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" PEDESTRIAN COMPETITION.j
PEDESTRIAN COMPETITION. j The last competition ID long-distance pedestriantam, which iran promoted by Sir J. D. Astley, Bart, M.P., has Wen satisfactorily concluded at the Agricultural JIalL The characteristic feature ef the competition mi that each competitor eould make the best of his he can ran or walk—the man who went the longest distance to be declared the winner. The priaea amount to niO, the following being some of the conditions of the contest: It is a sweepstakes of I 10 lOTS. each, and all comers were allowed to con- tend. The start took place on the morning of the lith of March, at 1 hour 6 min. 8 sec., and finished on the evening of the 23rd of March, at 8.10. The man accomplishing the greatest distance in the specified time to be the champion of the world, and to have entrusted to his keeping a belt, value .£100; and receive £ 600; second, £100; third, £ 50; and any competitor covering a distance of 460 jiiles to receive back his stake, with an additional £10. Any competitor (other than the three first men) covering more than 500 miles to have an additional X5 for every three miles over the 500, such amount not to exceed £40. The surplus receipts (if any) over expenses to be either divided between the competitors who have covered more than 450 miles in the same proportion as the prizes, or awarded in further prizes to encourage pedestrianism. The juages, Mvaero. G. W. Atkinson and 0. Conquest (Sporting Lift), assisted by Captain Webb, having their seats with a whole army of timekeepers and scorerp at their posts, the following competitors made their appear- ance on the path: J. Bailey, of Sittmgbourne; Blower Brown, Fulham W. Oorkey, Bethnal Green W. Gregory, Hoxton; J. Groves, Oswestry; G. H,,s,tel, London; G. Ide, Woolwich G. Johnson, Barrow-in-Furness; S. R. Johnson, Wrexham W. Lewis, Islington 0. 0. Marfyn, Yatton, near Bristol; P. M'Carthy, York; J. M'Le&vy, Alexandria J Smith, York; W. Smith, Paisley; W. H. Smythe, Dublin; H. V-iughan and D. O'Leary, Chicago (who had a track to himself, 8 laps to a mile, the English- man's, on the outside, being 7 ) B. P- Weston, (New York City), Peter Grassland, of Sheffield, and G. Pfirry, also of Sheffield, entered, but were unable to compete, principally. through illness. At 1 boar 6 min 8 sec. a.m., Sir J-hn Astley, having previously addressed the competitors, gave the signal, and away they went on their journey. As the contest is now brought to a termination rt is needless for us to repro- duce the week's doings of each competitor, but merely thronicliag the result. The weary journey was completed in the presence 6f an immense concourse of persons, but concluding be- foretheappointed time some disappointment was caused by those arriving at the hall about nine o'clock. Some dissatisfaction also was experienced by the backers of Vaugban, in consequence of O'Leiry not being con- sidered a legitimate entry, the list having been closed before the Yankee's name was received Sir John Astley, however, stated that a written protest had been b-svoed to him, but he would take no notice of it, and would give the money to the best man. One thing in 0 Leary a favour is that his entry was sent to England in tune, but a Liverpool friend neglected to forward the same to the Sporting Lite. OLeary's right lee was in a very bad state, being twice the size of the left, the inflammation confining itself principally to the ealf. This caused him, of course, to limp along all through the last day, and exercise great care in progressing. Yaughan, on the contrary, looked wonderfully well; but the conclusion of the race was very monotonous, as it was a foregone conclu- sion for O'Leary. At about 7 40 p.m. Vaughan re- tired, and left O Leary on the track, and at 8.10 p.m. he retired. After waiting till 8 30, and no ene putting in appearance, the crowd, as usual on these occasions, took possession of the ring, the band played the National Anthem, and the following return was posted at the judges' atand O'Leary, 520 miles 2 laps; Yaughan, 600 miles; Brown, 477 miles 2 laps; Ide, 405 miles 4 laps; J; Smith, 394 miles 6 laps; W. Oorkey, 335 miles 2 laps Lewis, 270 miles M'earthy, 264 miles 2 laps; M'Le&vy, 250 miles 6 laps; Gregory, 231 miles 3 laps; Groves, 220 miles Gk Johnson, 205 miles; S. B. Johnson, 194 miles; W. Smith, 194 miles; W. H. Smythe, 175 miles 4 laps B alVy, 139 miles 2 laps; Martyn, 65 miles; G. Buael; 50 utiles.
,TRADE OUTRAGE TRIAL.
TRADE OUTRAGE TRIAL. At the Northern Circuit, before Mr. Justice Brett, William Acton, 30, William Hughes, 24. and John Hodson, 24, were charged with having, at Manchester, on the 19th of January last, feloniously placed against the dwelling-house of one Bobert Hannett certain cor- rosive fluid and other explosive substance with intent to kill and murder Robert Hannett, and also with having maliciously thrown gunpowder against the dwelling-house with intent to do grievous bodily harm to Robert Hannett. This was an alleged attempt to prevent the carrying en of the brickmaking trade in a manner most profit- able to th", masters. It appeared that Messrs. Hannett and Pendleburv, who had commenced as brickmakers, but bad raised them elves to the position of masters, in January last were carrying on the business in Manchester. Pre- vious to January they had belonged tothe,, Man- chester and Salford Brickmakers' Operative Associa- tion," but in consequence of having introduced steam power and ordered machines for the manufacture of bricks, they bad been expelled from that society. The prisoners were members of the union. Mr. Hannett was in the habit of getting up about 5 30, and, keeping no servant, went down first thing and lit the kitch en fire. On the morning of the 19th of January he overslept himself, and about six a.m. he was awakened by two violent explo- sions at an interval of about a quarter of a minute between each. He went down and opened the street door and then found on the footpath ab$ut two feet from the door an earthenware pot-bottle with a fuse still burning attached to the neck. Several pieces of lead were found about the door, also piec- j of the bottle which apparently had been blown to pieces by gunpowder. About 4ft. from the door there was a canister ripped to pieces, with bits of cloth and rag lying about which bore true. ef having been steeped in pitch. The evi- dence me far as it affected the prisoners, was that the Manchester wad Salford Brickmakers' Operative Association held th- ir meetings at the Bull's Head,' and that on the night of the 18th Hughes and Hod- son were present, though the landlady could not speak to having seen Acton there that nigbt. Some conversation was beard between Hughts and Hodson, in which one said," Itaseven inches,"itnd theothersuid, 11 It's more." This the prosecution interpreted as re- ferring to thefanlightabove Hannett'sdoor, which was of those dimension* On the morning of the 19 b, about 6 a.m., a man going to his work heard the explosions near Hannett's, and saw two men going across the field from the direction of Hannett's house. Another witness spoke to having seen five men coming from the same direction. Acton was arrested on the 30th of January, when be put on some boots, the heel of one of which corresponded with a foot- print close to Hannett's house. At the conclusion of the case for the prosecution, his lordship ruled that there was iio evidence against Bogbe. and Hodson, and not sufficient evidence against Acton to allow the case to go to the jury.
