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VARIETIES. We make ourselves more injuries than aw evei offered to us. We should always be very careful on whom wo confer Benefits; for if we bestow them on the base- minded, it is like throwing water into the sea. THE PRESENT.——In order to enjoy the present, it is necessary to be intent on the present. To be doing one thing and thinking of another is a very unsatis- factory mode of spending life. A golden rule for a young lady is to converse always with your female friend as though a gentleman were of the party, and with young men as if your female friends were present. FLATTERERS.—The flatterers of kings and princes have ever been held in deserved hatred and contempt. In this country they seem nearly to have had their day; but their successors, the courtiers of the people, are equally contemptible and much more pernicious. TRUE REPARATION. — If thou hast wronged thy! brother in thought, reconcile thee to him in thought; if thou hast offended him in words, let thy reconcilia- tion be in words; if thou hast trespassed against him in deeds, by deeds be reconciled to him; that recon- ciliation is most kindly which is most in kind. HIDDEN LIFE.—A man says, I have thrown away forty years; I have wasted my whole life"—or, as the more common expression is coming to be, I I My life has been a failure"—because the thing at which he aimed has been lost. As if a man's life consisted in the abundance of exterior things which he possesses! As if a man's life were not hidden in his own self. ABOUT EYEBRows.- While the Danes profess to know a man who is a wehrwolf by his eyebrows meet- ing, the current saying in the South of England is, It is good to have meeting eyebrows; you will never have trouble." In China the people say that people whose eyebrows meet can never expect to attain to the dignity of a minister of state," that "ladies with too much down or hair are born. to be poor all their lives," but that "bearded men will never become beggars." KIND OmcEs.—Few things can be done to oblige others but at the expense of some convenience, grati- fication, or wish of our own; and he whose means are limited should seek to evince his attachment to friend or family by every little sacrifice in his power. We attend to large concerns for our own sakes; we should attend to lesser ones for others. Our efforts to please others never fail to reward ourselves. There is nothing more lovely than to love to oblige others; nevertheless, it is the duty of a discreet man not to be so far overcome by his obliging humour as to promise anything that is desired of him without considering whether he can or ought to grant it. EARLY ROMAN DINNER-CLOTHS AND NAPKINS.— The first dinner-cloths used by the Romans were made of wool, under the emperors of old Rome; linen and also silk, embroidered with gold and silver, were the fashion, according to La Mosaique. It was only after Augustus that the host offered napkins to the guests; before this time the invited company brought their napkins with them. The chief reason for changing this custom was that the slaves who took them back were often suspected of stealing and carrying off valuables with the soiled linen. Before the use of napkins at feasts in Rome, a wet sponge was passed round after eating, and bread-crumbs were used for drying the fingers; these latter were thrown to the dogs. SALT AS A SYMBOL.—A man who has partaken of salt with you is bound to you by the laws of hospitality, and thus bread and salt are eaten at the ratification of a bargain or treaty, to make it binding on all parties. Salt is also an emblem of desolation; conquered cities were sown with salt. In Scotland and Ireland salt appears to have been considered to represent the incorruptible spirit, and Was therefore laid above the i heart of a corpse; and in some cases a platter was 80 placed containing a small portion of salt and earth un- mixed, the one to represent the immortal, the other the mortal part. In former days, when it was the custom for all the household of a nobleman or gentle- man to dine together, the large salt cellar, which was placed in the middle of the table, was the boundary of distinction between the family and the menials. SOAP.-The Gauls, the ancient inhabitants of the country now called France, are said to have been the first people who used soap. The Romans, about the first century of the Christian Era, learned its manu- facture and use either from the Gauls or the Germans. In the time of Homer (B.C. 850), washing seems to have been done with water alone. A little later, a ley of ashes was used for 6ome kinds of washing. A mineral called nitrum and various kinds of earth were employed, both in Asia and Europe, in the bath and for washing clothes. Clothes, the colour of which easily fade, may be washed well with bran. The meal of oats, barley, and beans may be used for the same purpose. This use of bran and bean-meal is supposed to have been known to the ancient Romans. On holidays and festivals, the poor people of Rome rubbed a kind of white clay over their clothes to make them appear brighter. The more difficult it was to rub out the clay, the better it suited. BONAPARTE'S OPINION OF HIS Two WIVES.