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THE EASTERN QUESTION. ] ARRIVAL OF RUSSIAN TROOPS AT ODESSA. A despatch from Odessa, under date April 8th, says: About 3000 of the Russian army have arrived here from San Stefano, consisting of the Emppror's escort and the Podolsky Regiment, which was one of the first to cross the Danube and distinguished itself at Sbipka. They were treated by the Municipality on the Ex- change place to refreshments. The National Anthem was played, and the regimental flags, crowned with laurels, were displayed. A religious open-air service was also conducted. ITALY'S ATTITUDE. Italy's attitude towards the Eastern Question is fairly summed up in the Opinione. While Italy cannot approve the Treaty of San Stefano, she finds nothing in that treaty to make her depart from her neutral policy. Her. part, will be to aid in effecting such a modification of the treatv as miy Becure to the autonomy of the Balkan Penin- sula, and the formation of a Greek kingdom strong enough to neutralise the preponderance of Russia. ATTITUDE OF GERMANY. The Times St. Petersburg correspondent says The belief that Germany is abandoning her strictly passive attitude is rapidly gaining ground here. The articles of the North German Gazette and the Berlin Post have made a strong impression, and are regarded in the official world as very significant. Prince Bis- marck, it is said, evidently intends, without openly interfering in the quarrel, to use his influence for the maintenance of peace. How he will do this is not yet clear, but it is I supposed that the Congress negotiations will be recommenced on some new basis. Any effort in tiaat direction is sure to be seconded :by Austria and Russia, and some formula may be invented to remove the preliminary objections of the British Cabinet. There will, of course, remain the objections of a more serious kind, but an agreement is not despaired of. The Russian diplomatists disclaim any intention of having tried to exclude Europe from the solution of the Eastern Question, and do not regard the modus solvendi proposed by the pre- liminary ,treaty as the only one which Russia can adopt. Let Austria and England, they say, state clearly the solutions which they deeire, and perhaps by mutual concessions some satisfactory arrangement may. be found. Already, it argued, there is a wide basis for agreement, seeing all recognise that great changes are necessary, and that real guarantees must be secured against a renewal of the recent disturbances in South-Eistem Europe; while the problem to be solved, apart from questions of national amour propre, would not be simplified by a European war. THE TURKS IN A DIFFICULTY. A Constantinople correspondent says: The Turks are in a most difficult position. I doubt whether they will be able to adopt a policy of neutrality merely. They will be obliged to take sides, and become the ally of one or other of the belligerents. Now, if they side with England, the Russians would of course' attack instantly, before English, troops could come to their assistance, with a result which can hardly be doubtful, I mean the complete destruction of the army, and the loss of Constantinople. The Turks have no fortifica- tions, and the Russians of course will not allow them so long as the present state of things lasts. If, on the contrary, the Turks side with Russia, the Eng- lish could seize nearly the-whole of Asia Minor. What are the poor Turks to do 1, THE NAVIGATION OF THE DANUBE. (OFFICIAL NOTIFICATION ) The following translation of an official notification relative to the navigation of the Danube is contained in a letter from Lloyd's agent at Galatz "The Minister for Foreign Affairs having received a communication from the Chief of the Staff of the Russian military communications, General Cerkes- sof, No. 1975, 16th March, is in a position to give the following notice regarding the navigatior of the Danube. All the obstacles which im- peded the entrance of vessels into the Danub< from the sea have been removed, as well as the mines placed above Ibraila. The navigation is therefore entirely free in this part. As regards thE course of the river between Czernavoda and Kasovata although all the Russian torpedoes have been removed circulation cannot be fully assured, because the num ber of torpedoes placed there by the Turks is nol known for certain. Their removal 18, however, beinf carried on uninterruptedly, and it is hoped that th< bed of the river will shortly be entirely cleared. Is the Upper Danube the only point where work still re- mains to be