ptzLANCHOMr ACCIDBNT. — A melancholy t accident has occurred in a paper manufac ory at Droogenboecb, near Brussels, through tke bursting of one of the huge boilers in the centre of the building. A number of young girls are employed there, six of I whom were tound lying dead amongst the ruins. Another had been blown into a pond attached to the works, where she was seen struggling in the water, to which fortunate circumstances she owes her life. One of the workmen also is in an alarming state. Two of the poor girls were the children of a widow, entirely dependent on their scanty wages for hersuppoft. She was so horrified when the sad news was brought her that she attempted to commit suicide by throwing her- self into the river, from whence she was happily rescued in time. A STILL-BORN BIRTH IN THE BRIGHTON AouAMm<—At the Brighten Aquarium the sea lioness gave birth to a dead cub (a female). It was noticed last week that she was very restless and savage, and would not permit her young one, born in the Aquarium on the 14th of May last, to approach her. She has been carefully watched day and nigbt by her keeper. On Thursday she refused food for the first time, and it was noticed that she was in great pain, which gradually increased, so that fear was en- tertained as to her own life. Happily, however, all danger is now supposed to be over; she is progressing most favourably, and a few days perfect quietness will, it is hoped, restore her to her usual health. The dead cub has been preserved in spirit, and will be placed in the entrance hall of the Aquarium. FRENCH SOCIALISTS.—The papers found on th ) foreign Socialists have led to domiciliary visits to seven French Socialists, several of them connected w th the Jieveii. Their correspondence was seized, and three of them were apprehended, but released, 0,1 parole, after an examination by the Juge d'ln- itruction. 1 ACCIDENT IN THE xiCTNTING -fIBLD.—During a run with the Dartmoor bounds npar Cornwood, D von, the Commander-in-Chief of the Western Dis- t2 ct, Lieutenant-General the Hon. Leicester Smyth, wa=i crushed beneath his horse, which fell during a rapid ride over rough ground. It was some hours before he could be conveyed to Government-house, MJunt Wise, Devonport, by which time his shoulder Wis so swollen that the nature of the injuries to the ollar-bone could not be precisely determined. One or more ribs are fractured. General gmytb, however, is doiag well. is doiaff well.
THE FOUR 100-TON GUNS PURCHASE.…
THE FOUR 100-TON GUNS PURCHASE. J The purchase of four 100- ton guas from Sir William j Armstrong and Company's works at Blswick will re- j present (says the Dauy News) the last important out- lay likely to be made out of the credit of six millions. The foar pieces of ordnance purchased are, it appears, Just ^eady for delivery; but as we have no vessel at present, nor are likely to have for some years, unless it be the Inflexible, capable of carrying such monster can- non, the only inference is that we have bought the guns simply for the purpose of preventing anybody else from doing so. We hardly appreciate the advantage in these circumstances, since if we have BO war vessel that can mount them, other nations are no better off, with the exception, perhaps, of the Italians. But then the Italians have already in their-possession the armament for one of their formidable turret ships, the Duilio, and the other is not likely to require guns certainly for a couple of years to come. Our heaviest guns hitherto have been 80-ton weapons, and it seems that while we have been plodding on for years making four or five of these guns, Sir William Armstrong, at his works near Newcastle, fcas well nigh finished a dozen 100-ton cannon, of which eight were ordered by the Italian Government. The Inflexible is destined to carry four of the Woolwich 80-ton guns but we sup- pose, now that heavier metal is in our possession, an attempt will be made to place it en tbis, our largest and most thickly-plated turret-ship. In that- case, the British man-ot-war wul have a slight advantage over the Italian, for while their armaments will in both cases be the same, the latter ha3 armour of but twenty-two inches, while that of the Inflexible is twenty-four inches. In all other respects, fortunately for ourselves, the conditions will be the some. The guns of the Italian, coming from the same workshop, are not breech-loaders, but, like our own, load at the muzzle. Moreover, the method of loading and work- ing the guns will be by hydraulic machinery in both caees, for the firm of Sir William Armstrong and Co. is entrusted with the carrying out of all the arrange- ments for mounting the cannon on board in this country as well as in Italy.
COLLIERY ACCIDENT CASE. j
COLLIERY ACCIDENT CASE. j At the Crown Court (Oxford Circuit), before Mr. Justice Denman, James Davis was indicted on Friday at Stafford for the manslaughter of James Smith and Thomas Whitmore, at Wolstanton, on the 23rd of January last. This was an inquiry arising out of a colliery acci- dent, and it was interesting as showing that capes do arise when not only is it fairer to a prisoner that he should be permitted to give evidence, bnt the whole course of truth may suffer under a procedure by which such evidence is excluded. The accident took place at a colliery known as the Apedale Colliery, near Wolstanton. The pri- soner was employed as engine-tenter, and he had held this employment for nine years with an excellent character. The nature of his duties in connection with the engine were somewhat complicated, requiring skill and presence of mind. No one was allowed to be with the prisoner in the engine-house, and in managing the engine when it was required to operate in drawing the cage up to the pit head be would have to make use of a wheel for turning off the steam, a reversing lever, and a foot treddle with which to work the brake. He would also have to watch with his eye an indicator, which would show him when the cage would be near the top, and when he was to begin, therefore, to shut off steam. Upon the day on which the accident happened the donkey engine broke down, and there being a want of water in the boilers of the main engine, the prisoner was told to draw up the men from the bottom of the pit as fast as possible. Nine loads were drawn up in safety, but as the cage was ascending for the tenth time something happened which caused the cage to fly up at tremendous speed, till it was only stopped by the pulley itself. All the men in the cage were thrown out, and two of them, James Smith and Thomas Whitmore, the subjects of the present inquiry, were killed by the accident. The question for the jury was whether the accident was owing to the culpable negligence o' the prisoner or was due to causes beyond his control. The rules of the colliery required that no one should be with the pri- soner in the engine-house, and thus there was not only an absence of evidence of what was the immediate cause of the accident, but the prisoner himself, who alone could give an explanation, was, of course, unable to give any evidence in court. It was admitted in the case that the engine itself was in good order, and that the cage was being drawn up at the usual speed, which was at the rate of about 20ft. to the second, or something less than a minute for the whole distance, and the suggestion was that as the prisoner was stopping the engine a.stiffness in the lever caused a delay of a second, during which the accident happened. Mr. Wynn, the Government Inspector, said, in his opinion, the driver ought, in stopping the engine, to make allowance for possible stiffness, and not allow tbe band on the indicator to revolve too far before he actej upon it; but, oa the other hand, it was urged that there was no evidence that the prisoner had shown such a deficiency of caution in this case, and that, as there was no explanation of the accident except what was supplied by the accident itself, the prisoner, who was proved to have been sober at the time, and had managed the encino successfully for nine years, was entitled to an acquittal. The jury, in the end, adopted this view of the case, and leturned, without hesitation, a verdict of not guilty.
