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i THE EASTERN QUESTION. r OUTLINE OF CONGRESS NEGOTIATIONS. The following is an outline of the Congress nego- tiations as detailed at length in the recently-published despatches Bustis began by accepting the principle that the Treaty of Peace should be referred to the Powers who were parties to theJTreaties of 1856 and 1871. The whole question in dispute for the last two months has been. as aU the world liiows, as to the manner in .which this reference to the European Powers ahtuUd be maae?i Our Government, at a very early period, limited in some degree the extent to which the treaty should be discussed by declaring that in so far as its provisions modified European treaties and affected general and British interests, they could only be valid as they were made the subject of a formal agreement among the parties to the Treaty of Paris. Prince Gortscba- h ?cceP';e^ the principle of this requirement, and the Austrian Qover ^ment, in sending an invitation to a Conference of the signatory Powers, which it did early in February, stated that its object was to con- sider the modifications which It was necessary to make in the Treaties of 1856 and 1871. In a few days the proposal was modified into one for a Con- gress at Berlin, and Lord Derby replied that it was des.rable first of all that it should be under- stood that all questions dealt with in the Treaty of Peace should be considered as subject to be discussed in the Congress. This was in some respects going beyond the original demand, which was not for all questions to be dealt with, but for all which bore on European treaties and general and British in- terests. In a further despatch our Government demanded that every article of the treaty should be placed before the Congress, not neces< sarily for acceptance, but in order that the Congress might decide whieh. rjquired the concur- rence of the Powers and which did not. The reply ■of Russia wfis that the who.e treaty would be tex- tually in the hands of the Powers betore the Con- gress met, and that. in the Congress every Power would have full liberty of appreciation and of action. Priaee Gortschakoff, however, explained that he could Only consent to a discus- sion of points which' concerned European .interests. Here came the hitch which has- rendered the whole negotiations useless. Our Government was not satisfied with this statement, and asked for a pledge that every article should be before the Congress. This pledge the Buskian Government declined to. gi*e> ax^d in its final reply claimed for itself the privilege o( not accepting the discussion of questions, as the correla- tive of the liberty each Power possessed of raising such questions as it thought fit. FAILtJBE OF IGNATIBPl 'S MISSION. A Vienna correspondent, under date March 31st, says: General Ignatieffs mission has led to nothing. His concessions wllre found to be insufficient, and his attempt to persuade the Austrian Government to occupy Bosnia, failed, Austria prefers to see Bosnia formed into a self-governing State, if necessary under Austrian control,. extending over the western portion of the Balkan Peninsula, and united (to Servia and Montenegro by commercial and customs treaties. Count Andrassy has made known to General Ignatieff that, in order to establish the political, com- mercial, and military equilibrium, Austria makes her cofisent td the peace of Jten Stefaao depend onfive con- ditions, as under: "1. An Austrian commercial and military convention with Servia, Bosnia, Montenegro, and Albania. 2. The management of the future rail- way to Salonica to be under the control of Austria. 3. Bulgaria to have no port on the JEgean Sea. 4. The Sultan's supremacy in the territories left to him to be secured. 6. A direct understanding to be con eluded by treaty between Austria and Turkey respect- ing the above conditions." THE INSUBECTION IN GBEECE. There is the following intelligence from Athens, under the dates of the 29th and 31st March: Thirty villages in Epirius have been pillaged and a large number of cattle have been carried off by bands of Albanian Turks, who are marchinu southward to their homes with their booty. Two thousand of these marauders, after destroying everything on their way, have arrived near the Greek frontier, and are stated to be continuing tb-ir advance. Intelligence received here this evening ann6unces that 2000 Albanian Turks, deserters from Arta, ha^e burnt some Turkish villages and murdered the inhabitants. It is sup- pesed that the same band committed the mas- sacres at Karaha. The news of the rising of the in- habitants of Volo is fully confirmfd. The Turks un- succssfullyattaeked the first line of insurgent en- trenchments in the villages near Volo. The insurgents drove the Turks into the town of Volo, some of their bullets falling within the town. Several Turkish war vessels are bombarding the insurgent posi- tions. Some of the shells have fallen short and burst within the town, wounding several of the inhabi tants. The