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LONDON CORRESPONDENCE. WITH the ratification at St. Petersburg of the Treaty of Peace, signed at San Stefano, there is less danger of the outbreak of another European war, though the elements of discord are by no means altogether laid to rest. The refusal of Russia to agree to the proposal of Britain that Greece should be represented at the Conference or Congress gave rise to some disquietude, as it showed an intention to favour the Sclavs at the expense of the Hellenes. Whatever objections the bt. Petersburg Cabinet may take to the pro- posal, it was a wise, though belated, step on the part of our Government to bring Greece to the front, and it is not surprising that the intelli- gence to this effect should have been welcomed with demonstrations of joy among all classes at Athens and other towns. As the Sclav popula- tions in the provinces of south-eastern Europe must feel grateful to Russia for having delivered them from "Turkish bonds," it is well the Hellenes should have cause to feel that they have I I I still in England a protector ana a iriena. The brightening of the situation all round is made evident by the circumstance that arrange- ments are already being made in Parliament for the Easter recess, which will last about the usual length of time. Whether Ministers, however, will be as fortunate as the membew of both Houses in the matter of holidays may be re- garded as very doubtful indeed. Cabinet Councils still continue to be held almost daily, and ever since the beginning of the 9 session they have sat with a regularity about akin to that of the Committees of the House of Commons. At ordinary times, during the sitting of Parliament, Ministers generally have their hands pretty full of work; but great oooaaions like the present, whtm a new epoch in European histpry is being formed, add immensely to their labours; and it would be a pity if, doomed to remain m proximity to Downing-street, they should be deprived of al prospect of relaxation during the Easter recess. Of all the Cabinet Ministers, Lord Derby has been, for the last two years at least, the hardest worked he has been afflloted, night and day, with despatches on the brain; and he would be all the better for the invigoration he would derive by cooling his brows in the fresh breezes of early spring. Sir Miohael Hicks Beach, suddenly transferred from the Irish Secre- taryship to the Colonial Office, may also be sympathised with, as the latest intelligence from South Africa shows there is cause for increased anxiety on account of tha sprdad of a disaffected and insurrectionary spirit among the Kaffir tribes. In these untoward circumstances he will need all the assistance which Lord Carnarvon, on resigning office, promised to give his sue- cefiaor. But the approaching Raster holidays possess interest for others besides Ministers of State and members of Parliament. The general public begin to feel their need of a spell of reoreatlon when there has been no holiday break in the con- tinuity of work since Christmas. Londoners always make up their minds for an outing at Easter, though the weather for several years past, owing to the dilatoriness of spring, has not been favourable, at the beginning of April, for much enjoyment in the open air. The holidays this Easter will be somewhat later than they were last teason, and on this account there is a better pros- pect of being blessed with some genial sunshine. It is sincerely to be hoped that we shall not experience, at that time, a renewed visitation of the cold piercing airs that have been let loose upon us by March. The walking mania shows as yet no signs of abatement. The Agricultural H»U at Islington presents this week the attraction of a great international pede3trian match, which was made known to the public, by extensive spreads of posters on walls and hoardings, as an important forthcoming event. The moving spirit in the matjh is Sir John Astley, M.P., who has offered £750 in prizes to be given to whoever shall accomplish the greatest distance in six days, £ 500 being handed over to the winner, in addition to a champion belt of the value of £100. In this contest for the largest prize ever yet offered in the annals of pedestrianism. the common senee idea is declared to have been revived of making the best of the way on foot. As the competitors are allowed to get over the ground in any way they like, short of riding, driving, sliding, or flying, there is ample room alike for the steady-going tramp of O'Leary and the eccentric escapades of Weston. With the exception of O'Leary of Chicago, Weston of New York City, Smythe of Dublin and America, and Smith of Paisley, the men who have entered are all Englishmen, so that the international character of the contest cannot be said to be very pronounced. In order to avoid the possibility of the foreigners meeting with injustice from their numerous opponents, the resolution was wisely arrived at to have two tracks laid down. A walking match in which all the countries of Europe were represented would possess more in- terest than the one now in progress. Nothing is more remarkable than the unre- mitting ingenuity shown by people of fraudu- lent tendencies to compass their ends. In versatility and cleverness they certainly have the whlphand of honest folks. Ad- vertisers, when they pay heavily for getting their announcements turned upside down in print, may be considered to have reached their wits' end; but swindlers, when their projects are detected, have always some fresh schemes in reserve. In London the latest frauds have taken the form of telegraphic messages, and here is a specimen of them: "EDWARD H. COUSINS TO MRS. COUSINS.- Clerk will call at one with small parcel. Give him four pownds for me. Keep parcel closed till I return." The sender of the above fraudulent telegram required to assure himself that Edward H. Cousins was a City gentleman, with a wife at home, before he could venture to perpetrate a fraud of the kind with any chance of success. The injunction to keep the paroel olosed might have awakened suspicion; but, in oilier respects, the message was concocted in a way well fitted to deceive. The mischief of the prevalence of this sort of thing would be that genuine telegrams, requiring instant attention, might be regarded as fraudulent, and meet with no response. In order to oheckmate this form of swindling the telegraph forms would require to be made more difficult of imitation than they are at pre- sent. England cannot feel at all oomfortable when me is outstripped In anything, indicating pro- gress, by a reactionary oountry like Spain. But this is the position in which we are actually placed at the present time. During the recent mar- riages the Puerta del Sol at Madrid was ren- dered brilliant by the use of electric lights. Lord Rosslyn, who has added his testi- mony to the excellence, steadiness, and clear- nees of the beautiful mellow light, states that it made the famous square at midnight as light as day, and he expresses a hope, in which many will cordially join, that some such experiment may soon be tried in London. If use were not half nature there would have been open rebellion against the miserable lighting of the streets of the metropolis long ago. The gas companies, being monopo- lists, think it quite enough to provide gas for the street lamps of a quality that only serves to make visible the surrounding darkness. D. G.
SHOOTING AT THE MASTER OF THE ROLLS.— The Rev. H. J. Dodwell was tried at the Central Criminal Court for shooting at the Master of the Bolls with intent to murder him. The prisoner had been unsuccessful in some law proceedings which had come, upon appeal, before Sir George Jesse], and fired at the learned judge on the morning of the 22nd ult. as he was getting out of his cab in the Rolls-yard. The prisoner conducted his own defence, and made an elaborate speech to the jury. The jury found that the pistol was not charged with anything calculated to kill, and that Mr. Dodwell was labour- ing at the time under a delusion This was equivalent to a verdict of not guilty, and the jury amendfd the verdict accordingly. The prisorer was then charged with a common assault, and when the case was con- cluded and the jury were consulting, the prisoner asked permission to plead guilty, but was told that it was then too late. He was found guilty of the assault, but that he was not responsible for his actions and he will therefore be detained during her Majesty's pleasure. 1
WILLS AJN D BEQUESTS.