AN EXTRAORDINARY PINCH.—At this camp- ing-ground I first saw that beautiful and extraordi- nary finch, with a tail 10 long that, in a breeze of wind, it seems that the bird is carried by the tail, instead of the reverse. Their plumagexon the body is a beautiful full coloured orange and a glossy black. The tail I found, in some specimens, to be upwards of two feet long, and an inch and a half wide, and so pliant are the feathers even down to the quill that they flutter and rustle in the wind like pieces of black silk. When it is blowing pretty strong their tails seem to carry them away down wind, but I think in this action the bird is either amusing himself, or try- ing to deceive the observer; for on several occasions when I have thought them struggling against the breeze unsuccessfully, I have tried to approach them by getting below to the point whither they were apparently drifting; but when my motive was perceived, they would alter their course, and pursue a new one with a tolerably strong flight. It is most amusing to see twojof the male birds fight; from the tops of neigbbouring reeds they dash at each other, and ascend twenty or thirty yards, struggling with beak and claws, the two tails gett ng so mixed that you might expect, after the manoeuvre is over, the one to ask the otht r which tail is which. The hen, on the other hand, is a demure little brown thing, scarcely as large as our hen sparrow, and quite as humble in plumage. Their nest is built in reeds, and, although larger, has mush resemblance to a sedge warbler's Erroneously it is called in this part of the country by those who speak English widshanch.- Gillmoris Great Thvnt Land. REFUSAL TO INSTITUTE A CLERGYMAN.—At the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council recently held, the decision of their lordships was pronounced in the appeal from a judgment of Lord Penzance in the case of The Rev. John Stuart Marriner v. the Bishop of Bath and Wells." Mr. Marriner who in 1873 the perpetual turate of Silsden, in the diocese of Ripon, and the bishop called upon him to resign on a complaint of his drunken habits. He denied that he was addicted to intemperance, and having subsequently purchased the advowson of Marston Magna, Somer- set, in the diocese of Bath and Wells, applied to the bishop of the diocese to institute him to the living on the death of the Bav. Thomas Fitzherbert. He pro- duced testimonials, but the bishop refused to admit him to the living. A suit was commenced against the bishop in the Court of Arches, and the dean decided that the bishop was justified in the course he had adopted in consequence of Mr. Marriner having been addicted to drunkenness when curate of Silsden in 1873, and from the insufficiency of the testimonials presented to him. Sir Robert Phillimore, in giving judgment, recapitulated the facts, and remarked that their lordships had not considered it necessary to call on counsel for tfce bishop to address them being of opinion that the judgment of ,the Court of Arches should be affirmed. Their lordships fully concurred in the judgment of Lord Penzance that the three charges of drunkenness had been established, and that the testimonials were not sufficient. The bishop had exercised a sound discretion, and their lordships would duly advise her Majesty to dismiss the appeal with costs. CONFESSION OF MURDER.—John Morris, a navvy, of Medbourne, Leicestershire, was charged at the Market Harborough Petty Sessions, on his own confession, with having murdered his brother at Bahara, county Boscommon, Ireland, on the 17th of July lost. The prisoner stated to the police that he was living with his brother at the time of the murder. They jointly occupied seventy-six acres of land. A dispute arose between them about this lan-3, as hia brother, who was ten years younger than himself, wanted to get married, to which he objected. Words ensued, and he (the prisoner) puiled a six- chambered revolver from his pocket and shot his brother. The prisoner had about £70, eo he came by train to Dublin and then to England. He now said there was no truth in his statement. He had been drinking hard, and did not know what he had said. He admitted that be had been in the army, but refused any further account of his antecedents. He was remanded for inquiries.
GflAZI OSMAN'S KNTRY INTO…
GflAZI OSMAN'S KNTRY INTO CON- STANTINOPLE. The Constantinople correspondent of the Standard telegraphs the following, dated March 25th It was announced that Osman Pasha was certainly to make his public entry into Stamboul to-day, so at eleven o'clock this morning I took my post at a window of a tobacconist's shop in a street leading from Sirkedji Iadtlese tothe Perte, for I knew that at this place I must see the hero of Plevna, whether he came by water or by land. The crowd was much denser than it was yester- day, and as I gazed on it from the window it seemed wonderfully curious. In the broad space before me were many-tinted groups of Turkish women in their wonderfully gaudy cloaks and very transparent yashmaks, from above which their black eyes gleam full ef fun and excitement. Then there were Arab women hideously masked in dark facecloths, with only two holes in them for their eyes. There were plenty of Circassians in caps of sheepskin, dervishes in brown flower-pot caps, and Persians in black ] flower-pot caps. There were many P-reek, Armenian, < and some Russian priests, each in DI3 distinctive ] canonicals. There were turbans of all hues and ( forms, and the red fezzes gleamed out like poppies j in standing corn. The people who were riding or I driving were not so curious. At one time there passed by me an Egyptian sheikh on a tall, white donkey with a crimson saddle and trappings then came an old Turk on horseback, with his little son of 6 years old. Dressed in full military uniform and mounted behind his father on the crupper, the boy looked like a Lilliputian Turk in a Drury-lane children's pantomime. As I looked at him I wished that I bad with me a costumier or Ecene painter of some great London theatre. He would have found a mine of wealth in the scene before me. The' throng of people and their eagerness and excitement, were such as to remind me of Shakespeare's well-known descrip- tion ef the entry of Coriolanus into Borne; but I must add, however, that our veiled dames cannot act s the Roman ladies did, though I dare say they would if they could. At noon the crowd began to thicken. It was a very good-natured crowd, assembled utdtr very trying circumstances. Almost every one carried some article which he stuck into someone else, and hurt him dreadfully, but no one complained. A hernial came along with) a load of iren rods on bit shoulders at right angles to the sides of the street. He was as bad as a charge of cavalry. A man with a very long roll of India-matting on his shoulders knocked off the hat or fez of every one whom he approached. Little Turkish women about flve feet high insisted on holding their parasola close down to their heads, so that as they pressed through the crowd they entangled the wires of the frames in the fezzes or beards of the men. But nobody complained. The crowd was uniformly sober and good-tempered. About half-past twelve o'clock there came along some other inconvenient adjuncts to the crowd-namely, a Government waggon drawn by two huge buffaloes; then an araba, drawn by two white bullocks, full of Turkish women, and driven very badly indeed by one of the Turkish women; then a string of talegas, the country carts of Boumelia, with a motley crowd of passengers and lug- gage then a carriage from Missiri's Hotel, with Rus- sian ladies and gentlemen then two men carrying a brancard, on which was the dead body of a refugee whom they were taking to the waterside that he might be carried over to Scutari; then came a Turkish coffin, carried high on the shoulders of four men and with the dead man's fez placed on the foremost end of the coffin. Now there came a little lull. The Turkish women in front of my window began to get tired of looking at the crowd, and turned to look at my party. A young lady who was with me had an eye- glass, which interested them greatly. They pointed it out to one another, and talked about it. Presently their curiosity got the better of them, and they pushed back a swinging panel of the window, and begged that they might be allowed to try the eye-glass. It was handed to them, and they tried it one after another. But the v rang lady is near sighted, and they are long- sighted, so that they could make nothing out of the eye-glass, and banded it back again, with plain reflec- tions on the folly of the Frank women. Then a happy thought" struck me, and I caused it to be explained to them that, whereas Turkish husbands do not like their wives and daughters to be seen, Frank husbands do not like their wives and daughters to see, and make them look at men as "through a glass darkly. This proof of the supe- rior artfulness of Christian men gave them great satisfaction. At one o'clock there was a hum that the hero of Plevna was coming. The crowd closed up from all sides. The men who had been selling cakes and sweets, and flowers, and water were compelled to hold the trays on which their goods were spread high above their beads. There wa., a man in front of me with an enormous tray of daffodils, which blazed in the bright sun like a sacrificial flame in honour of the coming man. The four men who were carrying the Turkish coffin were set fast in the crowd, and held their ghastly burden on high as if they were the bearers of a skeleton to the feast, and were about to say to the warrior memento mori. Now be comes. No music heralds his approach no flaunting banners wave on high; no fair hands fling wreaths to him; EO soldiers prepare his passage. A Turkish crowd keeps its own lane, and keeps it well; but, as his solitary carriage, with an escort of some twenty soldiers passed along, and as he looked out calmly and imperturbably on the eyes glowing with interest and the faces white with excitement, there surged up round him a deep bum of sympathy and applause which far outweighed the value of the most costly pageant.