—Their characters were diametrically opposite. Never were there two women less like each other. Josephine had grace, an irresistible seduction, an unreserved de- votedness. Maria Louisa had all the timidity of innocence. When I married her she was a truly vir- tuous novice, and very submissive. Josephine would sacrifice millions upon her toilet and in her liberalities. Maria Louisa, on the contrary, economised what I gave her, and I was obliged to scold her in order to induce her to make her expenditure consistent with her rank. Josephine was devoted to me; she loved me tenderly—no one ever had a preference to me in her heart. I uniformly held first place-her children the next. And she was right, for she was the being whom I most loved, and the remembrance of her is still all-powerful in my mind. AQUA TOFANA.-This is the name of a poisonous liquid, which excited an extraordinary amount of attention at Naples, at the end of the seventeenth and beginning of the eighteenth centuries. Tofana, a Sicilian woman, seems to have invented it. Accord- ing to Lobat, after she had murdered many hundred men, she was strangled, although, on the discovery of her guilt, she fled to a convent. Keyssler, on the contrary, affirmed that she was alive in prison, 1730. The drink is described as transparent, tasteless water, of which five or six drops were fatal-producing death slowly, without pain, inflammation, convulson, or j fever. Gradual decay of strength, disgust of life, want of appetite, and constant thirst were the effects, which soon changed to an entire consumption. That the exact day of death could be predicted, is a mere able. The strangest stories with regard to its compo- sition have gone abroad. A solution of crystallized arsenic seems to have been the chief ingredient, to which something else was added, probably to conceal the presence of it. AN ECCENTRIC MERCHANT.—At Hanau, a merchant' resides, whose history is somewhat curious. A quarrel with his stepmother induced him to leave his father's house," when young, and embark for England. Having acquired in trade, in London, a fortune sufficient for comfort in Germany, he married and returned to his native town, where he found that his parents were dead, and that their property had i devolved to him. A large rambling house, containing thirteen rooms on a floor, and adorned with pictures of old electors and landgraves, was a part of his patrimony. The house goes by the name of Noah's Ark, from the singularity of its construction, arising, I as the story goes, from a cause not less singular. The upper storey is a complete second house, erected on the first. The builder, an opulent citizen, who possessed ninety-nine houses in Hanau, was ambitious of rounding his number to one hundred; but the jealousy of the citizens opposed his whim, unless he consented j to pave a path to the church, some hundred yaeds long, with rix dollars. He declined this exorbitant tax; but, unwilling to resign the distinction of own- I ing one hundred houses, he contented himself with I a hundredth placed on the top of one of the ninety- nine. SKILFUL JUGGLERY.—One of the favourite tricks which are performed by the jugglers of Madras is that of making the dried skin of the cobra live. You may examine the apparatus closely every time, and watch the operation as carefully as you please, yet you can- not detect the modus operandi. The performer hands you a little flat wicker basket, some eight inches in diameter, and asks you to inspect it, while he folds the cobra skin, which you have previously well ex- amined, into a square, leaving only the tail unfolded. So soon as you have given the basket back, the juggler the cobra skin, which you have previously well ex- amined, into a square, leaving only the tail unfolded. So soon as you have given the basket back, the juggler places it on the ground, in full view, and under the lid puts the folded part of the serpent's skin, the tail* being in your sight all the while. You may, at this j stage, lift the lid once more to see that nothing but I the serpent skin is in the basket; but after this you must interfere no more. A white cloth is taken by the man and placed over the basket, after having been well shaken, so that you may be assured nothing is in it. A pipe is produced, and with it a horrible noise, similar to that always made by snake charmers, and not unlike the sound a cracked and badly-made bag- pipe would emit, is made. No one goes near the cloth or basket, except the almost naked man, who cannot possibly hide any live snake in his sleeves, for the simple and sufficient reason that he has neither sleeves nor jacket; nor, indeed, any other clothing than a pma.ll waist-cloth, which cannot be used as a hiding- place. Finally, the sheet is lifted; you look at the basket, and see the tail of a living snake being gradu- ally drawn into it, and on the lid being opened a most distinctly energetic serpent is discovered. No sooner is it stirred than it raises on its tail, spreads its hood, and strikes its fangs and tongue at the charmer. No one would care to examine that basket now, with a cobra four feet long making vicious snaps at the juggler. The charmer takes good care that the snake comes near you; for, with a dexterous movement, he Beizes the reptile by the head, and holding it in onp hand, comeB to you with the baskgt in the ofher, whjufl you put a rupee into ffc* re^wcra, if olnly to rcfltroe him to go awayf ENGLAND—PAST AND PRESENT.