WILLS AJN D BEQUESTS. (From the Illustrated London Newt.") The will and codicil of Lord Middleton, late of Birdsall House, near Malton, Yorkshire, who died on Dec. 20 last, were proved on the 2nd mst. by his son, tba sole executor, the personal estate being sworn under £ 50,000. The testator makes various provi- sions in favour ot his wife, and directs portions of £12,000 to be raised for each of his younger children; he also leaves all the rents due at his death, the money at his banker's, his blood mares, horses, cattle, and live stock at Grimsthn and Birdsall to his three sons, Tatton Lane Fox Willoughby, Claude Henry Comaraich Willoughby, and AlexaLder Hugh Wil- loughby he gives his pack of foxhounds to his eldest son, if he elects to hunt them if not they are to be sold, and the proceeds divided between his said threeJsons, Tatton, Claude, and Alexander. There are a few other legacies, including .£100 to each of his godchildren; and the whole of the residue of his real and personal estate he leaves to his eldest son nupbv. the nresent Deer. 1'he will (dated July 2, 1872) of Mr. btoswell Jonn- ao;), late of Bellevue, Bromley-common, who died on January 12 last, was proved on the 23rd ult., by Thomas Johnson, the brother, Robert Field, and Thomas John Ivery Nettleton, the executors, the per- sonal estate being sworn under £ 45,000. The testator, among other le gacies, bequeaths to the Trinitarian Bible Society, Red Lion-square, and the Society for Promoting Christianity among the Jews, XBOO each; to the Institution for Printing Bibles for the Blind, origi- nated and managed by Mr. Moon, atBrighton, L"; and to the Young Women's Home, Great Marlborough- street, £100; a sum of £10,000 is to be set aside, and the interest paid to his wife, Mrs. Mary Johnson, for life, and at her death numerous further legacies are to be paid, including £ 500 each to the Rescue Society, Queen-street, Cheapside, the London Hos- pital, Whitechapel, and the Life-boat Institution; X400 to the Dingle and Ventry Mission, Dingle, Ire- land S300 each to the London Missionary Society, the Church Missionary Society, Ireland, the Irish Scripture-Readers' Society, the Ophthalmic Institu- tion, Moorfields, and the Asylum for the Deaf and Dumà, Old Kent-road; X250 to the Seamen's In- firmary, Ramsgaje X200 each to the South'London Mission, Southwark,,the Sunday School for Ireland, Sackville-street, Dublin, the Achill Mission Schools, Ireland, and the Dispensary for Skin Diseases, Charlotte-Street, Fitzroy-square; and £100 to the Ophthalmic Institution, St. Georges-fields. The re- sidue of his personal estate he leaves'to the Ashley Down Institution, Bristol, under the management of Mr. George Miiller, and all his real estate to the said George Muller. The will (dated Oct. 31,1874) of Mr. Henry Thoby Prinsep, of Briary House, Freshwater, Isle of Wight, late a member of the Council of the Secretary of State for India, who died on the 11th ult., was proved on the 26th ult. by Valentine Cameron Prinsep, the son, the acting executor, the personal estate being sworn under £4000. With the exception of his books and papers, which he leaves to his eldest son, he gives all his property to his wife, Mrs. Sarah Monekton Prinsep. The will (dated Feb. 17, 1873) and four codicils, dated respectively March 12,1873, Jan.31,1874, July 17, 1874, Jan. 24, 1877) of Sarah Bruce, late of 14, Upper Bedford-place, Russell-square, spinster, were duly proved on the 1st inst. by the executors therein named, the personal estate being sworn under £ 60,000. The testatrix, after giving some small pecuniary legacies to several friends, gives to her executors cer- tain specific funds, stocks, and securities, amounting in the aggregate in value to between £40,000 and £ 80,000; and, after directing the payment out of the income thereof of two annuities and bequeathing the residue of the income thereof to her sister, Mary Ann Bruce, for her life, then gives the whole of the said stocks, funds, and securities to the Secretary of State for India for the time being in Council, for or towards the foundation and endowment of an institution at Calcutta, or at any place within fifty miles thereof, for the education and maintainence of half-caste or Eiirasian female children, whether legitimate or other- wise, and in particular orphans and those deserted by their parents, such children to be admitted only be- tween the ages of five and ten years and to be main- tained until they can be provided for in some respect- able and useful station in life. (From the City Press") The will of Mr. Robert Mounstephen, late of 42, Milner-square, Islington, N., hay salesman, who died on January 26th last, was proved on the 23rd ult., by Mrs. Maria Mounstephen, the widow, and Mr. Robert Walter Mounstephen, the son, the executors. The only persons interested unfer the will are testator's wife and two children. The will of Mr. William Riley, late of 79, Forest- road, Dalston, retired corn meter, who died on January 4th last, was proved on the 28th ult. by Mrs. Ann Riley, the widow, and Mrs. Susannah Louisa Marsh, the daughter, the acting executors. The testator divides his freehold and leasehold houses and other property between his wife, children, and other members of his family. The will of Mr. George Ralph Otton, late of Stationers' Hall-court, publisher, and of 34, Highbury hill, Islington, who died on the 24th of January last, was proved on the 12th nit., by Mr. B. 0. Lockwood and Mr. J. E. Carter, the executors, the personal estate being sworn under £ 16,000. The testator leaves to his son George Walker Otton, £ 2000 to the Book- sellers' Provident Institution, X50 free of legacy duty; and some other legacies to his wife, Mrs. Sarah Otton, he gives his household furniture and effects, £ 500, and a policy of insurance on his life absolutely, and the income of the residue of his real and personal estate for life, at her death such residue is to go to his said son. —
THOUSANDS OF DELICATE CHILD KEN and consumptive persons are said to have acquired sound constitutions I and permanent strength by taking that most ayeeabit and efficient steel preparation, Dr. Guinle's Steel Tablets, procurable of all respectable chemists, in boxes or post free on receipt of postage stamps for Is. lid. or 2s. 9d. "v O. AUAn. Chemist, Kilburn. London. A LAZY fellow failing a distance of fifty feet and escaping with only a few scratches, a bystander remarked that he was too slow to fall fast enough to hurt himself." My brains are on fire exclaimed an excited lady to her husband. Well, my dear," said the un- feeling man, taking a revolver from a drawer, just bold still a moment, and I will blow them out." THE MAN who enters into the enterprise of Manufacturing ASrated Drinks, in any district where they are required, renders a real service to the public, and no business offers J him a better return for a comparatively small outlay. lo those who propose investing in this lucrative business, the first object to ascertain is where such a district exists, the next for success is to have the proper Machines and Appli- ances for producing the different Waters in the best condi- tion.—Catalogue and all information sent upon receipt of six stamps to Barnett, Son and Foster, 21A, Forston- street, Hoxfou. London, N. COMBKD ROBINS.-A contemporary lately gave an account of the trickery by which common field birds are dressed up and decorated, and then pissed off as strangers from the tropics. This kind of trickery was in vogue some forty years ago, when the plan adopted was of a much more transparent nature. The bird chosen for the experiment was the robin, and his decorations consisted of a neatly-cut little comb and a pair of wattles of the shape worn by the 'Spanish fowl, but much smaller in proportion to the size of the birds. Shallow as the device was, it was suffi- ciently clever to cheat many people, till the red-breast managed to moult his ornaments, in spite of the tenacity with which they were made to adhere.—Z<M Stock Journal. HAVE IT IN YOUR HOUSE LAmpLouein's PTBSTIC SALIH-and use no other. The only safe anti- dote in Fevers, Eruptive Affections, Sea or Bilious Sickness, Small-pex, and Headache; having peculiar and exclusive merits. Use no substitute. See per- petual injunction against imitators; also the unani mous judgment before the Lords Justices Bramwell, Brett, and Cotton, 22nd Jan., 1878, in Lamplough's favour. 113 Hoi born-hill. London. OF STONEWALL JACKSON'S first examination at West Point, General John Palmer writes: The poor fellow waB in a most unhappy state of mind. His whole soul was bent upon passing.' When he went to the black board the perspiration was streaming from his face, and during the whole examination his anxiety was painful to witness. While trying to work put his example in tractions the cuffs of his coat, first the right and then the left, were brought into requisition to wipe off the perspiration which streamed from his face. But he passed creditably, and I shall never forget how pleased he looked as he was told that he could take his seat; and I think every member of the examining board turned away his head to hide the smile which could not be sup- pressed. After that his whole life was devoted to the one thing of preparing for the January examination. Here he was again successful, but the scene at the blackboard, although in midwinter, was a repetition of the one in June. He found himself rather low down in his class, but he had learned how to study, and he had the hearty sympathy and good- will of all the professors and instructors. At the second June examination he passed so well that he was well up in his class and out of all danger. But he never relaxed his hold. Through the whole four years he was one of the hardest students." WHELPTOITS VEGETABLE PCKIFYING PILLB V" during the last 40 years have proved their value in Diseases of the Head, Ohest, Liver, Kidneys, and Digestive Organs. They are a direct Purifier of the Blood, and in all Skin Complaints one of the best Medicines known. Sold by G. WHJCLPTON & SON, 3, Crane court, Fleet-street, and may be had of Chemists and Medicine Vendors. Sent free to any part of the kingdom on receipt of 8,14, or 33 stamps, I