THE PROPOSED AMERICAN POLAR EXPE- DITION.—Intelligence from Washington states that the proposition for Polar exploration by the plan of colonisation has met with so much favour in Congress that the bill to appropriate $50,000 for the prelimi- nary expedition has passed the Senate, and has been favourably reported upon by the House Committee on Commerce. Should the bill pass the House not later than the present month, there will be time for the ex. pedition to sail this year, but if delayed there will be danger of losing the present season. The proposal to sanction the transfer of the Pandora to the American flag, and provide a staff of American naval officers to sail her, has been unanimously approved by the Senate. The New York Herald gives a reoort of an interview which its representative had with Captain Howgate, the director of the scheme. The captain, it says, explained that the proposal of the bill now before Congress was to settle a colony of hardy, reso- lute, and intelligent men at some favourable point on the border of the Polar Sea, and to furnish it with all modern appliances for overcoming the physical obstacles in toe pathway to the Poie, and for resisting the effects of hunger, cold, and sickness. The location selected aa the site of the colony is on the shore of Lady Franklin Bay, near the seam of coal found by the Discovery (of the English expedition), under Captain Nares, in 1875. The original suggestion of such a plan of operations was derived from the English expedition's experiences, which proved that it is possible to locate further north than in the earlier days of Arctic exploration when sailing vessels were used. Oapt in Howgate went on to say that, when in the Polaris, Captain Hall reached the upper extremity of Robesoo^s Channel, the look-out reported op, n water in sight just beyond the p-ck which sur. rounded the ship and prevented further progress. This open water was afterwards seen from the Cape at the northe-n opening of Newman a Bay, and it was the opinion of Hall that if the Polaris had but reached the channel an hour earlier she could have steamed unobstructed perhaps to the Pole itself. The pack, however, clost d in and they were obliged to winter almost within sight of this sea, and subse- quently disheartened by the loss of their gallant com mander they abandoned the enterprise. Where theopen W' ter was found by Hall, Captain Nares in 1875and 1876 met solid, impenetrable ice, through which no vessel could force its way, and over which it was equally im- possible for sledge parties to work. These tacts seem to show that the Arctic temperature is subject to i variations, and it is therefore essential that an ( exploring party should be on the ground at the very 1 time the ice opens, ready to seize the opportunity I which may be offered. If the bill passes Congress, j the permanent colony will be furnished with supplies i and equipment for three years, and will consist of at « least fifty selected men, three commissioned officers, ] two surgeons, an astronomer, and two naturalists, t An annual visit will be made to the colony. The t existence of coal at the Discovery a winter quarters de- e termines the question of colonisation and the location g of the colony. u. T"J_- j 0 OBTAINING MONEY UNDER J A-L.»JS RRETENCES. —Mr. Edwin Lee, timber merchant, of Worcester, and proprietor of the Worcester City Saw Mills, has been committed to the assizes by the Worcester magistrates for trial on a charge of having within four months of his bankruptcy obtained S1500 from the Stourbridge and Kidderminster Banking Company by false pre- tences. The facts.alleged are briefly these: Lee became a bankrupt in November last year, and his debts ran to a large amount. He had a running account with the Stourbridge and Kidderminster Bank, which he had overrun, and ho passed through the bank numerous bills, which they discounted, repre- senting that the bills were given for value received whereas, according to the charge, the bills were mere accommodation bills accepted by persons of no sub- stantial means. The acceptors were a Mr. Frick, a tin plate manufacturer, of Worcester, and another Worcester tradesman, Mr. Wilesmith. Lee had drawn bills on them, which they had accepted, and which had been discounted by the bank,
DASHING EXPLOITS. The Times oj India says: The dasking exploit of Captain Oavagnari at Sapri with the gallant Guides, and their leader Captain Wigram Baitye, is by no means a solitary episode of the kind in the career of this distinguished frontier official. In August last year he directed the attack and surprise of the Gadia Kheyl hamlet at the mouth of the Kohat Pass. In January last he effected the surprise of Gari Gul with the 14th Sikhs, and in 1869, as far as political man- agement was concerned, he arranged the surprise and capture of Gara Bazoti. The invariable success which has attended the repeated instances of surprise and attack of strongholds in the hill country by Captain Cavagnari, shows distinctly that when judgment is com- bined with courage, our troops are quite capable of beating the hill men in their own tactics and on their own ground. The object of Captain Cavagnari's attack upon Sapri was, if possible, to capture Mian Bukn, and the attacking party, consisting of 250 sabres of Guide Cavalry and eleven men of the Guide Infantry (mounted on mules), with Captain Battye, Oaptain Hutchinson, Lieutenant Hughes, Dr. Mal- linp, Captain Cavagnari, Ghulam Mohin din (tahaildar, Dandazi), and Atta Mahomed Khan, inspector of police, moved out from Mardan at seven o'clock on the evening of the 14th FebniMy. Avoiding the villages of Tangi and Abazii, to prevent the chance of news of the approach of the troops being conveyed across the border, they dismounted about two miles from the latter place, leaving their horses in charge of fifty men, who received orders to take the animals to Abazi Fort at daylight. Captain Cavagnari and the rest proceeded on foot to within a rifle-shot of Sapri, and attempted to make a reconnaissance of the position of the village —an effort which was frustrated by the barking of the village dogs upon hearing the approach. It was then about four o'eleck a.m., and the men who acted asguides stated that Mian Bukn would probably be found either in the village mosque or in his own tower. Captain Cavagnari gathered from the description given to him that the mosque was only a short distance from the pathway -they were going by, and that a sudden rush would enable them to seize it. The tewer was said to be in the centre of the village, and could be com- manded from the spur of the main range of hills which lie to the west of Sapri, on which they were waiting for day to break. Captain Battye arranged to place a picket of his men on this spur, and with the remainder to assault the village, and as it seemed hopeless to surround it with any certainty of success, he laid his plana so as to devote every- thing to the capturing of Mian Rukn. Day- light having broken (says the Deputy-Commissioner), the asokult on the mosque was made. The surprise of the village was complete in every sense, and the inmates of the mosque awoke to find soldiers with drawn swords standing over them. The rest of the villagers turned out with that alacrity common to the hill men, the moment they were alarmed, and re- treated to the hills behind the village, firing their matchlocks at the troops as the latter ascended the village. Having secured the mosque, Captain Battye and myself proceeded at once to the Mian's tower, but it was unoccupied, and for the time we feared that the inan had escaped; but we were shortly informed of the good news that he was amongst those who had taken refuge in a house behind the mosque. We re- turned there and called upon the people inside to surrender, threatening to burn the roof and force them to come out. I must mention here that the gallantry of a duffadar of the Guides, named Turabaz, was very conspicuous in the way he kept guard over this house, through the door of which occasional shots were fired by the inmates, wounding two of the soldiers, and he succeeded in firing his carbine into the hut, and killing a nephew of the Mian's. I told the tahsildar to call out to Rukn Mian that resistance on his part was hopeless, and that quarter would be given. He came out, and I seized him by the left hand to assure him that his death then and there was not desired. In fact, I imagined that he held out his hand with the object of obtaining such assurance. Re, however, made a couple of thrusts with a dagger, which he had in his right hand at the tahsildar, who was standing on my left. A pocket-book saved the first thrust from doing more than slightly cutting the tahsildar's stomach, and the second merely grazed his arm. The Mian was instantly cut down by the soldiers; the other men surrendered quietly, and were made prisoners. Our loss during the expedition was only six wounded, three being dangerous or severe wounds, and the remainder very trifling ones." The Viceroy has specially acknowledged the services of Captain Cavagnari and Captain Wigram Battye on the occasion of the recent successful attack upon Sapri.