done for the' withdrawal of mines it Oorabia, but, as one of the channels is free of torpe does, navigation is open in that part." PUBLIC OPINION IN ROUMAMA. A telegraphic despatch from Bucharest, under dai* April 8th, says: The Roumanian journals of al parties are exceedingly hostile in tone towards Russia They assert that Russia cannot maintain the Treaty oi San Stefano without a war. The relations betweet the Russians and the Roumanians along the Danubl are very much strained, and innocent traveller! crossing the stream feel the effects of this ill feel ing. The local journals express great confident in Western Europe backing them up in theii resistance to the retrocession of Bessarabia. Tb< opinion prevails here that, in case of war, the policj of England will be to avoid any great battles, bui instead thereof to wear out the Russian means of keep ing up their armies, and force them to yield through exhaustion. Such a policy, it is asserted, will have I terriblv depressing effect upon the Muscovite energies which would be roused to confront any amount oi I. present difficulty, but would droop under a prolonged period of armed inaction. THE RUSSIAN TROOPS IN BULGARIA ANI ROUMANIA. A Bucharest correspondent of a contemporary under date April 7th, says: The Russian troops it Bulgaria, Boumania, and the south-western district* of Russia are taking up positions at various points ol strategic importance, and contracts have been mad! for the delivery of supplies at these centres. Pitesti in Roumania, is the most salient of these positions, and it is a place of great importance in a military sense It commands the southern embouchures of the Kimpo- lung, Jule, and Rosentoura Passes through the Carpa- thians, and, in conjunction with a force at Ploesht: to defend tbe Kronstadt Pass, covers all the ap- proaches to Roumania from Austrian territory which are practicable for artillery, and trains. The Rosen- tour and Kronstadt Passes are the most passable fot waggons and cannon, the ether two being crossed with great difficulty, although since the passage of Gourke and Skobeleff through the Etropol and Trajan Passes of the Balkans the faith in natural mountain defences must have become seriously weakened. Russian troops are already marching via Bucharest in the direction ot the Carpathians. Contracts have been made here for furnishing supplies at Pitesti. This place is situated on the through line of railway from Galatz to Turn Severin, and can, therefore, be easily supplied by rail. The river iluta is the natural line of defence on the west, with its right testing on the Carpathians, the passes of which are defended as above mentioned, and its left on the Danube at its junction with the Aluta, protected by the fortress of Nikopol opposite the mouth of the latter river. The left bank of the Aluta is very favourable in its natural conformation for purposes of defence. South of the Danube the defensive line runs through Plevna and Lovats to the Balkans, with the fortress of Widin as SO advanced post. I am informed that torpedoes have been placed in the Danube at Widin, leaving only a narrow passage open for river steamers. In rear of this line comes that connecting Galatz, Silis- tria, Rustchuk, Biela, and Tirnova with the Balkans, covering the immediate approaches to Kustendjt*, Varna, and Bourgas, the ports through which the Russian armies in Turkey will receive their supplies in the event of further hostilities arising out of the Treaty of San Stefano. AN AUXILIARY CAVALRY FORCE FROM INDIA. The Times Calcutta correspondent, under date April 7tb, says: All military furloughs have been stopped. Various rumours, assuming at last more and more definite shape, have circulated in the Dress with reference to a projected expedition to Bagdad. These, however, turn out at las* to be entirely without f oundation, having been officially contradicted. At ter a careful consideration of various regiments of the native army and its strength as a whole, I am led to the conclusion that immediately on the announcement of war we should be able to despatch from India a very large army corps without weakening the frontier or any other strategic position, or reducing the various forces of observation maintained to watch and keep in check our too powerful feudatories. Probably, however, the most important auxiliary force which India could furnish to an English army would be a corps of native cavalry, supporting, as it would, I that branch of the service in which England is numerically weakest, but in which the native army is pre-eminently