SIR GARNET WOLSELEY.1
SIR GARNET WOLSELEY. -Sir Garnet Wolseley (says the World) is essentially a general of the new school, an expone, t of the newest ideas, eager to give practical effect to the most recent improvements in warfare, to assimilate and adapt himself to the newest theories and the newest combinations. Still more does he identify himself with the new men, with the jounger and most capable memoers of that new school of soldiers through whose earnest and consistent endeavours a new era of efficiency has been commenced for the army of this country. Sir Garnet Wolseley is the centre of this band, the sun of the solar system, sur- rounded by satellites who have, in a measure, taken their light and colour from him, but without losing their own individuality and special attributes of worth. Among these—the men who rallied round him from the first, when as yet his fame rested rather upon promise than performance-are many already distinguished as the shining lights of the military profession. There are no more able and experienced staff officers than Oolonels Greaves and T. D. Baker; no soldiers more gallant and forward when there is fighting to be done than Colonels M'Neil, Evelyn Wood, or Baker Russell, the bold defender of Abracampray Colonel Colley, whether as diplomatist, soldier, or adminis- trator, has given already full earnest of the career that is before him; Colonel Home is one of the most Bcientifia and indefatigable officers in the whole corps of Engineers. Men like Butler, of the Great Lone Land Redvers Buller, who has just gone to the Cape; Lord Gifford, the fiery and intrepid young scout; Henry Brackenbury, Maurice, Dalrymple, Cecil Russell, and a dozen others, have given him their best efforts in the past, and would to-merrow make any sacrifice, throw up the highest appoint- ments, or travel a thousand miles to rejoin him and fight under his orders again. Sir Garnet Wolse- ley has had more than one splendid opportu- nity, but he has made the most of them all. He has done more than deserve success—he has commanded and secured it. The expedition to the Red River may have been a bloodless campaign, but it was surrounded with innumerable difficulties. His small force was in a measure amphibious, having to move both by sea and land. It was not easy to keep it supplied, so great was the length of its com- munications yet from first to last there was no hitch, and the whole affair brought out in to strong relief Sir Garnet's powers of organisation and ad- ministrative skill. It was the same, but intensified a thousandfold, in the Ashanti campaign. Here success was only to be compassed by the completeness of the preparations for the decisive march and in all these, from the moment of his first appointment to the chief command to the capture of Coomassie, Sir Garnet was the heart and soul of the enterprise, its moving spirit and strong backbone. He never quailed or lost his head even when met by repeated disappointment; when most harassed by a depressing and indeed lethal climate his pluck never deserted him.
BERLIN WOOLS and GERMAN NEEDLEWORK.- I E above are imported direct by M. LEADER, 9, Nzw UrN-YARD, SHOREDITCH, LONDON, B.C., from whon pr ice lists are sent, on application, of every descrip tion of fancy wools, canvas, filoselle. Ac. AURICULAR CONFESSION.-At the instanoe of the Council of the Church Association, a memorial in the following terms was forwarded to the Home Secre- tary for presentation to her Majesty: "Yeur memo- rialists. as sincerely attached to the National Church of their Fathers, view with deep alarm the efforts now openly made by a considerable number of the clergy to introduce into the Church of England the teaching and practice of auricular confession, which they regard as contrary to the teaching of the Word of God, alien to the doctrine, principles, and order of the Church, fraught with peril to its existence as an establishment and subversive of the principles of morality, social order, and civil and religious liberty. Your memorialists, therefore, humbly pray that your Majesty, unto whom the chief government of all estates of the realm, whether they be ecclesias- tical or civil, in all causes doth appertain, will be graciously pleased to use all the influence at your Majesty's command to repress the practice of auricular confession which is so rtpugnant to the conscience and feelings of this Protestant country." The signatures to the memorial number 401,442, and include the Maharajah Duleep Singh, seventy five noblemen, among them the Dukes of Leeds, Man- chester, Sutherland, Wellington, and Westminster, thirty-seven ladies of title, thirty-nine baronets, ninety- three members of Parliament, four deans, four arch- deacons, thirty canons, 3286 other clergymen, nume- rous magistrates, bankers, merchants, officers. and others. WHISHT* 3 COAL TAB SOAP (Sapo Carbonis Detergms), Antiseptic, Detergent,Disinfectant. The most healthful, agreeable, and refreshing Toilet Soap in the world. By its daily use, freedom from infectious diseases is secured thecomplexi-n improved; pimples, blotches and roughness removed and the skin made clear, smooth, and lustrous In our hands it has proved effective in skin diseases: —The Lancet; Itis the only true antiseptic soap."—British Medical Journal. In Tablets, 6d. aDd Is. each of all Chemists. w. v. WKIO'nd Co.. SouthwarV-ntre^ .London. INTELLECTUAL GmLS.—Girlhood was ir times gone by sweet; it was innocent, it was naive and senti- mental. It is now simply superior." And how its superiority is advertised Girls' pictures are singled out for effusive laudation in every exhibition of the season, from that of Burlington House to those of the Sampler and Slate-pencil Association, and the young ladies who serve up Venice with every species of sauce aux epinards, the gifted and fashionable vestals who paint portraits, and they who paint grenadiers, all have a whiff of incense from the thurifera. The critic may be pressed for room to express his reverence for Mr. Millais, and even find it difficult to get in the obligatory joke about Mr. Whistler. But the girls are sure of glorification, whatever may happen. In other spheres, too, a dazzling halo of publicity is made to surround the damsels who deign to abandon crewel work for more intellectual and re- munerative pursuits. The medals they take for trigonometry are photographed on our memory, as it were, by a perfect blaze of social and journalistic fire- works. Reviewers commit the usual stereotype peasantry about women's novels, and feminine readers remark, with a kind of exultation, that the authoress must be a very unpleasant person;" but that is only the dash of tarragon in the creamy mayonnaise of laudation. Let a man write as good a story at the same age, and he will be dismissed with a nod of cool approval, or, at most, ten lines of tepid encouragement. But even the glorifica- tion of girls as monsters-as the rose-trees that yield toadstools-is excessive and absurd. Few girls are half as monstrous as they would like to appear, and the majority grow simply the smallest of dog-roses. It is only our shouts of wonder that create an impression that the growth is in any way abnormal. In fact, the species of professional and practical gallantry which has superseded mere profitless chivalry gives girls the immense start in life's race, and then leads them to think that it is their swiftness wins. We parade the fact that a girl has begun to study the law as noiselessly as though she were already Lord Chancellor. It is so marvellous ih our eyes that a girl should be reading Adam Smith, when she might care for nothing beyond Miss Braddon without disgrace, that we immediately publish to the world that she must be an Adam Smith herself. When we come to think of the generation of wives and daughters such a galant system of deduction is likely to breed, we are inclined to believe that men will be quite sufficiently punished for their want of logic.