—Of a truth, whoso- ever had, with the bodily eye, seen Hengist and Horsa moving on the mud beach of Thanes, on that spring morning m the year 449, and then with the spiritual eye looked forward to New York, Calcutta, Sydney Cove, across ages and the oceans, and thought what Wellingtons, Washingtons, Shakespeares, Miltons, Bacons, Watts, Arkwrights, and William Pitts, had to issue from that business, and do their several taskworks 60. he would have said those leather boots of Hengist's had a cargo in them-a genealogic mythics, superior to any in the old Greek—and not a mythica either, but every fibre of it a. fact Carlylt. A TRUE FRIEND.—What is a true friend ? A true i friend is he who not only shows himself so when the frowns of misfortune fall upon us, but even when we treat him as a foe builds friendship's altar higher and firmer with the very stones cast against him by our folly or perverseness. ENGLTSH WOMEN'S RIGHTS A THOUSAND YEARS AGo.-Married women could sue and be sued and inherit and dispose of property of all kinds. Women could attend the shire-gemot, even the witenagemot- could sit, that is, in vestries or in Parliament—and were protected by special laws in matters where their weakness of body would otherwise place them at a disadvantage. Our fathers acknowledged and practi- cally enforced the equality of the spindle-half and the "spear-half" of the human family. -From To Hughe's Alfred the Great." ROTUNDITY OF THE EARTH.—Mr. A. R. Wallace, oflers the following proof of the earth rotundity:— Almost every where on our south or east coapts the moon may be seen to rise or set over the sea. Let the observers notice if it appear or disappears on the sur- face of the water or some distance above it. If the former let him consult a good map of Europe, and see if in the direction of the moon there was any mountain range which ought to have hid it at a considerable distance above the water. As the moon shifts its points of rising every night, a few observations will soon settle this point; and if any number of compe- tent observers see the moon in a given direction rising in a clear atmosphere, not from the sea, but froma point considerably above it, and at an elevation proportionate to that of a mountain range known to be in that direc- tion, it will be a fact, if constantly to be observed, greatly in favour of a flat earth. Such a fact, how- ever, has never yet been recorded, and it can hardly have escaped notice till now.—English Mechanic. PIGEON POST.—I have seen "carrier" pigeons figured in books, flying with all speed, and bearing under their wing an ordinary-sized letter. Now a pigeon could no more fly with a letter dangling under its wing, than a man could swim with a heavy weight round his neck. Any pigeon-flyer would just as soon think of fixing a message to the bird's beak as fasten- ing it under the wing. The place which used to be adopted was to write either words or cypher, or some very abbreviated form of communication, upon a strip of very thin vellum or other material, and then to wind this slip very firmly but neatly round the tarsus, or the scaled part of the pigeon's leg, fasten- ing to finish with fine sewing-silk. Now, however, the camera and microscope have altogether changed the system, and a good paragraph can be sent by pigeon easier than a few words could only a short time ago. It is a startling fact, and one of the most remarkable achievements of modern science, that so many as 3,500 despatches, each consisting of twenty words, all told 70,000 words, by photography, to be read with a microscope, can be easily and readily car- ried by a single pigeon .—Leisure Bour. A SELF-TAUGHT MATHEMATICIAN. — Mr. Thomas Barker, a self-taught mathematician and practical engineer, has just ended his days as a poor brother in the hospital of the Charterhouse. He was the son of a farmer at Old Park, Durham, and the solution of many of the most difficult problems in the earlier stages of railway surveying and construction was due to his genius. It was he who invested the celebrated method of laying down railway curves, and a local journal says that he laid out the Stockton and Dar- llington Fiulway, the first line in the kingdom." He also laid out the atmospheric line from Dublin to Kingstown; and in the infancy of the railroad system he was largely engaged in many parts of the kingdom. The last line that he surveyed was that projected by Mr. George Hudson connecting Lowestoft with London, and for making that town on the eastern coast a second Liverpool, a project which the ruin of the Railway King" extinguished. Mr. Barker was the author of several works on mathematics, both theoretical and practical; of these the best known are the "Elements and Practice of Mensuration," a Treatise on Land and Engineering Surveying," the "Principles and Practice of Statics and Dyna- mics," a Treatise on Subterranean Surveying,' the Mechanical Companion," and "An Original Method of Integration." PARAGUAY ITS BISHOPS AND JmuiTS.