strong. It would be a very ahorteigbtfd policy in the event of war to disregard the military advantages which would icerua from the employment of the splendid auxiliary force of cavalry this country could spare. If cavalry be the eyes and fears of an army, it would be difficult JO find in any European fighting body sharper eyes or )a.rs than would be supplied by the Indian cavalry. rbe Bengal cavalry in particular is in a highly efficient itate, well drilled, well mounted, and perfectly j •quipped, having also the greatest power-of mobilisa- MB of any regular cavalry in the world. RETURN OF TROOPS TO RUSSIA. In a despatch from San Stefano, dated April 7th, it is stated that, in addition to troops proceeding by sea to Russia, the first division tJf cavalry, commanded by General Doctoroff, and the first division of Don Cossacks, consisting of four regiments of cavalry anr, three batteries of arrilleiy, have begun their march to Russia viA Braila or Tultcha. Three regiments of j Oosaacks, two batteries of artillery, and the 11th Corps, comprising one cavalry and two infantry divisions under Prince Schakoffsky, have gone Rustchuk. The Grand Duke at Constantinople has had long in- terviews with Beouf and Savet Pashas. WITHDRAWAL OF RUSSIAN TROOPS FROM BULGARIA TO ROUMAJNIA. The continued withdrawal of Russian troops from Bulgaria to Roumania is attributed to the independent position assumed by the Bucharest Government at what may be the beginning of a European conflict. In tbe event of foreign vessels getting command of the Black Sea, tbe Russian Government are necessarily anxious to protect their line of communications in Moldavia and Bessarabia. There is reason to assume that in an unpublished Treaty Servia has engaged to co-operate with Russia in any future commotion, and that it is intended to impose the like obligation upon Bulgaria. 1HE FRENOH NEWSPAPERS AND THE ATTITUDE OF ENGLAND The Paris correspondent of the limes says: The great majority of the French newspapers do not dis- guise, in view or Russia s almost impudent demands, their approval of England's attitude. The Dibats well remarks that it would be a mistake to suspect England of hankering after some conquest, her only anxiety being to defend imperilled public law. All the other leading papers adopt the same tone, and it is not surprising that Prince Orloff complains of this attitude of the pms. No one had been more zealous than he for years, and even under M. Thiers Government, in preparing the successive public Cabinets to greet with favour the substi- tution of Russian for Turkish influence. It may even be said that he had succeeded in making the people forget Russia s attitude during 1870, and attribute to her alone the credit of having pre- vented a fresh Franco-German war in 1875. He has, therefore, reason to be surprised at tbe atti- tude of tbe French public, and r«ally this attitude bas almost surprised the public themselves. They were disposed to admit that certain advantages might fairly be acquired by Russia, but when the treaty map appeared they were struck at the dispro- portion between the victories gained and the advan cages stipulated. Russia, after two years of prepara- tion, has only conquered a discredited nation without resources, a victory not justifying her deriving euch advan!»ges» and modifying the whole map of Europe. This has been the feeling of the public since they have come to understand the treaty, and I dc not think anything can change it. It j8 therefore natural that the Frencn Government has no very strong desire to express an opinion on the treaty; for it could only speak in accord with the feeling of the country. FOREIGN OPINION OF LORD SALISBURY'S „ CIRCULAR. Lord Salisbury's circular, says a St. Petersburg correspondent, is regarded here as a new proof that tbe British Cabinet has decided upon war. In the official world it is said that the document is not plea- sant reading for those who deeire peace; but it has so advantage over its Predecessors in being quite clear and intelligible, and in removing ibe discussion from the region of words and formalities to that of facts and interests. Besides this, i$(Joes away with any regrets which may have been caused by the breaking down of the Congress negotiations, because the Congress could not haveaucceededif the Plenipotentiaries had entered it animated with the spirit displayed in the Circular. I The text has not yet been received by the Govern- nient, and consequently no decision has yet been taken regarding the answer to be given but there is reason > to