- Truth- WOOD AND IVERY, LIMITED (J. W. Ivery, manager), Albion Blue Brick and Tile Works, West Bromwich, Staffordshire, manufacturers of vitrified blue bricks, garden border tiles, flooring quarries in blue, red, or buff colour. Illustrations and prices on application. TREsPABB.-The law carefully protects a man's light and air, and surrounds him with strong defences if he is the owner of a building; yet it permits h's grounds, the privacy of which is now almost of as irreat a value, ti be iovaded with practical impunity. There is another serious onsideration. Through the gaps left by trespassers cattle may stray, perhaps a bull; now if that bull knocks down and injures any one, it is clearly unjust that- the owner should be held responsible. Cattle sometimes also stray on to rail- ways, and may cause fatal catastrophes to the pas- sengers. In fact, the truth is this: the value of pro- perty has enormously increased, but the legal pro- tection in respect of trespass has not mar-hed with the age. The railways enabling gentlemen occu- pied in cities to retain country seats, have made all England a garden, and the most part of it a private gard en. At the same time they have rendered even distant places liable to be suddenly invaded by crowds of strangers careless what damage they inflict, because in a few hours they will be beyond reach. To obtain a conviction for trespass—except in pursuit of game-it is necessary to prove positive damage. Now, a broken pennyworth of twigs, a trampled sixpenny worth of grass, is really not the question; it is absurdly beside the question. A fine of a shilling, after days of trouble with solicitors and witnesses, is simply a ridiculous remedy, not to mention the difficulty of identifying trespassers when time has elapsed. It is hardly too much to say that a man with two or three pounds in his pocket, to pay nominal damages and fines, might walk across a county just where he chose, provided he did not get too close to dwelling houses, and come within the charge of being on premises for an unlawful purpose -Live Stock Journal. KJSATING'S COUGH LOZENGES contain no Opium, Morphia, nor any violent drug. It is the most effective remedy known to the Medical Pro- fession in the cure of COUGHS, ASTHMA, BRONCHITIS -one Lozenge alone relieves. Sold by all Ohemll in Boxos, la, lid. and 2» ,9d. each
THE EASTERN QUESTION.
THE EASTERN QUESTION. THE MILITARY SITUATION IN SERVIA. The Servian Shumadia Army Corps, stationed between Leskovatz and Wranja, has made a military lemonstration against the terms of peace, and re- occupied Wranja. The troops declare that they will not leave unless compelled by force. The advanced guard proceeded a distance of six hours' march be- yond the town,and occupied a pass towards Kumanova, where they established a telegraph station. The Ser- vian Government have not interfered with this demon- stration, and the men express loyalty to the Govern- ment of Prince Milan. RUSSIAN VIEWS OF THE SITUATION. It may be interesting to know that., according to the St. Petersburg correspondent of the Norddeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung, who, as a rule, is well jnformed about the views prevailing in Russian official circles, a difference is there made between questions merely concerning belligerents and those involving European interests. The war indemnity, the occupation of Armenia as an equivalent for part of it, and the cession of the Dobrudja, for which Roumania is to exchange the portion of Bessarabia ceded to her after the Crimean war, are noted by the writer as the points which Russia will not allow to be touched. He then continues: How we shall finally arrange matters with Roumania about the retrocession of Southern Bessarabia and its ulti- nate exchange for the Dobrudja is an affair jxclusively our own and of Roumania. If Rou- mania should absolutely refuse to accept this restitution and compensation, which appears to us but just, and it the European Powers should prefer to see the Russian double eagle more permanently established south of the Danube, we can wait, and Russia on that account will begin no fresh war either with Roumania, or its Suzerain, or any other Power; but never, never will Russia abandon the wish and the will to wipe out the blot which France, in unhistorical and unnatural alliance with England, in 1856 imprinted on her scutcheon, and the humi- liation they inflicted on Russia's national pride. These are. the vital points which cannot be dis- cussed; alLthe rest may and can be submitted for the opinion of the Congress, especially as the chief point-namely, the amelioration of the condition of the Christians in the Balkan Peninsula, including Constantinople, is already secured by the conscious- ness of their own strength which has been awakened in them and as Russia will always be on the watch. What limits Servia, Montenegro, or Bulgaria are to have, whether the Straits of Constantinople are to be opened entirely and to all, or only to the adjacent Powers; whether Egypt, Bosnia, and Herzegovina are to be occupied, and by whom-all this con- tains nothing offensive, nothing threatening or pro- voking to Russia, and may therefore be the subject of discussion. If, on the contrary, the Powers as- sembled in Congress mean to censure, to revise events, to improve the treaty concluded with Turkey in any form, and to discuss those points even affecting the national and military honour of Russia, and which have been already argued with cannon-shots, and by the consent of Turkey have become accomplished facts, the members of the Conference who have not partici- pated in this kind of warlike debate may meet with difficulties for the removal of which the public here does not see much chance. MEMORIAL TO THE CZAR. The League in Aid of the Christians of Turkey pre- sented a memorial recently to the Emperor of Russia in the following terms: Sire,—We, the undersigned members of the League in Aid of the Christians of Turkey, beg to approach your Majesty in the present important crisis, when the future fate of the Christians in European Turkey is about to be determined. The valour of your soldiers has, by a series of brilliant victories, destroyed the last hope of resistance on the part of the oppressor, and the time has now arrived for carrying out the great purpose for which your Majesty has made so many sacrifIces-namely, to give freedom to noble races that have for centuries been oppressed, and to render their re-en- slavement an impossibility. We are well aware of difficulties which, in face of European susceptibilities, beset a solution of the questions at issue; but we venture to implore your Majesty, as holder of the destinies of the Christians of Turkey in your hands, not te permit any partial distribution of the blessings of freedom, but to secure a complete and lasting esta- blishment of civil and religious liberty to the down- trodden populations in the south as well as in the north of the Balkans; and, whereas it is well known that the Bulgarians extend far beyond the limits of what is commonly shown as Bul- garia on the maps, reaching as far south as Vasilika on the Black Sea, and Adrianople and Thessalonica in the southern part of Roumelia, we pray your Majesty that the southern frontier of new Bulgaria may be regulated accordingly. A settle- ment of the Eastern Question on any lesser basis would be but a source of dangerous complications in the future, involvin g renewed sacrifices of blood and treasure; for it is impossible that a state of things could long continue to exist in which a section of a Christian people, within certain geographical limits, stould be in the enjoyment of all the privileges of free men, while to the south of that boundary the populations should be given up to slavery, sterility and despair. Such a miserable spectacle would be contrary to the principles of justice and humanity, and we humbly pray your Majesty that the rights of all the Bul- garians shall be equally considered." To this memorial the following reply has been received: Russian Embassy, London, March 1-13, 1878. Monsieur, —His Majesty the Emperor, having received an ad- dress from the League in Aid of the Christians of Turkey, bearing 400 signatures, and praying him to profit by the present circumstances to secure the liberty of Bulgaria on both sides of the Balkans, his Imperial Majesty has charged the Chancellor, Prince Gortchakoff, to communicate to the above-mentioned society his satisfaction with the sentiments expressed in the address, as well as with the sympathies which it evinces on behalf of the Christians of the East. Conformably to the request I have received from Prince Gortchakoff, I have now the pleasure. Mon- sieur, of transmitting through you to the members of the society this testimony of the approbation of my Sovereign. Accept, Monsieur, the assurance of my distinguished consideration, SCHOUVALOFF. To Mr. Lewis Farley, 14, Cockspur-street, Pall-mall, S.W." THE PEACE AND THE CONGRESS. Reouf Pasha had an audience of the Emperor on Sunday, and the ratifications were exchanged. The treaty is expressly called a preliminary treaty of peace, and leaves a good many points