—Paraguay was constituted a bishopric by the Pope in 1547; but the first bishop who arrived was Pedro de la Torre, in 1555. Buenos Ayres was refounded in 1580, and, being declared a separate colony in 1620, gra- dually took the precedence of Paraguay, which till then had been the most important Spanish depen- dency east of the Andes. The first Jesuits who reached Paraguay were two Italians, Simon Maceta and Jose Catalino, who arrived at Asuncion in 1610. They and others who succeeded them laboured faith- fully to benefit the natives, first gaining their respect and confidence, and then rebuking their indolence a.nd vices." They were opposed, however, by the Mamelncos or Parlistas, pirates and slave-dealers, who, assisted hy a wretch named Luis de Cespedes Jaray, who had been appointed Governor, destroyed the reductions, as the Jesuit settlements were called, and depopulated the whole province of Guayia, to the north-east of Asuncion; but, after the removal of Cespedes the Jesuits recovered their power, and had more than a century to Christianize and civilize the Indians, which they did in such a way that they rendered them mere helpless, passive machines. Of this long period there is little to record. It ended in 1773, when Clement the Fourth ratified the act which expelled the Jesuits, who were sent to Spain in July, 1767. An uneventful period succeeded, till, in 1810, Buenos Ayres, having declared itself independent of Spain and shipped off its Viceroy, sent a small army into Paraguay to revolutionize that country also, and depose its Governor, Velasco. Belgrano, who com- manded this force, was defeated by the Paraguayans, who nevertheless, deposed Velasco, and elected a trium- virate, Caballero, Yegres, and Jose Gaspar Rodriguez Prancia.- Washburn's History of Ptragumy. AN ELEMENT OP SUCCBM.—It is no exaggeration to say that health is a large ingredient in what the world calls talent. A man without it may be a giant intellect; but his deeds will be the deeds of a dwarf. On the contrary, let him have a quick circulation, a good digestion, the bulk, thews, and sinews of a man, and the alacrity, the unthinking confidence inspired by these, and though having but a thimbleful of brains, he will either blonder upon snoceea or set failure at defiance. It is true, especially in this country, that the number of oontours in every com- munity—of men in whom heroic intellects are with bodily constitutions as tough as horses—is small; that in general a man has reason to think him- self well off in the lottery of life if he draws the prize of a healthy stomach with a mind, or a prize of a healthy stomach without a mind, or a prize of a fine intellect with a crazv stomach. But of the two, a weak mind in a herculean frame is better than a giant mind in a crazy constitution. A pound of energy with an ounce of talent will achieve greater results than a pound of talent with an ounce of energy. The first requisite to success in life is to be a good animal. In any of the learned professions, a vigorous constitution is equal to at least fifty per cent, more brains. Wit, judgment, imagination, elo- quence, all the qualities of the mind, attain thereby a force and splendour to which they could never ap- proach without it. But intellect in a weeWjr body, is 1" like gold in a spent swimmer's pocket. A me- chanic may have tools of the sharpest edge and highest polish; but what are these without a vigorous arm and hand ? Of what use is it that your mind has be- come a vast granary of knowledge if you have not strength to turn the key f A STUDENT'S SUCCESS.'—"Well sir! on Saturday night, Sir Martin Arches Shee took his chair (as presi- dent of the Royal Academy, at the distribution of medals to the students), and there were present an overwhelming number, more than on any other pre- vious occasion, for Sir Thomas Lawrence made it a private concern; the Duke of Sussex, Lord Brougham, the Bishops of London and Llandaff, and all the noble and distinguished patrons and lovers of art, artists, members, associates, and students. Well. as I was paying, he took his chair, and begun to address tho successful candidate (for the gold medal), but who that wa^ t°r whom the eulogy he poured forth was in- tended, was a matter of the most anxious doubt for the trembling seven that sat on the seat before him. Never was a full quarter of an hour's praise felt to be inoromomentous; for mypart I don't recollect one word but m y own name, which completed it. Heretofore i they may have been more merciful, and have imme- j dia.tely made the announcement, and taken time for the display of their eloquence in commendation after- wards. I, however, do not affect to forget certain piquant words he used—e.g., 'fancy, taste, originality, industry, having taken the highest honour to the Uni- versity of Art,' &c. When the decision was made known, the clapping of hands from the roomful was not unpleasant to my ear, as it displayed a general feeling in my favour. I have since heard, from good authority, that all the members voted for me. Sir Martin made a most eloquent discourse. After my hand had been well rung with congratulations, I found Donovan, Roche. and other friends in the hall. They had already heard of my success, so went and had some champagne, &c. Then it was raining when I came home; I unlatched the door, tumbled upstairs, broke my lamp, and was obliged to go to bed in the dark. On Sunday, when I wtoke, I felt ill, dined out, and drank Wo much —" Mimter of MtMise, fl..4."