RUSSIA AND THE VATICAN.—The Official Mes- *e*ger, of March 26, publishes a letter from Pope Leo XIII. to the Emperor of Russia, notifying his Holi- ness's accession to the Pontificate. The letter, which is dated March 4th, commences as follows: Re- gretting as we do that the mutual relations which fermerly subsisted between the Holy See and your Majesty subsist no longer, we turn to the generous heart of your Imperial Majesty to obtain peace and quietude for certain Catholic Russian subjects. The latter will not fail, in accordance with the teaching of their faith, to prove themselves, by the most conscien- tious submission, to be true and devoted to your Majesty. Belying entirely upon your Imperial jus- tice, we pray God to grant you, in the fullest measure, the gifts of heaven, and we beseech Him to unite your Majesty to us in the closest bonds of Christian love. The Emperor's ans ver, which ii date d March 18, says: We share in the desire expressed by your Holiness for the re-establishment of good rela- tions. Religious tolerance is in Russia a principle hallowed by political traditions and national customs. It in no Way depended upon us to remove any existing difficul tits, so as to enable the Roman Catholic Church, equally with all other Churches existing in our dominions under the protection of the law, to fulfil its mission of edifying and ennobling the people—» mission which is altogether foreign to political in- fluences. Your Holiness may rest assured that in this country every means of protection which may be reconciled with the fundamental laws of the State, to maintain which we are called, will be afforded to the Church, of which you are the spiritual head, and that we will, with perfect readiness, support all your efforts for the religious good of our Boman Catholic subjects." PUBLIC HEALTH.—There were 2721 births and 1676 deaths registered in London last week. Allowing for increase of population, the births exceeded by 203, while the deaths corresponded with the average numbers in the corresponding week of the last ten yearP. The annual death-rate from all causes, which in the five preceding weeks had de- creased from 28*1 to 22-3, rose again last week to 24*5. The deaths included 34 from measles, 22 from scarlet fever, 13 from diphtheria, 124 from whoop- mg-cough, 29 from different forms of fever, and 13 front diarrhma; thus to the seven principal diseases of the zymotic class 277 deaths were re- ferred, against 288, 259, and 243 in the three preced- ing weeks. With respect to the prevalence of small pox in London, it is noted by the Registrar General that the deaths from that disease which had been 34 And 53 in the two preceding weeks, were 42 last week, °f which 28 occurred in the Metropolitan Asylum Hospitals, and two in the Higbgate Hospital, while the remaining 12 occurred in private dwelling houses. Five of the deceased patients had resided in Chelsea, 3 in St, Pancras, 3 in Islington, 4 in Hackney, 6 in Lambeth, and 3 in Wandsworth. Of the 42 fatal cases, 18 were certified as unvaccinated, and 14 as vaccinated. BANK OF ENGLAND NOTE PAPED.As eome misapprehension may arise from the published reports of a recent alleged forgery case, it may be well to state that paper like that used by the Bank of England cannot be ordered at the mills." Since the existence of the Bank ef England, the paper for its notes has "cen made by the Portal family, whose ancestor came over from Bordeaux in a barrel after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, bringing with him the art of making fine paper, which, like those of bilk weaving and dying scarlet, was, up to that time, unknown in England. Except by burglary, against which precautions are taken, it is absolutely impossible to obtain a scrap of the beautifully water- marked paper produced at that mill on the Test which gruff William Cobbett denounced as the foundation of England's "fictitious prosperity." Every piece of bank-note paper is registered before it is removed from tke frame, an account is kept by a locked, dial, and every damaged note is accounted for before being ground up again into pulp. Mr. Portal's paper mill, of which it is needless to say he is very proud, is the most symmetrical of industrial M institutions," Iron. COUNT MUNSTER, the German Ambassador, in opening the St. George's German-English Schools, ;n Little Alie-street, Minories, London, made some observations on the question of education, remarking that every school built was a stone added to the pro- gress of the work of constructing the great edifice of Christian civilisation, and a link added to the strength of the chain which exists between peaceful nations. FATAL FIGHT BETWEEN FARMERS. The Cardiff correspondent of the Press Association reports that a Pembrokeshire farmer named William Roch died from injuries received from another farmer named William Lewis. As the two farmers were riding home from a fair they quarrelled and fought, and during the conflict the-prisoner is alleged to have jumped upon the deceased's stomacb, causing such injuries as resulted in his death. The prisoner has been charged before the magistrates with wilful murder and remanded,
NATIVE RACES IN CHINà. í
NATIVE RACES IN CHINà. í Nature says. Mr. E. 0. JBab^r's long»deferred report on the journey of the Groavenor Mission through Western Yunnan, from T»li-fu toT4ag-yiieh, contains much matter which is of interest from more than one point of view. The most important of his surveys is that of the reute from Tali-fu to Tdng-yteh, as it connects Garnier's explorations with the work of Bladen's expedition, and thus puts Bhamo in topo- graphical communication with Shanghai and Saigon. The surrey next, but not much inferior, in im- portance is the route from Tiinnan-fu to Tali- fu, in which the track followed was dif- ferent from Garnier s. Mr. Baber has also pre- pared a running survey of his route across China from Hankow to T4ng-yiieh. His remarks on the native races are interesting, especially in regard to her Kutung people. What or where Xutung is he was unable to ascertain he describes the men as of a dark reddish complexien, with rather prominent features, above the average height, and well proportioned, dressed in close-litting woollen garments, which in some cases were neatly cut and handsomely em- broidered. The women seen would have been considered handsome anywhere; paler in colour than the men, their oval, intelligent faces reminded the observer of the so-called Cau- casian type, and in every step and movement there was a decision and exactness very different from the motion of a Chinese. One of the women, too, was particularly remarkable for a peculiarity of her long hair, which was naturally wavy, a feature never met with among the Chinese. Mr. Bober was fortunate in seeing the quarterly fair at Tali-fu, at which some 5000 people were present, many of them being Lolos, Shans, Thibetans, &c. At t hie stage of his journey he propounds a not improbable explanation of the term "golden teeth" as applied to the inhabitants viz., that it arose from the discoloration of the teeth produced by chewing betel with lime. Mr. Baber's observations on the extent of the poppy cultivation will hardly be found encouraging by those who desire to see the con- sumption of opium put an end to, for he says that his party walked some hundred of miles through poppies; and a similar remark appliea to his account of the trade route Yunnan from Burmah. The valleys Ol rather abysses, he says, of the Salwen and Mekong must long remain insuperable difficulties, not to mention other obstacles between Yunnan-fu and Ta„g.jueh. The members of Colonel Sladen's ex- pedition appeared to have assumed that when the latter place is reached the obstacles to a high- way iotf, °ave been surmounted, whereas the fact is the difficulties begin at that place. Loth as moat Englishmen are to admit it, Mr. Baber adds, the simple and evident approach to Eastern Yunnan is from the Gulf of Tonquin but it by no means follows that the same holds true of the western part of the proviic?. In conclusion we may mention than an interesting feature in Mr. Baber's report is his com- parison of Marco Polo s narrative with his own ex- periences, and his venfication in many respects of the Venetian s information respecting a country almost entirely unknown to Europeans,
A HERO OF THE COMMUNE.