open. The question of the Straits, for example, is re- served for the Congress, and the southern fron- tier of Bulgaria is left to be determined by a European Commission according to the nation- ality of the inhabitants. It is proposed that the Principality should obtain the port of Kavala on the ean as a good outlet for its commerce; but if it be found that this is contrary to the ethnographic method of determining the frontier, or objectionable on other grounds, some other arrangement may be made. It may be assumed, therefore, that the ques- tion of Kavala, which is said to have given umbrage to Austria, will not raise serious difficulties. LETTER FROM THE FLEET. A letter dated March 8, which has been received from the fleet in Touzla Bay, says: A steamer from London coaled the squadron on Friday. The admiral on the arrival of the Flamingo from Constantinople Rave orden to unload the small guns, to stop the ffuard, and to knock of keeping watch. This is a very unhealthy place; ashore, I mean, where the water is reported as being very bad. I was speaking to a Greek who came aboard to-day, and he told me the death rate about here averaged 600 daily. On the evening of the 6th We got orders to start our torpedo watch again, owing to some intelligence the admiral had re- ceived from Constantinople. We are still continuing it, and it causes our fellows to invoke anything but a blessing on the heads of the Russians, to whom they attribute all this extra trouble and work. All day on watch, and on watch all night. Boats away all night. It is very cold here now. The ships did not get their supply of fresh beef this week. The tug came down at the time appointed, but instead of the beef she brought the news that the Grand Duke, accompanied by about 200 officers, bad entered Constantinople. Up to the evening of the 6th, when the Torch left Grallipoli, everything was quiet there. The Salamis left last night for Malta, the Helicon coming in her place. It is now two o'clock in the morning; the men are moving about to keep themselves warm, a rather difficult matter in iron ships. As usual, the guns are loaded and the guns' crews are ready to work them. They are allowed to break off every morning at four o'clock. 34USSIAN PLANS. The Constantinople correspondent of the Daily News, under date March 18th, says: There seems to be some change in the Russian plans since the signa- ture of the peace. It was not ihen intended that the troops should return to Russia until after the Euro- pean Congress had pronounced on the treaty of peace. The stipulations in the treaty with regard to this were that the troops should begin to embark imme- diately after the definite conclusion of peace; but as peace can hardly be considered definite until ratified by Europe in the sense that this very treaty might possibly result in war, the troops were to remain here until Europe had pronounced. The plan has now been changed. The first division of theGuards, under Rauch, is to begin embarking asioen as the ships can be got ready, and also part of the second division under Schouvaloff. Part of Rauch's division is to embark, it is understood, at Buyuktlere, at the Black Sea entrance of the Bosphorus; the others at San Stefano. It is thought they will be ready to embark in about ten days. The greater part of General Gourko's staff are coming into Pera to morrow night, to leave by the Odessa boat on Tuesday morning. I believe that General Gourko will go also, but I have not been able to ascertain to a certainty. As General Gourko is in command of the active army, this withdrawal of troops earlier than intended would seem to indicate that Russia, at least, thinks peace assured, and that the difficulties about the Congress are all arranged. General Gourko's officers are coming in uni- form. A good deal of sickness is reported among the officers and soldiers at San Stefano. I learn on trust- worthy information that at a Council held on Friday evening the Russian request for permission to march round Constantinople to Buyukdere, to embark there, was discussed and refused as not advisable for the moment. This refusal of permission would of course have nothing to do with the embarkation of the troops at San Stefano. RUSSIAN AND TURKISH INTRIGUE AGAINST EUROPE. The correspondent of the Daily Chronicle telegraphs from Constantinople as follows I am informed, on high authority, that the. Porte is preparing a circular note to the Great Powers, in which the Government will announce its firm adherence to the following re- solutions: The Porte will declare that it will not sanction any further territorial concessions other than those ceded to Russia and provided for by the San Stefano Treaty. The Porte will forthwith send all available troops to Epirus, Thessaly, and Bosnia, and will defend their integrity and inviolability at all risks. The step is taken with the approval and con- sent of Russia, by whom it is said to have been insti- gated" THE EGYPTIAN QUESTION. A Paris correspondent says: Contrary to what was affirmed, neither Egypt, Syria, the holy places, nor Tunis will be brought before the Congress. France, it seems, on the one hand, manifested a desire for their exclusion, and to this all the Powers have agreed. This does not imply that these matters will be abso- lutely excluded, but only that they cannot be raised except with the consent of, and within the limits pre- scribed by, the Power which has stipulated for their exclusion. As to the Egyptian question, which it is so important to see settled in principle before the Congress by the Powers most directly interested, it is now certain that England has unreservedly ad- hered to the proposal communicated to her by France as to the investigation into the financial and adminis- trative reforms which are to be effected by common consent. It is also certain that all European states- men now recognise the necessity of freeing Egypt from the double vassalaee she would henceforth undergo, and that England, in effecting this, will en- counter no refusal from any quarter provided she acts in accord with those Powers who acknowledge the necessity of common action. n GREECE AND THE CONGRESS. The Vienna correspondent of the Times says: The intiative taken by the British Government in recom- mending the admission of Greece to the Congress has been favourably enough received in Russ a, at least no objection is made in principle to the idea, the only question being whether the decision as to the partici- pation of Greece, who is not one of the signatories of tbe Treaty of Paris, should be taken before the Powers meet, instead of reserving for the determination of the Congress itself the whole question* as to whether anT one besides the subscribers to that instrument, and in what form, should be invited to attend. Here, M you know, a disposition to look favourably on the demands of Greece has existed from the begin- ning, so that the proposal of the British Govern- ment will, doubtless, be readily acceded to, if this has not already been done. Even with re- gard to the matter of form-namely, whether the question of admitting Greece should be now deter- mined, or reserved for the time when the Congress meets—there is every inclination to assent to w hat- ever mode the other Powers may be willing to agree to. The demand of the Hellenic Govern- ment, should it happen to be yielded, will no deubt also raise the question as to admitting Boumania, Servia, and Montenegro. Indeed, as regards Roumania, the poiht has already been mooted, inasmuch as that Principality addressed a petition to the Powers to be admitted long before the Hellenic Kingdom did so. There is, indeed, a radical difference between Greece, which is a Sove- reign country, and the vassal States of Turkey, which can only expect to be ultimately placed by the Con- gress in a similar position; so that the fact even of the Powers deciding to admit the former could scarcely strengthen the claim of the latter to be favourably entertained likewise, and the matter would remain an open question to be afterwards settled on its own merits. RUSSIA AND ROUMANIA. The Vienna correspondent of the Times says: With regard to Roumania, it would certainly not seem to the interest of the Czar to make any efforts to gain her ad- mittance to the Council Board of Europe. Far from his having been able in any way to overcome the resist- ance of the Roumanians to the retrocession of their portion of Bessarabia, the difference which arose on this point has been widened toa degree almostthreaten ing an open rupture between the allies. In order to understand the intensity of feeling aroused all over the Principality by the demands of Russia, it must be remembered that not only the portion of Bessa- r&bia ceded in 1856 to Rouuiunia, but the whole of Bessarabia to the Dniester, formed part of Mol- davia ever since it existed as a country. The cession of the bit of territory in 1856 was, therefore, not a new acquisition, but only the recovery of a small portion of what had previously been taken by Russia. The case would be something similar if France, some time or other, succeeded