foreign consuls consequently requested Hobart Pasha to change the position of his vessele- He has refused this, although promising to use better shells. According to an official despatch reinforce- ments havd reached the insurgents. The Turks ill large numbers made a general attack upon the insurgents on Mount Pelion, and after des- perate fighting drove them from their entrench- ments. The Turks, who are reported to have been 10,000 strong, have occupied Macriuitzt, and the in- surgents are entrenching themselves in new positions. I The losses in the engagement were heavy on both sides. Fresh fighting is expected. Several journal here state that the Government )-i-,va concluded co»" tracts Huh some ilrujs for the supply of shotli ttnd tquipments for the army. THE WAR PARTY IN CONSTANTINOPLE. The special correspondent of the Daily Aeuis, ref er- ring to rumours of movements of Russian troopS, states that there are no such troops nearer the B"9* phorus than ten or twenty miles, and that the Rus- sians have not advanced perceptibly since the move- ment on San Stefano. He then says: There is not the slightut evidence of any intention on the part of the Russians to violate the engagement they have made in any way. This is acknowledged by everybody except those who are blindly deter inined on bringing about war at any hazard by any means, however reprehensible. This is ac- rknowiedged by one correspondent of a leading £ aper here, who is violently anti-Buasian in views, rhis honesty contrasting forcibly with the conduct of another, well-known correspondent, who openly and cynically avows that he will use any report that may tend tc* bring about war, without inquiring into Its truth or caring for its truth. There is a evidently ft preconceived plan for working on English public opinion, and. at the same time for alarming the BuggiaiilB, causing them to lose their coolness, and inducing them to take some precautionary measures .that may be interpreted as warlike acts. There »re besides strange, inexplicable movements going on in the Turkish arm,-m>;rchin" counter marching, moving of troopa from point to point, incessant drilling, &e that lleem purposety intended to alarm the Russians, and induce them to take some warlike step. Fortu nately, the plan has not succeeded so far. I know the feeling in the Bussian army. I know that there is not the slightest desire for war with England that the Bussians fear war with England. But this very fear may, in view of the efforts of the War Party at Constantinople, cause them to lose their heads. I know, further, that Russia will make any reasonable «onee«ion to avoid war; that there is not a single article in the peace treaty upon which Lord Derby and Prince Gortschakoff could not come to an under- standing in an hour's convention that there is virtually nothing to go to war about, but I believe tbe War Party is well aware of this. They are doing everything in their,power to prevent the Congress and to bring about an explosion like that of the Benedetti- Ollivier incident. The only question is, will the Eng- ) lish nation repeat the French cry of To Berlin l" and English statesmen copy the blunders of the Third Empire ? ENGLAND AND THE CONGRESS. The Berlin Post writes: Should England insist on not joining the Congress, there would be no Euro- pean sanction to the treaty of peace. It is scarcely correct to see in England's demand with regard to the conditions, merely a formal dispute. Russia can. after having refused the English demands in respect of every clause of the treaty, raise the question whether it is of general interest. Then England would have tamakeeSorts to procure a majority of the Con- gress. She would be able, by her single vote, to pre- vent the admission of any of the clauses into the law of Europe. Therefore,it is clear that England should de- mand that the whole treaty should be submitted to the Congress for deliberation. Russia's reply that in com- municating the treaty to the Powers England's demand was satisfied is hardly conceivable. That the assembly of the Congress ;s whollv It, the interest of Btiss.a has been stated by Prinze Bismarck in his recent speech on the Eastern complications. If England does not attend the Congress the Treaty of San Stefano is juridically invalid. She would continue her arma- ments, and wait for the most favourable moment for action. If Bussia will not suffer it, she must keep herself upon £ be offensive. If she finds but a single place to attack England—such a place, however, she will not discover—if the Russian army should march against India, who will protect her conquest in Turkey ? Or do they imagine that India can be con- quered with a few regiments ? If Bussia will retire to the standpoint of beatipossidentes, her whole Em- pire must remain in arms to be prepared at every point for an English assault. This armed existence England and Russia will have to endure as long as the former refuses to acknowltdge the treaty. But Eng- land can bear Euch a state of things for years, while