A HERO OF THE COMMUNE. Seven years have now elapsed since the Commune inaugurated in Paris its two monthw reign of fire and bloodshed. Many of the ringleaders of that Bangui. nary insurrection have already paid their debt to jus. tiee, many have escaped abroad, where they are living in safety, while others are gradually falling into the clutches of the law. Among the latter is a remark- able one just tried by court-martial in Paris. The evidence produced throws so much fresh light on tbe outbreak of the Commune, that the trial is worth noticing at some length. The prisoner, who is 72 Tears of age, was arrested in Paris in the month ef January laut. He had been hiding in various parts of the capital under the name of Thevenot. He was at once suspected of being none. other than a Cotn- gjunist named Garcin, who took a leading share in the gaoguinary episode of theshootingof Generals Lecomte and Clement Thomas with which the sinister insurrec- jj°n was ushered in. At the beginning of the war of 1870-71 Garcin followed the trade of a calico printer. Although an old man he was full of ardour and passion. He had received the medal of July, and bad taken part in all the revolutionary movements from the overthrow of Charles X. He belonged to the Socialist party, and was one of the most enthusi- ,stic supporters of that arch-conspirator, Blanqui, wbp is now expiating his misdeeds in the PTrIf?n aairvaux. Ah a member of the Rational Guard, Garcin shared with Blanquin in the insurrectionary attempts which were made during the siege, but, like the remainder of his colleagues, he Was set at liberty after a short imprieon- ment, and thereby, through the want of energy of the National Defence Government, was enabled to co operate in the getting up of toe Commune. It is well known that, after long but ineffectual negotiations, the Government at last decided to seize the cannons which the revolutionary battalions of the National Guard bad mounted on the heights of Montmartre. The order was given to General Lecomte on the evening of the 17th of March, and by daybreak on the 18th he had succeeded in capturing the position by surprise. But, as had often been the case during the war and the siege, the military authorities had forgotten all about the horses necessary to carry off the cannons. Officers were sent to head-quarters in quest of some, but in the meantime the surprised insurrectionary battalions of the National Guard arrived in strong force, sur- rounded the small detachments of soldiers that guarded the guts, disarmed fO»)f, prevailed upon others, and finally regained full possession ot the armed heights. Among the assailants Captain Garcin, who com- manded one of the revolutionary battalions, was particularly conspicious by his long white beard and the decoration he wore on his breast. He ordered his men to arrest General Lecomte, formed a platoon escort, and cenducted him to the Chateau Bcuge. Garcin, according to the indictment, instead of trying to calm the crowd and to encourage the better feelings of some of the National Guards, only excited them the more by the violence of ]an„(iage. A few hours later he took part in a revolutionary council, at which it was decided that General Lecomte and the officers arrested with him should be tried at once by court- noartial. He also formed one of the escort that led the unfortunate prisoners to the fatal house in the Rue des Bosiers, under the pretext of bringing them before the sinister Central Committee. Captain Franck, aide-de-camp to the general; Captain Beugnot, aide-de-camp to the Minister of a!rJ?aptaUl D*11!. who had only jnst arrived from Germany, where he had been a prisoner ef war, were led into a small room on the ground floor giving on to the yard. General Lecomte was brought into the same room a few minutes later. Garcm posted sentinels round the house, and re- peatedly cried to the infuriated mob, We must Prisoners." The arrival of General 016m n Thomas, who was cemmander-in- chief of the National Guard, and who came to rescue Genera Lecomte and his companions, only in- creased tne fury 0f the accused. Garcin rushed at him and exclaimed, Monsieur Thomas—for you are not worthy of being called citoyes-YOU belong to those fine fellows who go to Mass with Trochu instead of attacking the Prussians I You betrayed u» You shed the blood of our brotners. You must render up an account of your deeds: General Clement Thomas replied, "You are h.ackguard. I have no account to give to you. A Beene of indescribable noise and fury fol- lowed, in the midst of which one witneis heard a voice shout-presumably that of Gsrcin-" Ali you shall pay for all this! you shall be shot at once!" The next second the shutters ef the room giving on te the yard were broken open, and-the insurgents seized hold 0f (general Xhomas and dragged him into the garden, wbere, as everybody knows, he and General Lecomte ^ere butchered. Where was the accused at this awful moment? geresome confusion prevails. The indictment, which proves the violent language and hostile attitude of Garcin, does not make it sufficiently clear that he took partm the murder. Garcin himself declares that he withdrew trom thespotjust before theassassination of the two generate, and that he meant to ask M. Olemenceau, Mayor of thequarter, for instructions. M. Otemenceau, who is now one of the deputies for Paris, corroborates this statement. Several witnesses, however, think they saw him on the spot when the murders were per- petrated, but their evidence is not conclusive. M. J uric, a chemist, was commander of the 158th battalion of the National Guard. He was on duty on the 18th of March on the Boulevard Ornano, and saw most of phat took place. I found myself." he said, in the I Bue aes Martyrs, at the moment General Clement Thomas was arrested. I followed him with some men of my company in the hope of being able to rescue him. ■ i arrived in the Buedes Bosiers about four ni the afternoon. I saw there a little captain who had a long white beard. I cannot, at this long interval, affirm that the accused was the man. I got nto the house, and tried to calm the crowd, who kept their guns pointed at the prisoners. A few minutes later I was pushed out again into the street, and thera I again saw tbe little old man. I then went to the heights of Montmartre, where I once more came across the same old captain, who was addressing the crowd. He accused me of treachery, and exclaimed,' You and your Ul^enceau, we must settle your business.' I then asked who the eld man was, and was told it waB Captain Garcia." The next important witness was Liout.-Colonel de Poussargues, who commanded the detachment of the Chasseurs of Vincennes, that guarded the artillery on the h eights of Woutnlgrtre. "At half-past flve o'clock m the morning," he deposed, we occupied Moatroartre. At aoven o'clock the Nauoo^i Giu r s i were called out, and in a few mioutea an irri,k,er,,o crowd surrounded us on till sides. I ukd General Lecomte if I should crder the troops te fir*, but be re- fused. Seeing wedid not fire, the National Guards broke through our lines, and I was arrested atthe same time as the general. We were taken to the Chateau Rouge. I remarked among the crowd when we were attacked a little captain, with white hair, alone white beard, and the medal of July on his breast. I saw him again in the room in the Bue des Bosiers, where we were im- prisoned. He came to speak to General Lecomte, and appeared to be angry with him. I could not follow all the details of the scene. An in- furiated crowd threatened at every moment to cut us to pieces. One captain of the National Guard said,' I have served with Garibaldi. We had traitors among us, but we never executed them without trial. Let us form a court-martial.' He was not listened to, and then another voice cried out, Let those who are in favour of death hold up their hands.' This was received with shouts of a mort I a mort and the next minute the two generals were dragged into the garden and shot." .0-- c
THE BATTLE OF MONASTERO. f
THE BATTLE OF MONASTERO. f The Capitate publishes the following account of the 8 ltattle of Monastero, in which the Greeks of Epirus I sustained a severe reverse. The writer is himself a ( combatant in the ranks of the insurgents: ? Corfu, March 16. The attack began on Thursday at Licursi and at j Pjaspa, where our extreme left was posted under Cap- tain Stefan. We occupied the villages of Licursi, Monastero, and Vivari, on the sea, and the villages I of Tchuka, Xaralibey, and Dibri, on the mainland, I that is all the mountain chain which forms the circumference of the swampy valley called the Vale of Tchuka. At Licursi our men numbered 600, and were assailed in front and on the right by the enemy's regulars and irregulars, while on the left we were vigorously cannonaded by the frigate Mahmudje. Towards three in the afternoon, Captain Stefan, finding his ranks thinning, sent to Licursi for reinforcements. Captain Pennazxi thereupon despatched Lieutenant Oonturbia to him with 200 men, who, crossing the marshes between Tchuka and Karalibey, joined Stefan about ten at night. At the same time orders were given to all our advanced posts, except that stationed at Dibri, to fall back on Karalibey, so as, in case of emergency, to have a good force of fighting men to operate where the danger was greatest. And that was a well-advised move, for on the Friday the enemy attacked Licursi anew, and so peppered it with shells that it was seen reduced to ashes, and so further lessened our means of defence. Captain Pennazzi, however, on ascertaining this, hastened to the