in recover- ing part of Alsace, and was afterwards, in conse- quence of another war with some third Power, ex- pected to give it up again. So strong, indeed, is public feeling in this respect that it has effaced all partr differences, and even those who formerly cautioned their countrymen against the Russian con- nection and opposed it as much as they could, far from indulging in idle recriminations, now join hands with the Government, wbose policy they have always attempted to thwart, in order to avert what they would not only deem a national disgrace and humiliation, but the surest means, besides, of re- newing the dependence of Roumania upon Russia. Whatever arrangement the Congress might make as to the mouths of the Danube, Russia, by the restitution of the Bessarabian strip, would come into possession of the united river from Reni at the confluence of the Pruth down to Tultsha, where the stream bifurcates thus becoming mistress of the chief artery of communication Roumania has with the sea. There is a strong conviction that Rou- mania would thus be in the grasp of Russia and unable to resist the influence and pressure the latter might bring to bear on her. The feeling thus aroused is not a little deepened by the circumstince that the principality has been completely ignored in all the negotiations with Turkey, and that Russia has thus, as ltr?l arregated to herself the right of disposing of tbe fate of Roumania. Colonel Arion, it is true, was sent down to the Russian head-quarters in the expectation that he would be admitted to the diplomatic discussions, but such was not the case. It is, therefore, by no means sur- prising that the very validity of the stipulations of San Stefano as regards Roumania should gradually to be questioned, and that the Roumanians should decline even the gil t of independence on the part of According, indeed, to a telegram of the New -f rete Presse from Bucharest, the Roumanian Minister for Foreign Affairs has already addressed a circular to the Powers declaring that his Government 1 does not recognise the San Stefano stipulations affect- 1 ing the Principality. I mu tv THB CLAIMS OF GREECE. Tne limes says: The central point of the Russian scheme is the constitution of a great province of Bul- garia, stretching from the Danube to the iEgean. Neither this country nor, in all probability, Austria is ve"y much concerned with either the size or the precise delimitation of Bulgaria, and it may be hoped we I shall keep ourselves as clear as possible of these local and minor details. But there is one consideration Involved in them of the most vital and decisive importance. If a Bulgarian and Slav State be created stretching from the Danube to the JSgean, and if it have practically the guarantee of Russian support, the Greeks would be finally shut out not only from the extension of their authority towards Constantinople, but from their legitimate influence in the new province. It is by no means an easy question to decide whether in such a Bulgaria as Russia con templates Greek or Slav authority ought to bo pre- dominant. The Slavs are, no doubt, predominant north of the Balkans. But south of the Balkans Greek blood, Greek enterprise, and Greek interests are so strong that it would involve great injustice to subject them to a Slav domination. Even more serious, if hot more important, is the considera- tion that the proposed extension of the new Bulgarian Principality to the Egean at Kavala would practically exclude Greece from direct communication with Con- stantinople. The arrangement appears to postpone the question of the ultimate posseesion of Constanti- nople but it practically decides T»ne or two points respecting it in the negative. It renders it scarcely conceivable that Turkey will be able to maintain a footing in Europe; but it finally bars the advance of the Greeks towards that which has long been the goal of their ambition. Whether they are yet equal to the enjoyment of so large an inheritance as that of a kingdom which would include Constantinople may be open to doubt. Their present administration of their little territory leaves very much to be desired. But it must at least be said that the Slavs, of whatever province, have as yet given no evidence of any more satisfactory qualities. We have to deal with the elements and the capacities which actually exist, and we must make the best of them. The Greeks may have hitherto been deficient in self-government, and still more in imperial qualities. But they are a race of vast capa- cities, and, above all, they are in occupation. They are an active, spreading, energetic people, and any arrangement which left their legitimate claims out of account must of necessity be unstable, because it would be unjust. WHAT RUSSIA THINKS OF OUR MILITARY PREPARATIONS. The St. Petersburg correspondent of the Daily News says: Notwithstanding the relatively quiet character during the last few days of the news received from London, people here are at a loss to understand the great military preparations of the British Go- vernment. The object of those preparations is the subject of conversation and conjecture in every St. Petersburg salon. People say, English- men do not throw away their money for nothing. Tney would not therefore prepare for w&r as they are doing without a real and practical motive, calculated and fixed beforehand. Moreover, their prepa-ations exceed the limits of what may be called a mere manifestation intended to exercise any kind of moral pressure or influence. Artillery horses are not bought or siege sandbags prepared unless there is some precise object in view. What can that object be?" It is generally believed-I am speaking now of what is said in the salons-that Lord Beaconsfield has firmly resolved to occupy in a permanent military manner some position in the Eastern seas, Mitylene perhaps, for the purpose of converting it into a second Gibraltar. In that case, people ask with some appre- hension, what military and strategic precautions will it be incumbent upon Russia to adopt from a defensive point of view, in consequence of such a measure, which, by placing the naval forces of England within only two or three days of the Black Sea, brings near to her a danger which has hitherto not existed. As to the treaty closing the Straits, we have just seen what the practical value of such conventions is when the British Government resolves, as in the passage of the fleet, to set them aside. The prospect, I am bound to say, begins to make politicians reflect seriously, and already the question is regarded in the same manner bv the papers. POINTS FOR DISCUSSION AT THE CONFERENCE. The Vienna correspondent of the limes says: The difference between the British and Russian Govern- ments as to the competence of the Congress to discuss all points of the Russo-Turkish treaty Or only those affecting European interests is not yet smoothed away, in spite of the explanations given by the Cabinet of Sb. Petersburg with regard to the meaning attached to its reservation. These explanations not only reiterate in a more positive form than ever that all points of the preliminary treaty affecting European interests are subject to discussion and need the sanction of the Congress, but they likewise leave open the question as to what are to be regarded as European interests, so that this most essential matter is by no means prejudiced by any claim on the part of Russia to decide what shall come under the latter denomination, and every Power will enter the Congress quite free in its opinion on this point. Apparently therefore, the difference between England and Russia, although a question of principle, does not seem to be of great practical importance, inasmuch as the latter does not contest the right of the Powers to consider whether any point of the treaty to be submitted does or does not involve a European interest. If, never- theless, the right of the Congress to discuss the whole preliminary treaty is insisted upon with so much perseverance by the British Government, this is doubtless done with the intention of making sure that their exist no other stipulations between Russia and Turkey besides those avowed and la d before the Congress. ARMENIA ASKING AUTONOMY. The Times Pera correspondent, writing under date March 8th, says: I am sending home by the post a document which, I have reason to believe, fairly repre- sents the view held by intelligent Armenians about the effect which the treaty between Turkey and Russia is likely to have upon their country. An Armenian writes to me that his countrymen fear Russia may en- courage Turkish misgovernment in order to turn it to her ownadvantageand gradually absorb all Armenia. They accordingly implore the help of England in the Oon. ference to obtain for them an autonomy guaranteed by Europe, or at least protected by Europe. They hope that this autonomy will be a barrier against Russian interference with the English road to India, and that the Armenians, from thfir national cha- racter, will more readily adapt themselves t61 English civilisation as the true type, instead of the Russian false type.