Bussia cannot stand it for three years. Bussia's hopes for an alliance with the United States against England will prove to be idle. Bussia cannot bring about an 'anti-Bntish coahtion, while Ensland may be sup- ported by Turkey renewing the war against Russia, who would then be forced to advance beyond the limits drawn by the San Stefano Treaty. Austria herself will not remain passive. Turkey will find means to make spontaneous sacrifices of Jier posses- sions en the Western Balkan Peninsula in favour of Austria and Greece, in order to "recover Bulgaria. To avoid these eventualities, Russia should be wise enough to be moderate. GENERAL IGNATIEFP INTEBVIEWED. Th", Paris correspondent of the Times says The Vienna correspondent of the Temps interviewed ¡ General Ignatieff, who said: I come to Vienna with an autograph letter from the Czar serving toe* as a direct introduction to the Emperor. Tbe mission in- 1 trusted to me by my Sovereign has an eminently pacific aim. It consists in harmonising the interests of Austria-Hungary in Servia, Montenegro, Bulgaria, I and on the Danube with the modifiable provisions of the Treaty of k.an Stefano. I was expecting next to go to Berlin as Secend Plenipotentiary, but I shall probably return to -St.. Petersburg, as the Congress seems to be postponed Or abandoned. That abandon- ment, however, is not, perhaps, definitive, notwith- standing Lord Derby s resignation. England in I violating the provisions of the Treaty of Paris, which forbid men-of-war to enter the Sea of Marmora, has placed herself in a dilBcult position, whence she is trying to extricate herself in a way capable of saving her dignity. This is why she puts forward unacceotable conditions. From the moment, in fact, that the-majority of votes is not the law of the Congress, Bussia is justified, m 1 he same way as any other Power would be, in re- serving tbe right of discussing or not discussing a particular ^paragraph of the treaty. The Vienna and Berlin Cabinets, moreover, sharfe this view. The Rus- sians will remain before Constantinople as long as the English men-of-war are In the Sea of Marmora. The diet option of the Vienna Cabinet towards us is pacific and evenly friendly, and this could not be other- wise, Russia having carffuliy reserved all the questions affecting Austro-Huegarian interest* as is shown by the modifiable character of cer- tain points of the treaty. The Constanti- nople Conference, in settling the question of Bosnia- and Ht*rze £ cmna> admitted the introduction into those provinces of a foreign militia. Austria might temporally profit by that clauae. The occupation of Bulgaria by 50,000 Bussians as long as a native militia is not formed, and in any case for two years at n>ost» is indispensable fer the repatriation of the armf> the dismantling of fortresses, and the pre- venting of collisions between Mussulmans and Christians. In according its protection only to Christians of the Greek Ohurch, the St. Peters- I burg Cabinet wish to respect the position of France in the Holy Places; so, too, it desires to respect the interests of the European creditors of Turkey by es- tablishing for their benefit a kind of community of interests with those of Russia by the mode of payment of the war indemnity." The correspondents imprea. 8ion after this interview was that Bussia wishes for tbe Congress, but doubts whether it will meet, and seeks a cordial understanding with Austria in view of every contingency. j The correspondent of the ftew York Herald at St petetersburg telegraphs that he had an interview with General Ignatieff as the latter was starting for Vienna. The correspondent gives what purports to be tbe exact language used by General Ignatieff as foj. lows^, "I..am going to give the Austrian Cablet! all tbtr. explanations desired respecting the pr*lj. jpiftaries of peace. There shall be no more equivoca. tion. England will be left atone' in her opposition to us and to the termination of the war. We are onu too willing to quit Turkey, but the English, by the de. (nonstrations of their d'et, and the refusal to allow our troops to embark at Buyukdere, seem to oppogg our going. If we are driven to extremities "e gball remember tbe phrase now celebrated, J'y ?uis et j'y reste.' We are re-idy for everything. The Grand Duke Nicholas only awaits the word." The chief secretary of Prince Gortscbakoff said to the same correspondent, the exact words again being cited: "The bad faith of England has aroused general irritation. It ia really an ultimatum which General Ignatieff carries to Vienna, because whether Austria is with ua or against us, we go on." BtJSSUNS AND BOUMANIANS. The feeling of dislike between the Bussians and Roumanians is increasing day by day, and the latter contrive all kinds of annoyance, especially to civil- ians bringing Bussian passports in order to cross from Rustcbuk to Giurgevo, while the Boumanian soldiers levy black mail from passengers, under the pretence that the passports are not in order. The Roumanians have also established