support of his left wing, blowing up the fortifications of Karalibey, and marching swiftly upon Licurei. For about an hour the ar- rival of these auxiliaries, some 500 men strong, inspired our troops with hope but matters rapidly assumed a less favourable aspect. Attacked on every aide, forced to fight in the open, we had to direct our retreat towards Monastero, a very strong position, and still in the hands of our troops. Step by step we began this desperate march of some five or six miles, leaving pools of blood at short intervals in our track. It was here that Stefan fell, and Oon- turbia, whose valour was simply heroic, and whose con- duct all through was above praise. We thought they had fallen for ever, but yesterday we hart news of them, that though wounded, they were still in life, and uncaptured, having been able to join the corps stationed at Dibri. Our men, with Pennazzi and Captain Lazzareto at their head, gained Monastero at dusk, and took refuge in its chief building, a real fortress of the middle ages, but unfortunately unpro- vided with artillery. On Saturday we were fairly surrounded, and the Turkish ironclads anchored at the foot of the mountain fired on us with their Krupp guns. For two hours we held out against a hurricane of shot and shell, till seeing all salvation impossible, and knowing what we had to expect if we made ourselves prisoners, we burned our flags, slaughtered the few horses we had with us, and hurled ourselves on the Turks with the bayonet, so as to force a passage through their ranks, and, if possible, gain v lit? sea, in the hope of being picked up by the English,frigate Rapid, which was cruising near the scene of combat. About fifty of us fell in this desperate sortie, while the rest were able to reach the coast and conceal themselves among the rocks. Among them was Pennazzi, who received a bullet in his thigh, but who was helped along by his troops. So ended the battle, only for want of combatants on our side, but the sufferings, privations, and agonies of the few survivors were far from being terminated. Concealed in the caves in the indentations of the shore, without food or water, with 'nothing, in short, not daring to venture out for the Bashi-Bazouks who were on the prowl all around, within hearing ever and anon of the shrieks of the wounded who were being massacred, and of the far-off tumult in the village which the Turks had burned, and where they were butchering all, young and old, of both sexes, we kept our lurking places till the midnight of Sunday. Half dead with cold and fatigue we kindled a fire in the bepe that it would signal to the Corfiotes, and in particular to the village of San Stefano, nearly opposite the position we occupied, some five miles away. Our hopes were not in vain. Two barques manned by Corfiotes, commanded by Stefano Gon- dequroand Giorgio Paraclte, were able, undercover of night, to elude the Turkish squadron, and to receive on koard some ninety of us, when they steered across to Corfu. It is impossible to describeour reception. Enthusiasm contended with compassion on the faces of the whole Population at thespectacleof our poorfamished remnant of the volunteers of liberty. Out of 2000 insurgents about 200 have been saved by the gallant Condequro and Parades, as well as by others emboldened by their example. About a hundred were made pri- Boners, seventy along with Stefan and Conturbia, as I have said, joined the corps at Dibri, which is now out of danger, having been able to abandon that position and gain the Thessalian frontier. The rest were mas- sacred against all national right, against every rule of war, and that as a recompense for the more than humane manner in which Pennazzi had treated the prisoners he made at Karalibey.
ANEW" ExpLofuv .-It was stated at the last meeting of the Royal Dublin Society that a new ex- plosive agent has been discovered by Professor Emer- son Beynoids in the Laboratory of Trinity College, Dublin. It is a mixture of seventy-five per cent. of chlorate of potassium, with twenty-five per cent. of a body Called sulphurea. It is a .white powder, which is very easly prepared by the mixture of the materials in the above-named proportions. The new powder can be ignited at a rather lower temperature than ordinary gunpowder, while the effects it produces are even more remarkable than those caused by the usual mixture. Dr. Beynoids states that his powder leaves only forty-five per cent. of solid residue, whereas common gunpowder leaves about 67 per cent. It has been used with success in email cannon, but its discoverer considered that its chief use would be for blasting, for shells, for torpe- does, and for similar purposes. Dr. Reynolds pointed out that one of the advantages this powder possesses is that it can be produced at a moment's notice by a comparatively rough mixture of the materials, which can be stored and carried without risk so long as they are separate. The sulphurea, the chief component of the new explosive, was discovered by Dr. Reynolds about ten years ago, and could be easily procured in large quantities from a product of gas manufacture which is at present wasted.—Nature. THE PROTECTION by FRESH WATER FISH.- A bill bearing the names of Mr. Mundella, Mr. G. Duff, Mr. M. T. Bass, and Mr. W. Stanhope has been introduced into the House of Commons having for its object the protection of Freshwater Fish," which are defined to include all kinds of fish, other than trout and char, which live in fresh water, except those kinds which migrate to orfrom theopensea." It enacts a close time for such fish extending from March 1 to May 31, during which period the capture, sale, or possession j of any freshwater fish is prohibited under a penalty of .£2. Boards of Conservators appointed under the pro- 1 visions of the Salmon Fishery Acts (with which the bill 1 in question is, so far as is consistent, to be read as I one) may, with the approval of the Secretary of State, E exempt the whole or any part of their districts from the above provisions, since in many cases the preBer- vation of such fish as pike and perch would be pre- judicial to the salmon fisheries. In addition to the c above provisions, it is enacted that the sections of the 11 Salmon Fishery Acts prohibiting the use of lights and ? spears and of roe as bait for the capture of trout and char within the limits of a salmon fishery district shall apply to all waters in England and Wales, and that the close time for trout and char, from the 2nd of October to the 13th of February, which at present applies only to salmon rivers situated in a fishery district, shall be extended to all fresh waters. The Fisheries (Dynamite) Act, 1877, which prohibits the destruction of fish in public waters by means of explo- sives, is extended to private as well as public waters. The measure is to come into operation on the 1st of January, 1879; it is down for second reading on Monday, the 1st of April, but will probably be post- poned in order that the subject may be brought before a meeting of anglers, fishery proprietors, angling societies, and others, which is to be held on Tuesday, the 2nd of April, at the rooms of the Society of Arts, John-street, Adelphi, at eight p.m. Mr. Mundella, tne principal promoter of the bill, is expected to at- tend. -c-
THE DEAF AND DUMn AT BOARD…
THE DEAF AND DUMn AT BOARD SCHOOLS. | From a report of the Load on Board Sciiofl ] Management Co. mititfjust-iaaued it appears, says tU8 .j Globe, that the oral system of teaching the deaf and dumb hps made some advance in the opinion of the Board of late. The earlier efforts of Mr- Stainer, the instructor of this unfortunate section of Board School pupils, were confined to the manual j system of communication. The work in this depart- ment grows upon the Board, however, the number of children in attendance during the Ipst quarter having been larger than in any previous quarter, j and of course a greater variety of cases is presented. There are now 126 children under the care of Mr. Stainer, brought together to four centres in the north, south, east, and west of London, and by adopting the oral system as well as the manual provision is made for every variety of case. These cases generally come under the headings, it appears, of the deaf-uot- ■ dumb," the dumb-not-deaf," and the deaf-and- dumb," though occasionally there are children presented for admission who can scarcely be classed under any one of these categories. The case of a girl recently excused by a magistrate from attendance at an ordinary Board School on account of deafness is given as an instance. She is not dumb, but too deaf to take part in the work of an ordinary schooL Being able to speak, there is of course no necessity for her learning to express ideas by her fingers, and if she can be taught lip reading it will to a great extent compensate for her deafness. There are many drawbacks te this lip-reading, unfortunately. It takes a long time for most children to learn it, and there are of course many words and parts of words which do not appear on the lips at all. Moreover, the exercise of the voice without the control of the ear is often found to be a singularly painful and unpleasant thing to hear. Still, for many cases the oral system of teaching the deaf and dumb, or those who are commonly regarded as such, is undoubtedly valuable. There is a good deal yet to be done in providing for this afflicted class. With 126 children on the books there are, according to the report before us, more than twice that number yet unprovided for," and a now centre for the south-western district is suggested.
