, embracing the settled provinces on the St. Lawrence. Professor Macoun estimated that there were no less than 160.000,000 acres of land available in the prairie region alone for farming and grazing purposes, of which one-half might be considered fit for cultiva- tion. Its mineral riches were but imperfectly known, but it had been established that immense deposits of coal existed in many parts; and besides coal and iron ore, petroleum, salt, and gold had also been found. The prairie reeion was alone ten times the area of England, reckoning every description of land. Referring to the mountain region, he said the Cascade Chain rose abruptly from the sea level; the average height of the many serrated summits would probably range from 5000ft. to 8000ft. above the sea level. The main Rocky Mountain Chain was in Canada from 300 to 400 miles distant from the Pacific Coast. Off the shore of the mainland there wtre several large islands, the most important of which wasvanoouver Island the others were the Queen Charlotte group and along the shore of the mainland there existed an archipelago of smaller islands. The mountain region had some good lands, but the fertile tracts were limited in extent. It was exceedingly rich in minerals. Coal and iron were found in profusion, and the precious metals were also found. Proceeding to describe the woodland region, he said it was of immerse exfant. Although elevated ranges, like the Laurentides, .vere met, only a small proportion of the country exceeded 2000ft. above sea level. An area of fully 200,000 square miles was estimated to be under 500ft. The forests which covered the surface would every year become more and more valuable; and the more important minerals were geld, silver, iron, copper, lead, phos- phates, and plumbago. The writer ttcn drew attention to the gradations of climate in Canada. Taking all its natural elements of future wealth and greatness into consideration, the problem which presented itself was the development of a country which had been provided with natural resources so lavishly. The question was how to colonise the northern half of North America and render it the home of a happy and vigorous people. Canada had a population of 4,000,000, but as yet thomereouterfringeofthecountry was occupied. It was just beginning to dawn upon Canadians themselves that in the territories described there was room and to spare, and there existed the elements of support for a greater population than the mother country. It was not until railways were introduced that the progress of the provinces was so marked, and the great interior to be prosperous, if colonised at all, must eventually be traversed not simply by one railway, but by many railways. The great waterways would de their part during the open season in assisting to colonise the vast unoccupied regions that were fitted for the homes of men. but they alone would be utterly insufficient. The pacïBo Railway had been projected for the double purpose Of connecting the Atlantic and Pacific sides of Canada and the opening up of the interior for settlement. In the present condition of the country its censtruc tion was a very serious undertaking and required grave consideration. Considerable progress had already been made, and he had no doubt whatever that it would at no distant day be a work aC' complished, that it would form not only a connecting link between the old half-dozen provinces on the A^ lantic and the still greater number of provinces which had yet to come into existence in the west, but that i* would constitute an important part of a great imperial highway extending between the heart ef the Empire England and some of its outlying portions and depeft' dencies on and beyond the Pacific. In conclusion the author said that Canadians gloried in their connec tion with the little island across the water. Th could not be called Englishmen, but they were to be British subjects, and were by no means unWilliøl to join in the trials and struggles of the mother country.
PENNY BANKS. The Penny Bank system appears, says the Globe, tO have taken firm root among English institution showing that it supplied a real want of the com' munity. A convincing proof of this is seen ia tbØ rapid and continuous progress of the Yorkshire POODY Bank, the annual report of which has just been pub" lished. Every head in the balance sheet shows siP of greater prosperity, and of larger use by the classes. Compared with 1876 the number of deposit? increased during the year by 71>802, the amoufl* deposited by £ 187,911, the number of open account* by 8755, and the sum standing to the credit °* depositors on the 31st December by £ 158,583. Mot^ over, there was ai addition of 44 to the number branches, which now amount to 487, and the rooo, states that "in some instances applications for branch^' had to be refused in consequence of the applicant* living beyond the limits fixed by the articles of assp* ciation." The extent of business done may be imagined from the fact that no fewer tbO 791,873 deposits were made during the tvrel" months, and as the aggregate sum came to £ 650,714, each depositor must have saved <2 the average something less than a sovereign. is equally satisfactory to see that the are making provision against that rainy day penny banks must expect to experience now and like all other monetary institutions. The reserve account now shows an accumulation of £ 28,099, out0* which £ 5520 was transferred to it from the profits*0* last year. Altogether, the report is full of interest £ those who study the requirements of the classes of the community. But for the institution this bank, the greater part of the money now stands to the credit of depositors would probably have spent on some form of indulgence. Averaging the establishment and its branches together, each 0-, received .C105 in deposits during the year, an amo^j of business which would not suffice to maintain a PjrJ management. But the voluntary assistance of wealthier classes is largely employed for this purp^fj thus inspiring depositors with perfect confidence the solvency of the concern, and at the same immensely reducing the cost of management, y great is the success of the movement that we fear lest it should turn the heads of some managp-. committees, leading them to launch out more ext0* sively than prudence would justify.
ENGLAND AND SWEDEN.—Under reserve, Politische Corresponded of Vienna published a which had reached it frem Copenhagen, to the 6 AQ, that England has made communications to the vernment at Stockholm with the view ot indu^^ Sweden, in certain contingencies, to permit the tablishment of a British naval station and depo* the island of Faroe in the Baltic. THE TILTON-BEECHER SCANDAL.—Mrs. ton, according to a Central News telegram, øa-. public an affirmation of her adultery with the -BgJ, Henry Ward Beecher. Mrs. Tilton gives as reason for making this tardy confession comph*rji with her quickened conscience and a sense of whs* due to truth and justice. For some time past st^# r ments have been in circulation in Brooklyn to effect that Mr. Tilton had been making efform jI regain his influence over his wife, with a view, it affirmed by the friends of Mr. Beecher, of extra^T^ from her such a confession. It is further that Mrs. Tilton is at present in a weak phy* state, from continual grieving over her wrecked and that under these circumstances Tilton his influence and extorted a confession similar one which she made, and subsequently denied, years ago. Mr. Beecher, who was lecturing country, telegraphed to the New York Tribune' confront Mrs. Til ton's confession with an absolute denial." Mr. Beecher's friends 1 believe the confession, and attribute it to the influ of Theodore Tilton over a woman who is half J There have been rumours for some weeks of a f ciliation between husband and wife. ort, LEO XIII. AND THE SWISS -The correspondence between Leo xlIL TIO. the Swiss Confederation has been published. Pope, after announcing bis accession, the cessation of the friendly relations formerly subsisted between Switzerland a Holy See, and stigmatises the present of the Catholic Church as deplorable. The Pr^Vfrr of the Confederation, in a courteous reply, co»Sv^j» lates the Pope on his accession, and remarks jji Catholic religion, like all other forma of worship^, Switzerland, enjoys the fullest liberty, on the s0\LpeC* dition that the ecclesiastical authorities shall re|^t* the rights and prerogatives of the State and the aad franehiseaof individuals. Printed aad published by the proprietor, JOHN V? ROBERTS, at his General Printing Office, No yj v* lane, Cardigan, in the parish of Saint Mary County ot Cardigan,—Saturday April 27, 1878.