duties amounting to 15 per cent, on all provisions brought over here from Giurgevo. THE RUSSIAN TROOPS IN BULGABIA. The 7ïmes correspondent at Bustchuk has the fol. lowing under date March 24th The Volkhof Regi. ment of Infantry, belonging to the 35th Division, has been ordered to Widin, and two battalions have already been taken up the river in a couple of barges. The KLerson and Bcssarabian Regiments of the 33rd Division continue to occupy the town and forts (jutside, beinj distributed in different villages. Within the district marked by this town, Silistm, and Basgrad are the Tiraspol and Odessa Infantry Reeimer,ts, together with several iegiments cf cavalry nnd C<we».ckp, the nmnhr.) of i*hu-h I h.ve not. v-i. betn able to discover, b8 tln-y are daily changing troiu one place to another in fact, since the conclusion of peace there has been nothing but orders and counter- mands. Two days ago some Cossacks of the Guard were preparing to start for home, in conformity with in structions from San Stefano, when their departure was put off indefinitely by a telegram from the same source. Officers talk a good deal of bein* sent to Plo- jesti and to other places along the line of the Bon- manian railway. Shumla, it is s id, has been evacuated ?| l r*8 occupied by the 1st Division of the 0oirJ)a-. General Vanofsky remains chief here during the absence of Prince Dondaukoff Korsakoff at head-quarters. AN INTERVIEW WITH OSMAN PASHA, Our ( ai y News) correspondent lately at Sebas- topol, writing from Kharkoff on March 15, says: <Wn Pasha was still at his hotel here, 1 determined this morning to pay him a visit. Tbe Pasha received me at once. His apartments, which are en the ground floor of the Hotel Bellevue, were com or a y but not luxuriously furnished. He was quite alone. As his French was limited the conversa- tion wasatmost entirely on my side. I told him all the 4.a„„, hoped he had been pleased with his k*t U8aia- He said: Yes; the apartments are u, still a prisoner." I expressed astoniah- suggested that the Government were pre- parmg a yacht to send him back in. I hoped he had recovered from his wound, and told him that if he Tk Crimea he would find the weather j very agreeable. He knew all about the peace 8,1 e/J 6 P°8ition of the Bussians, and apparently Cal" J kittle about these matters. He ex- presse decided satisfaction when I told him that the ultan had ordered that no more British vessels were to be admitted through the Dar- j? which I conclude he is not amiably disposed towards us. I told him that Baker Pasha was on leave, and that I believed Hobart was at Constantinople He aaid, "I don't know Baker Pasha, but 1 know Hobart." After about a quarter of an hour of similar conversation I took my leave. He rose when I left, and shook hands, which I hear find ^Fea^ k°nour. Kharkoff is a fine town, and I r_no of distress from the war. The market is e y good, and everything cheap. I bought this morn- Ing four grouse (rabchick) for ten kopecks (2d.) each; fggS are ten for the same sum, and all other things fiL chtap. There are no beggars, except nontJj 6 kfd ones, who sit in tbe mud at fre- corners howling psalms. They make no .dIrect a,pelll to you, but the howl increases as you approach (especially if they are blind), and is well worth a kopeck to step. The weather is gett ng wa mer, and the streets muddier every day, but I find a great difference between this climate and the Crimea. There we bave spring; here winter still reigns^I hope not for long. VISIT OF THE GRAND DUKE TO THE SULTAN. tarn p' ?n o'clock on the morning of the 26th March w; i ,U881an steamers, containing tbe Grand Duke n an^ kis staff and a guard of honour, arrived tj0 m.abagr,che. The foreign stationairea hoisted the Rasslsn flag, and the Turkish ironclads were ma ned, but there was no other demonstration. There wafjn? 8ftlut«. The Grand Duke's visit had not been a announced, and scarcely any persons were P B k 00n 88 the Grand Duke's yacht was brought o anchor four large caiques, eaen capable of hold- ing welve persons, besides rowers, went off and Grand Duke and his staff to the palace, ut Pasha received the Grand Duke at the landing place, and the Sultan received him at the steps lead- t. Throne Boom. Tbe Grand Duke remained ?. an hour with tbe Sultan, and then he and his staff went over to the Palace of Beglerbey, where the Russian soldiers were drawn up. The Sultan afterwards returned the Grand Duke's visit, the Russian ships being dressed in his honour. The rand Duke met the Sultan at the landing- place, and assisted him out of tbe caique. The Sultan remained at Beglerboy for half an hour, and then, together with tbe Grand Duke and bis eon, and i ei|era'8 and Gourko, went back to Dolma- < tk # where refreshments were served. Later in 1 the afternoon the Grand Duke drove in a carriage and four to the Bussian Embassy in Pe"a, where tbe wrappings which have concealed the Bussian eagles on the gates during the war were solemnly taken down. (



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