believe hat it will not be regarded as having any- thing of the nature of an ultimatum. As the British Government declares the solution proposed by the pre. ) lioiinary treaty to be inadmissible, but confines itself to a purely Edative criticism, it is possible that it may bJ t n some solution of its own. If the > English Cabinet, it ia argued, is really anxious to avoid war, as some of its members have declared, a pacific solution of the difficulty may still be found. A Vienna correspondent says: The impression pro- duced here by Lord Salisbury's Circular is very great. All the papers re-echo it, but leud and harmonious as i the echo is, it is still but a faint reflex of the effect produced on the public mind. As yet only a tele. graphic rikumA ef the despatch has arrived, but ex- i tensive enough, nevertheless, to enable one to judge of its whole tenour. Primarily, this deep impression is undoubtedly due to the large and statesmanlike view taken in the Circular of the real bearings of the Trea y of San Stefano, aE(j to the clear, manlv lan- guage in which this view is txpressed; but the effect l bl's been heightened not a little by the circumstance • that, in spite of the attitude lately assumed by Eng- 8 ^arati°a from her carno rather unex- 9 i jj ENGLAND AND GREECE. V u atldre88» of which the following is a translation, has been presented to her Majesty's representative in r Athens by the Metropolitan of the Greek Church, the i Sr .• University of Athens, the directors of the National Bank, the Majors of Athens and Pirceug rand Ouhera: We have the honour to present you t with an address expressive of the unanimous feeling of 1 e most well-known men of Athens and of the Piraeus, aa well as of the whole of Greece, who are, we are sure, the interpreters at tbe present time of r the deep thankfulness for the noble sympathy so I ?ordJally Inanifetited by all parties in England ln favour of eur cause, and for the noble initiative which her Ma) -sty's Government has Just tsken in proposing the admission of Greece to the Congress which will have to df^G {ate of the nations of the East. This step 1 ° gland s is an eloquent sign that the British Government estimates the part which Hellenism has p to play in the same spirit which inspired the cautious policy Of "the imfcortal George Canning, and that it • *1?1« xihe Hellenic cause under its shield." this Mr. Wyndhana replied as follows: I am deeply touched by the expressions which close the address T?1!! • Ju!fc presented to me in the name of the Hellenic nation, a nation for which England bas i always had great sympathy. I shall take real pleasure, ■ »nd gentlemen, in forwarding this address to her Majesty's Government. In conclusion, I beg you to permit me to express a wish for the prosperity of Greece and for the happiness of his [ Majes y the King your august sovereign, of her itojestv the Queen, and of the Royal family." MASSACRES BY THE TURKISH TROOPS. The spec'al correspondent of the Standard tele- graphs from Lamia as follows: I have received Consular and other more direct authentic reports I from both sides engaged in the struggle in Thessaly. I They agree in stating that the Turks, after seizing I the insurgent positions at Makrinitza and Porteria, I began pillaging and burning the villages, churches, and monasteries. They massacred young and old, Sn.WC v, 88 wounded and infirm of both :.0lite8. an<l shops were sacked, and in I B° v. j t]?e Plunder was sold openly. Some Raya s and Europeans were outraged and murdered in t e suburbs of Volo. Tbe Consuls bave despatched *i*5° Hobart Pasba, as tbe Turkish officers' plea their inability to control tbe men ia all non- -i was murdered by the Turks near j nn4L-a 80111 e hours after the battle was over, and withm the Turkish lines. Almost every Turk -I™ IQ\ 7 B'ght, and the circumstances of his death mdica e design, jjr. Ogle waa unarmed; he did not even carry a revolver. The insurgents have retreated to Drakla and Ghion places where Amyz Pasha hesi- tates to attack them. His troops commit such out- r3^B £ eneral massacre is apprehended. Tbou- Bftn 8 women and children have fled to the coas a. Lechotnia, and are there perishing from terror and exposure while they wait to be carried to a place Of safety by ships. It would be an act of humanity tor the British Admiralty tod irect some ships toca upon this coast immediately. While tbe Turh are thus acting like devils the Greeks treat their prisoners well, and offer the Turkish wounded every relief in their power.

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