THE DREADFUL FAMINE IN CHINA.
THE DREADFUL FAMINE IN CHINA. The Shanghai correspondent of the Timet, writing on February 7th, says: As the winter progresses re- ports from the famine-stricken districts-in the North of China become more and more harrowing. It is now estimated that at least eight or nine millions of people in the four provinces of Chihli, Shensi, Shansi, and Honan are suffering more or less from the prevailing scarcity, and the distress over a great portion of these provinces is described as frightful. The Rev. T. Richards, a missionary who was instrumental last year in distributing the funds subscribed by foreigners for the relief of the famine in Shantung, ip now at Tai-yuen, the capital of Shansi, and I cannot do better than quote his reports and those of an ey". witness: That people sell their lands (he writes on the let of January), pull down their houses, sell their wives and daughters, eat roots and carrion, clay and refuse# is nothing strange, but a constant occurrence. And if this were not enough to move one's pity, the eight of men and women and little children lying helpless OIL the roadside, or, if dead, torn by hungry dogs and magpies, should do so. The news has reached of within the last few days, from more than one source, that children are being boiled and eaten. If there is pity in the human heart and the possibility of assist* ance at hand, this is the time to call it forth. We have one of the greatest famines this dynasty haft had to contend with." Mr. Richards goes on to beg for such aid aq the small foreign communities here can afford to give, to relieve, at least, a portion of the distress, and the Pro* cur6 des Lazaristes makes a similar appeal: Iõ I do not think it necessary (writes their repre* sentative in Shanghai) to give you in detail a trans- lation of the horrible accounts I have received froul numerous letters which have been sent to me froJØ. Shansi, Shensi, and Honan. where the famine is most general and terrible, and from Shantung where it is far from having disappeared, though it is less severe there than it was last year. These letters are truly heartrending. The people are dying one might say like flies. The cold, added to the failure of nourishment and fuel, leaves them nothing ;ut yellow earth, mixed with leaves of various kinds of trees, to prolong their lives for a few days. Wild fruits collected before they are ripe and stalks of millet are all that are left them; eVea water høI failed, and it is often necessary for the sufferers to seek'it at the distance of half a day's journey. The future is very terrible, for in many parts the want of rain will prevent the ground from producing, and in many places the people will have consumed all the grain seed before sowing time." The receipt ef this intelligence has led to the adop" tion of increased efforts to obtain aubscriptions amooff^ the foreign community, which have again been liberally responded to; and telegrams have further been despatched to England and America appealing for assistance. It is a severe tax upon a nation which has already subscribed so magnificently as England has done towards the Indian Famine Fund to be asked again to contribute to the relief of suffering country which has no similar claim. But appeals to the charity of Englishmen and Americans are seldoiH made in vain. The curious thing is that it nevef srems to occur to other countries to share similarly ill the work of Ixntvolerice.
MB. SPURGE ON AND THE JOUBNETHJ^ BUTCHERS.-The annual festival of the journeymen butchers was held at the Metropolitan Tabernacle. A public meeting was afterwards held, and the vast area and galleries of the building were crowded with an attentive audience, consisting very largely of journeymen class. Mr. Spurgeon presided, and opened the proceedings with a speech, in We course of which he said be could not help ob' serving the improvement in the appearance of many of those present, that was to say, if they were the same people whom he saw some year* ago. There was a general aspect ef wonder" ful respectability about them all. He had heard that there was a real improvement in the men, as class, in many respects. He understood that there was great improvement in the language used in the markets. It was a subject of congratulation to knOO that some persons said that it was the exception to hear bad language in the meat market (cheers). fcfmith* field ought to be holy ground. The blood of the mar* tyrs claimed every inch of it-those men who won our liberties and founded our faith. It was sad that God's name should ever be taken in vain on the spot where .these men perished for Christ's sake. V it were not wicked, it was foolish to use filthf language. To many of those present Christianity had been a comfort in this life, even if there had been no hereafter. Bach one owed ever1- thing he had to God's grace; and let each on* be at peace with him, and that now. Religion, again- was a matter of common prudence. Let each one look at the prudence of having God for his friend- Life assurance was a good thing, but to have Christ in your heart was an investment for this life and fO eternity. The great way of salvation was by believing in Christ Jesus; and when the conscience grew heavl, and the soul was full of anguish, the true remedy WAO the precious blood of Christ. Let each one bear in mind this great truth: The precious blood of Christ cleanseth us from all sin. Other addresses were de" livered, and several sacred songs were sung to lively strains by a carefully-trained choir. ZANZIBAR AND THE SLAVE TRADE.—Com- mander Russell, R.N., in a letter to the Times, says: Having only recently returned from the east coast of Africa, where I had been employed organising colony of freed slaves on behalf of the Church Mis" sionary Society, at Frere Town, Mombas, I wish to add my testimony to the sincerity and good faith of his Highness the Sultan in the part he is taking for the suppression of the traffic. His last schellao has been to raise a force consisting entirely of freed slaves to take the place of the mercenaries from the north, who are directly interested in keeping the trade alive. These men are well drilled by European instructors, and are ready at any time to be landed where tbeir services may be required. My object in writing you, sir, is to suggest that something should be dollo to recognise the efforts of Seyd Burg hash in having done his part well. No better time than the present eould be found to send his Highness 400 Snider ride" with a good supply of ammunition, as his troops orincipally armed with the old matchlock. As his ne» j racht will sail shortly for Zanzibar the arm-racks OIL )oard should not be empty. SOMNAMBULISM.—A fatal case of somnam buMs"* has occurred at Shorncliffe Camp. An artilleryman named Tipp stepped out of the barrack window and fell on the pavement below, a distance ot about 30ft. He expired very soon afterwards. PtJNCTiTAL men are nuisances," remarked Artemus. Where their heart should beat they only a clock ticking. Your doctor is like the England doctor I tell about sometimes. He was vey punctual. When his wife died he went to her As the earth fell on her coffin everybody around All he did was to take out his watch, look at the and say, 'Well, we've got her under, and its ju0 twenty minutes past two I'" Printed and published by the proprietor, JOHN ROBERTS, at Ms Qeneral Printing Office, No. lane, Cardigan, in the parish of Saint Mary's in County ot Caidigan,—Saturday, April 6. lEiS.