LONDON MARKETS. CORN, LeNDON.-Trade at Mark-lane has ruled firm. There was a little better attendance, but business has not been brisk. English wheat was in short supply but good condition factors asked an advance of Is per qr., but buyers were unwilling to give more money, and the im- provement was only occasionally obtained. Foreign wheat was in fair supply; the trade was steady, and Is per qr. advance was asked, bat only realised in a few instances. As regards barley, fine English malting produce was scarce and well held, but most other descriptions were Is per qr. lower on the week. Maize sold slowly, at about late rates, Oats were tolerably steady in value, but the demand for them was not active. Beans and peas were quiet and un- altered. The flour market was without feature, business being limited at about late rates. CATTLE (MBTRoreLnAN).—There was no special feature in the cattle trade. Supplies were again short, but wants were not excessive and business flagged. Choice breeds were tolerably firm, but other sorts were rather weak. Quo- tations :—Coarse and inferior beasts, 4s 6d to 5s Od; second quality ditto, 5s Od to 5s 6d; prime large oxen, 5s 10d to 6s Od; prime Scots, &c., 6s Od tc 68 2d; coarse and inferior sheep, 5s 6d to 6s Od; second quality do., So Od to 6s 6d; prime coarse woolled, 7s 2d to 7s 6d; prime Southdown, 7s 4d to 7s 8d; lambs, 8s Od to 9s Od; large coarse calves, 5s Od to 6s Od; prime small ditto, 6s 0d to 6s 8d; large hogs, 4s Od to 4s 6d; real small porkers, 4a Od to 5s Od per 81b. to sink the offal. MEAT (METROPOLITAN).—The supply was larger, and the trade was slow. The following are the quotations: Inferior beef, 8s Od to 3s 8d j middling ditto, 4s Od to 4s 8d; prime large ditto, 4e 8d to 5s 2d prime small ditto, 5s 4d to 5s 8d veal, 5s 4d to 6s Od; inferior mutton, 3s 4d to 4s Od; midd- ling ditto, 4s 4d to 5s 4d; prime ditto, 5s 8d to 6s 8d large pork, 3s 4d to 4s Od small ditto, 4s 4d to 5s Od; and lamb, 7s 4d to 8s 8d per RIb by the carcass. GAME AND POULTRY. —Widgeon, Is fd to 2s Od; woodcock, 3s Od to 5s Od; wild ducks, 2s 9d to 3s 3d; leverets, 2s 9d to 3s 3d; conies, Is Od to Is 9d ducklings, 3s 6d to 8s Od; dueks, 2s 3d to 3s 3d; teal, Is to 2s Od; plovers, 9d to Is; golden ditto, Is Od to Is tid; pheasants, 3s Od to 5s Od; capons, 6s Od to 8s Od; chickens, Is 6d to 2s 3d; pullets, 5s 6d to 8a Od; haunches of venison, 12s Od to 20s Od each; fore-quarter of ditto, tid to 9d per lb.
ART AND LITERARY GOSSIP.
ART AND LITERARY GOSSIP. W. are informed that the Manchester Critic will in future be known as the Reform Gazette alldMan- chester Critic, and that it will be published in London as well as as Manchester. MR. J. C. BUCKSTONB, the son of our veteran comedian of the Haymarket, has been meeting with gratifying success at the Corinthian Theatre, Calcutta, and has made a special hit in the character of Nicholas Nickleby. "CLASSICAL Education and the Westminster Play, with special reference to the injurious results to high culture in our grammar schools arising from the action of the late Endowed Schools Commission," is the title of a letter addressed, by permission, to the Dean of Westminster by E. Gilbert Highton, Esq., which has just been published as a pamphlet by Messrs. E. Ourtice and Co., of Catherine-street, Strand. A raw literary weekly journal will be published at the close of the present month. It will contain, besides the usual critical and social matter, a supple- ment, consisting of fiction, biography, essay, and verse. In No. 1 Mr. Anthony Trollope will com- mence a new story; and Mr. Charles Reade, Mr. Blackmore, Mr. Robert Buchanan, Mr. Hardy, Mr. G. Barnett Smith, Mr. Jenkins, M.P., the Hon. Roden Noel, the authoress of the Queen of Connaught," Mr: John Dennis, Mr, W. H, Davenport Adams, and other well-known writers, will contribute to early numbers. A HUNGARIAN translation of Professor Max Miiller's Strasburg lecture, On the Results of the Science of Language," has just been published at Buda-Pestb, under the title Muller Miksa. A nyelvtudomony eredmenyei szerzo jovahagyasaval forditotta Edels- pacher Antal." THE Chief event of the week in French literature has been the publication of the second volume of M. V. Hugo's Histoire d'un Crime." It is divided into Le Massacre," La Vietoire," La Chute." THE report of Major Fielden, the naturalist of the Arctic Expedition, is now nearly completed, and will shortly make its appearance as a Parliamentary Paper, together with some interesting additional remarks by Sir George Nares. IT is rumoured (says Nature) that the Royal Geo- graphical Society is likejy soon to send out a new expedi- tion for the exploration of Africa. The region between Mombasa and Mount Kenia and Victoria Nyanza, is mentioned as the probable field of this expedition. THE Hibbert trustees have founded a lectureship on the theory, development, and history, of religion. The first series of seven lectures will be delivered by Professor Max Muller, M.A., On the Origin and Growth of Religion, as illustrated by the Religions of India." The lectures will be delivered at the Chapter House, Westminster Abbey (the use of which has been granted to the trustees), at five o'clock in the after- noon on the last Thursday in April, the five Thursdays in May, and the first Thursday in June. I
PARLIAMENTARY INTELLIGENCE. THE NAVAL ESTIMATES.—The House upon going into Committee of Supply, Mr. W. H. Smith proceeded to in- tronuce the Naval Estimates. He remarkul at the outset that they were framed to meet a normal condition of affairs, and the policy which they embodied was cf an unambitious character, as he should desire to have more experience before taking upon himself to depart from the lines laid down by his able predecessor. Taking the votes seriatim, he pointed out that the number of men and the amount of wages showed no sensible increase, and assured the House, both with regard to seamen actually in service and the Reserves, he had at his command a force adequate for every emergency which was likely to occur. Touching cur- sorijy on the clothing, coastguard, and scientific votes, he dwelt for some time on votes six and teu, which represent the shipbuilding, repairs, refitting, &c., for the year. The actual work for the present year, he pointed out, was 14,240 tons, but only 11,538 tons had been completed, and the deficiency occurred chiefly on the In- flexible, Ajax, and Agamemnon, which had been held back on account of the committee and the torpedo ram pro- posed in last year's Estimates had also been delayed, in order that the latest improvements be iutrouueed into her. The labour, however, had been expended in repairing and bringing forward other ships for com- mission. With regard to the coming year 5960 men were to be employed on shipbuilding; 4855 on repairs and refits; 2260 in manufacturers' yards and 2925 on the yards and harbours. The shipbuilding programme con- templates 13,568 tons on forty-six ships-ten ironclads, and thirty five unarmoured ships-and with regard to repairs, he assured the House that as long as he was in office, every ship worth repairing should be repaired at once. Of this work 9831 tons were to be done on eleven armour-pitted ships, 193 tons on two iron corvettes, 544 tons on seven steel and iron corvettes wooden sheathed, eighty-eight tons on two composite corvettes, and 706 tons on two composite sloops. The ironclads to be completed are the T€mdraire, Dreadnought, Nelson, Northampton, and Shannon, and there are to be four new ironclads laid down—one at Chatham, two at Portsmouth, and one at Pembroke. The types are not yet settled, but two of them ill probably be of the smaller class. As to the work to be done by contract, the Turkish man-of-war, the Orion, was to be completed, and six corvettes, two composite gunboats, and twenty-eight torpedo boats were to be built. Pass- ing to the other votes, he mentioned that the half- pay scheme for the Marines had given general satisfac- tion, and that its cost this year would be £5000, and adverting finally to the forty one amendments of which notice had been given by Irish members, with regard to the appointment of Roman Catholic chap- lains, he promised to do his best, wherever a considerable body of Roman Catholic seamen were assembled at a dis- tance from port, to provide suitably for their religious wants. After some discussion the whole of the votes were agreed to except those for dockyards, machinery, and naval atnlWH. whi<vh wnro odinnrnpH NEW ENGLISH BISHOPRIcs.-Lord Beauchamp presented a. bill for the foundation of four new Bishoprics in Eng- land, observing that it was the same bill as was intro- duced last year in the House of Commons, md that it would make no demand on the funds of the Eccle- siastical Commissioners, as there was a prospect that before long a sufficient endowment would be provided for new Sees, partly from the subscriptions of those who had the welfare of the Church at heart, and partly by a transference of a portion of the revenues of existing Sees. There would be thres new Sees in the Province of York-namely" Liverpool, Newcastle, and Wakefield—and one in the Province of Canterbury-namely, Southwell. Lord Houghton said that he would refrain from making any observations at present on the proposal, believing that it would be more convenient to take the dis- cussion on the second reading. The bill was read a first time. THE FLEET AT COHSTANTINOPLE.—Mr. W. Williams asked whether the continued presence of the British fleet in the neighbourhood of Constantinople was not at variance with the Treaties of 1856 and 1871, or whether anything had occurred to remove that objection to it, and the Chancellor of the Exchequer, in reply, said it would be inconvenient at. this moment to discuss this point in answer to a ques- tion, but the Government believed they were fully iustified, under the circumstances, in retaining the British fleet where it is. Loss or LIFE IN MINES.—In reply to Mr. Macdonald, the Chancellor of the Exchequer said that the present state of public business would not permit of a day being given him for his resolution on the Inspection of Mines; on which Mr. Macdonald moved the adjournment of the House to complain of this answer and to make some strong comments on recent accidents which he described as murders. Mr. Cross, in reply to this, vindicated the conduct of the inspec- tors and the working of the Mines Regulation Act, and pointed out to the men the importance of co-operating in the enforcement of the rules. PENSION FUND FOR THE WIDOWS OF SEAXEN AND MA- RINES.—On going into Committee of Supply on the Supple- mentary Estimates, Captain Price brought before the House the expediency of establishing a pension fund for the widows of seamen and marines, to be supported partly by contributions from the men themselves, and partly by the Government. Such a measure, he contended, would bind the men more closely to the service, and would check deser- tion, and he moved for a Select Commit ee to1 nquire into the suggestion. Lord C. Beresfurd, who seconded the motion, bore testimony to the great interest which it excited in the service. Mr. Cbilders, although favourable to 'ome mode of providing pensions, was strongly opposed to forced con- tributions, and sketched out another scheme under which the men should subscribe voluntarily at the rate of 5s. per month, or thereabouts, and the Government should make certain contributions. Mr. W. H. Smith concurred in Mr. Childers' criticism on Captain Price's plan, but promised to look elosely into the subject; after which the motion was negatived. THE MEDICAL ACTS.—The Duke of Richmond and Gordon called attention to the subject of the Medical Acts, and said that he would conclude by presenting a Bill to amend some of the defects which were to be found in them. He ex- plained several of the provisions of the measure, stating that the bill would require a person registered in the Medical Register" to have both a medical and surgical qualifica- tion, and would provide for the uniformity of the standard in the grant of qualifications for the United Kingdom. Among other objects, the measure contained provi- sions for the examination and registration of ladies and midwives; and under it a person who had obtained a medical diploma entitling him to practice in a colony or in a foreign country would also be entitled, if his diploma was recognised as representing a sufficient degree of knowledge, to be registered in this country. After minutely ex- plaining the various clauses of the measure, the Duke of Richmond and Gordon concluded by observing that the subject was one of considerable importance and complexity, and therefore he would postpone the second reading of the bill for some time for the purpose of allowing all competent persons in the country an opportunity of expressing an opinion on the proposed legislation. Lord Ripon thought that the bill would be considered to greater advantage when it should be printed, bnt he expressed his gratification to learn that it was pro- posed that men in the medical profession should be quali- fied both as physicians and surgeons. The bill was read a first time. THE PORTE AND ITS GUARANTEED LOAN.-In answer to Mr. Dodson, tl,e Chancellor of the Exchequer said that as the Porte had failed to remit the dividend on the Guaran- teed Loan, due in February last, the Bank of England. by request of the Government, had first of all ad- vanced the sum required to pay it, and the Government had since, under the Act of 1855, authorised the repay* ment to the Bank of the advance, amounting, witll commission, t) £77,448. A portion of the charge of the Guaranteed Loan should have been defrayed out of the Egyptian tribute but up to Monday, although the Govern- ment had remonstrated, no remittance had been received from the Khedive. The Government lias communicated with the Government of France, and has taken steps to re- claim from it its moiety of the advance. THE INDIAN GOVERNMERT AND THE PRESS.—Mr. O'DonneB called attention to the establishment of the censorship Of the press in Bombay and Bengal, and moved a resolu- lution condemning the passing of the Press Law without previous consultation with Parliament. Mr. Gladstone admitted the gravity of the subject and the necessity for its full discussion hereafter, especially after the haste with which it had oeen passed, but pointed out that while the House was uninformed as to the exact pro- visions of the Act and the motives of the Government, ili would be impossible adequately to debate it. Lord G. Hamilton, on behalf of the Government, concurred en- tirely with Mr. Gladstone as to the impossibility of enter- ing into the question now, and mentioned that the IndiØ Office had not yet received the text of the Act, nor of the debate upon it. At the same time he pointed out that the Indian Code already provided very severe punishment fot seditious libel, and this Act rather mitigated its stringency while making it applicable to the present circumstances. Sir G. Campbell and Mr. Fawcett joined in deprecating dis- cussion at this moment, and Mr. O'Donnell thereupon with* drew his motion.
END OF THE MASONS' STRIKE.
END OF THE MASONS' STRIKE. The masons, at a recent meeting, resolved to work at 9d. per hour if they could not get 9^d. The mittee appointed for the current year by the Centr»J Association of Master Builders of London have issued the following circular to the members of the associtr tion The committee appointed at the general meet" ing of the association (on their first assembling February 28) experienced great satisfaction at find' ing that the strike of the union masons mav bØ considered as virtually at an end. Every member of this association is now supplied with many masons as he requires at or below the rate of 9d. per hour. The Masons' Strike mittee has announced that any member of the unÍo. may now go to work at 9-!d. instead of lOd. as dB" manded, and seems to have abandoned altogether the demand for a reduction of the hours of labour. It has, however, been intimated that if the unionists are unable to obtain 9fd. per hour they will probably be prepared to accept the old wages of 9d. While congf. tulating the members of this association on the of the masons' strike of 1877, the committee are very anxious to impress on the builders of London t|* necessity and justice of giving every support to tb, masons of all nationalities who are now employ, by them. It has been the frequent of the Masons' Union that as soon as the strike should be over the members of the union would go back to work and oust the unionists from their employ. The Masters' mittee would regret very much that the should, in any instance, be able to carry out tlj threat, and beg leave to caution the trade genera against the machinations (whether of foremen others) which may be used towards this end. It be a bare act of justice to retain all masons now ing, paying them the full value of their labour. committee trust that the result of this struggle will to abolish the rule of an uniform minimum rate > wages, and to promote a perfect freedom of contr^, between masters and journeymen, as to wages, o* time, piece-work, and other matters, independently arbitrary and pernicious interference of shop-stew and other trade union officers."
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